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Skeleton of a boy sitting on the 'D' of 'Dream', from Francesco Bertinatti, Elementi di anatomia fisiologica applicata alle belle arti figurative (Turin, 1837-39).  Artist: Mecco Leone. Lithograph
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Fine Art and Anatomical Representation

As naturalistic styles of painting and sculpture developed, artists sought advanced knowledge of anatomy: Vesalius offered some illustrations specifically as an aid to artists. In the 17th and 18th centuries, formal art academies were founded with anatomy a core subject in the curriculum. Professors of anatomy performed dissections for their students and sometimes published beautiful, imaginative, and monumental, books of anatomical studies that were works of art in their own right. Typically, the art anatomy used cadavers and skeletons as models for sculpture and painting. It concentrated on skeletal and muscular anato-my and omitted everything else.

Figure with head bent forward, posed to show the musculature of the arms. Cropped, from Jacques Gamelin, Nouveau recueil d’ostéologie et de myologie (Toulouse, 1779). Etching.
An anatomical Christ on the cross, displayed to show musculature. Cropped, from Jacques Gamelin, Nouveau recueil d’ostéologie et de myologie (Toulouse, 1779). Etching.
Left, a figure in the style of Greco-Roman portrait sculpture, showing  musculature of the face. Right, the skull of the same figure looks on. Jean-Galbert Salvage, Anatomie du gladiateur combattant, applicable aux beaux arts... (Paris, 1812). Two-layer copperplate engraving, color.



Dissection Scenes and Fancies
Dreaming Art Anatomy
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Dreaming the Industrial Body
Reuniting the Divided Self
Visible Human

Figure with head bent forward, posed to show the musculature of the arms and legs. Cropped, from Jacques Gamelin, Nouveau recueil d’ostéologie et de myologie (Toulouse, 1779). Etching.