Funding Support (Grant) Information in MEDLINE/PubMed - 2011
An important aspect of scientific publication is the indication of funding support. The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®), which is used by the National Library of Medicine® (NLM®) to describe the content of journal articles for MEDLINE®, includes Publication Types to identify financial support of the research that resulted in the published papers when that support is mentioned in the articles:
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
- Research Support, American Recovery & Reinvestment Act
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
- Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
These publication types are searchable in PubMed®. The table below gives the number of PubMed citations retrieved as of February 16, 2011. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; and Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't have been used since 1975. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural and Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural have been used since June 2005. Research Support, American Recovery & Reinvestment Act has been used since 2010. It is important to remember that these publication types may be present on any citation regardless of its publication date as long as it was completely processed during or after 1975, 2005, and 2010 respectively.
(The PubMed search tags are: [dp] date of publication, [pt] publication type, and [gr] grant number.)
Search Total* 2010** [dp] 2009 [dp] 2008 [dp] 2007 [dp] 2006 [dp] Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. [pt] OR nih [gr] 1,879,170 96,633 103,828 100,840 94,687 89,825 Number (and percent) of PHS Support in PubMed Central® 393,496
Research Support, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act [pt] 114 110 6 0 0 0 Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural [pt] 454,914 85,977 89,136 87,680 85,791 82,722 Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural [pt] 21,139 4,502 4,928 4,914 4,421 3,809 NIH Support (see strategy below) 1,593,950 94,539 101,486 98,278 92,328 87,454 Number (and percent) of NIH Support in PubMed Central 356,763
Percent of "Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. [pt] OR nih [gr]" coming entirely or in-part from NIH 85% 98% 98% 97% 98% 97% Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. [pt] 557,290 31,206 31,846 31,369 30,346 28,786 Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't [pt] OR howard hughes [gr] OR united kingdom [gr] OR canada [gr] OR italy [gr] OR ireland [gr] OR austria [gr] 4,394,541 326,836 338,895 316,714 291,613 269,431
- *Includes some citations having 2011 as date of publication.
- **More recent dates of publication are not complete due to publication cycles and processing times.
In general, the counts in the above chart do not include citations to articles unless the research was also supported by a grant that was mentioned in the article or reported by other means to provide evidence of compliance with policies such as the NIH Public Access Policy.
In 1981, NLM began to carry the actual grant number for PHS grants, just as it appears in the original article, in the MEDLINE citation. No attempt is made to standardize the format of the grant numbers, except for the prefix portion where the correct format contains the number '0' (zero) and not the letter 'O', e.g.: R01 and not RO1. A computer algorithm scans the grant number to isolate the 2-letter grant code and then adds the agency/institute acronym to the citation. The data are only as dependable as the original source and some mislabeling of the supporting institution may occur as a result of the machine parsing, but the numbers are a good indication of the literature acknowledging research support that is being indexed for MEDLINE.
- NIH [gr] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural [pt] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural [pt]
For comparison purposes, the overall citation counts in PubMed as of February 16, 2011 were:
Citation Status Total Citations MEDLINE 18,633,671 PubMed-not-MEDLINE 624,704 In process 415,066 Publisher supplied 444,259 OLDMEDLINE 488,826 All PubMed 20,606,526
Interested in more details about searching PubMed for research support publication types and grant numbers?
See the following NLM Technical Bulletin Articles and NLM Web pages:
- New United Kingdom Granting Organizations for MEDLINE/PubMed
- European Granting Organization Agency Changes Name
- New European Granting Organizations for MEDLINE®/PubMed®
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research: A New Granting Organization for MEDLINE®/PubMed®
- Grant Numbers in 2009 PubMed® Display and Search Changes
- Additional Grant Number Information from the United Kingdom
Research Support MeSH® Headings Introduced
mid-Year to 2005 MeSH®
Grant Numbers in PubMed® Citations
Trust Grant Numbers Added to MEDLINE®/PubMed® Citations
- MeSH® Category V Terms: Change in Treatment from MeSH
Heading to Publication Type During Year-End-Processing for Both MEDLINE® and NLM Catalog
- Grant Number Information Found in the GR Field in MEDLINE®/PubMed®
- More Changes to Grant Number Information