Skip navigation

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

What is it?

Vitamin C is a vitamin. Some animals can make their own vitamin C, but people must get this vitamin from food and other sources. Good sources of vitamin C are fresh fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits. Vitamin C can also be made in a laboratory.

Most experts recommend getting vitamin C from a diet high in fruits and vegetables rather than taking supplements. Fresh-squeezed orange juice or fresh-frozen concentrate is a better pick than ready-to-drink orange juice. The fresh juice contains more active vitamin C. Drink fresh-frozen orange juice within one week after reconstituting it for the most benefit. It you prefer ready-to-drink orange juice, buy it 3 to 4 weeks before the expiration date, and drink it within one week of opening.

Historically, vitamin C was used for preventing and treating scurvy. Scurvy is now relatively rare, but it was once common among sailors, pirates, and others who spent long periods of time onboard ships. When the voyages lasted longer than the supply of fruits and vegetables, the sailors began to suffer from vitamin C deficiency, which led to scurvy.

These days, vitamin C is used most often for preventing and treating the common cold. Some people use it for other infections including gum disease, acne and other skin infections, bronchitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, stomach ulcers caused by bacteria called Helicobacter pylori, tuberculosis, dysentery (an infection of the lower intestine), and skin infections that produce boils (furunculosis). It is also used for infections of the bladder and prostate.

Some people use vitamin C for depression, thinking problems, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, physical and mental stress, fatigue, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Other uses include increasing the absorption of iron from foods and correcting a protein imbalance in certain newborns (tyrosinemia).

There is some thought that vitamin C might help the heart and blood vessels. It is used for hardening of the arteries, preventing clots in veins and arteries, heart attack, stroke, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.

Vitamin C is also used for glaucoma, preventing cataracts, preventing gallbladder disease, dental cavities (caries), constipation, Lyme disease, boosting the immune system, heat stroke, hay fever, asthma, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, infertility, diabetes, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), autism, collagen disorders, arthritis and bursitis, back pain and disc swelling, cancer, and osteoporosis.

Additional uses include improving physical endurance and slowing aging, as well as counteracting the side effects of cortisone and related drugs, and aiding drug withdrawal in addiction.

Sometimes, people put vitamin C on their skin to protect it against the sun, pollutants, and other environmental hazards. Vitamin C is also applied to the skin to help with damage from radiation therapy.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID) are as follows:

Effective for...

  • Treatment and prevention of vitamin C deficiency, including a condition called “scurvy.”

Likely effective for...

  • Improving the way the body absorbs iron.
  • Treating a disease called tyrosinemia in newborns when given as an injection.

Possibly effective for...

  • Wrinkled skin. Skin creams containing vitamin C or vitamin C in combination with acetyl tyrosine, zinc sulfate, sodium hyaluronate, and bioflavonoids (Cellex-C High Potency Serum) seem to improve wrinkles in facial skin aged by sun exposure.
  • Reducing the risk of certain cancers of the mouth and breast. This only works when fresh fruits and vegetables high in vitamin C are eaten, not with vitamin C supplements.
  • Treating the common cold. There is a lot of controversy about the effectiveness of vitamin C for treating the common cold. However, the majority of evidence shows that taking high doses of vitamin C might shorten the course of the cold by 1 to 1.5 days in some patients. But it is not effective for preventing the common cold.
  • Lowering high blood pressure. Taking vitamin C along with conventional high blood pressure medications appears to decrease systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) by a small amount, but does not seem to decrease diastolic pressure (the bottom number). Taking vitamin C supplements alone, though, doesn’t seem to affect blood pressure.
  • Preventing sunburn. Taking vitamin C along with vitamin E seems to prevent sunburn. But taking vitamin C alone doesn’t prevent sunburn.
  • Reducing the risk of gallbladder disease. There is some evidence that taking vitamin C might help to prevent gallbladder disease in women. But vitamin C doesn’t seem to have this effect in men.
  • Slowing the worsening of osteoarthritis. Obtaining vitamin C from dietary sources seems to prevent cartilage loss and worsening of symptoms in people with osteoarthritis.
  • Treating an eye disease called AMD (age-related macular degeneration) when used with other medicines. Taking vitamin C in combination with zinc, vitamin E, and beta-carotene daily seems to help prevent vision loss or slow worsening of AMD in patients with advanced AMD. There isn't enough evidence to know if this combination helps people with less advanced macular disease or prevents AMD. Using vitamin C with other antioxidants, but without zinc, doesn't seem to have any effect on AMD.
  • Decreasing protein in the urine of people with type 2 diabetes (albuminuria). This might help to lower the risk of developing serious kidney disease.
  • Redness (erythema) after cosmetic skin procedures. There is some evidence that a particular vitamin C skin cream can decrease the amount of redness and the time it lasts following laser resurfacing for scar and wrinkle removal.
  • Decreasing lung infections caused by heavy exercise. Using vitamin C in amounts of 600 mg to 1 gram per day before heavy physical exercise, such as a marathon, might prevent upper respiratory infections that sometimes follow heavy exercise.
  • Treating ulcers in the stomach caused by bacteria called H. pylori. Taking vitamin C seems to decrease some of the side effects caused by treatment. After H. pylori bacteria are killed, vitamin C appears to decrease the occurrence of precancerous changes in stomach tissue.
  • Helping medicines used for chest pain, such as nitroglycerin, to work longer.
  • Reducing the risk in women of a circulatory system disorder called peripheral arterial disease.
  • Preventing “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis).
  • Preventing kidney problems related to contrast media used during a diagnostic test called angiography.
  • Reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission by mothers to their newborns when taken with vitamins B and E.
  • Reducing complications after a broken wrist called complex regional pain syndrome, or reflex sympathetic dystrophy.
  • Reducing lead in the blood by eating foods high in vitamin C.
  • Reducing complications of a high-risk pregnancy (pre-eclampsia).
  • Improving physical performance and strength in the elderly.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Preventing the common cold.
  • Reducing the risk of stroke.
  • Reducing the risk for Alzheimer's disease and other brain diseases that may cause intellectual loss.
  • Preventing eye disease associated with a medicine called interferon.
  • Treating bronchitis.
  • Reducing skin problems in people being treated for cancer with radiation.
  • Preventing pancreatic cancer.
  • Preventing prostate cancer.
  • Preventing type 2 diabetes.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Hay fever (Allergic rhinitis). There is conflicting evidence about the effects of vitamin C on symptoms of hay fever. Taking vitamin C doesn’t seem to prevent hay fever.
  • Cataracts. There is conflicting information about the use of vitamin C to prevent cataracts. Vitamin C plus vitamin E and beta-carotene doesn't seem to have any significant effect on age-related loss of vision due to cataracts in well-nourished people who take the supplement long-term (for an average of 6.3 years). On the other hand, other research suggests that taking multivitamins that contain vitamin C for 10 years seems to prevent cataracts. Use of supplements for shorter periods doesn't appear to work.
  • Bladder cancer. Taking vitamin C does not seem to affect survival.
  • Lowering cholesterol. Taking vitamin C daily doesn’t seem to lower cholesterol in people whose cholesterol is not too high to start with. The effect of vitamin C on cholesterol levels in patients with high cholesterol is not known.
  • Cancer (Esophageal cancer, and colorectal cancer). Taking vitamin C in combination with beta-carotene plus vitamin E doesn't seem to prevent these types of cancer.
  • Stomach cancer. Not all research agrees on whether or not taking vitamin C supplements or getting extra vitamin C in the diet can prevent stomach cancer. Taking vitamin C supplements in combination with beta-carotene or beta-carotene plus vitamin E does not seem to reduce the risk of stomach cancer. But some evidence suggests that taking vitamin C alone might keep precancerous sores in the stomach from progressing to cancer in people at high risk for stomach cancer.
  • Mental stress. Limited evidence suggests that vitamin C might reduce blood pressure and symptoms during times of mental distress.
  • Ovarian cancer. Dietary vitamin C does not seem to affect the risk of getting ovarian cancer.
  • Kidney disease.
  • Liver disease.
  • Cystic fibrosis.
  • Infertility.
  • Diabetes.
  • Heart disease.
  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Lyme disease.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Treating and preventing sun-damaged skin when vitamin C is put on the skin.
  • Wounds.
  • Pressure sores.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Dental cavities.
  • Constipation.
  • Acne.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate vitamin C for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
Vitamin C is required for the proper development and function of many parts of the body. It also plays an important role in maintaining proper immune function.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
Vitamin C is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in recommended doses or when applied to the skin. In some people, vitamin C might cause nausea, vomiting, heartburn, stomach cramps, headache, and other side effects. The chance of getting these side effects increases the more vitamin C you take. Amounts higher than 2000 mg per day are POSSIBLY UNSAFE and may cause a lot of side effects, including kidney stones and severe diarrhea. In people who have had a kidney stone, amounts greater than 1000 mg per day greatly increase the risk of kidney stone recurrence.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Vitamin C is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant or breast-feeding women when taken in the recommended amount of 120 mg per day. Taking too much vitamin C during pregnancy can cause problems for the newborn baby.

Angioplasty, a heart procedure: Avoid taking supplements containing vitamin C or other antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin E) immediately before and following angioplasty without the supervision of a health care professional. These vitamins seem to interfere with proper healing.

Cancer: Cancerous cells collect high concentrations of vitamin C. Until more is known, only use high doses of vitamin C under the direction of your oncologist.

Diabetes: Vitamin C might raise blood sugar. In older women with diabetes, vitamin C in amounts greater than 300 mg per day increases the risk of death from heart disease. Do not take vitamin C in doses greater than those found in basic multivitamins.

Blood-iron disorders, including conditions called “thalassemia” and “hemochromatosis”: Vitamin C can increase iron absorption, which might make these conditions worse. Avoid large amounts of vitamin C.

Kidney stones, or a history of kidney stones: Large amounts of vitamin C can increase the chance of getting kidney stones. Do not take vitamin C in amounts greater than those found in basic multivitamins.

A metabolic deficiency called “glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency” (G6PDD): Large amounts of vitamin C can cause red blood cells to break in people with this condition. Avoid excessive amounts of vitamin C.

Sickle cell disease: Vitamin C might make this condition worse. Avoid using large amounts of vitamin C.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top


Be cautious with this combination.

Aluminum is found in most antacids. Vitamin C can increase how much aluminum the body absorbs. But it isn't clear if this interaction is a big concern. Take vitamin C two hours before or four hours after antacids.

The body breaks down estrogens to get rid of them. Vitamin C might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of estrogens. Taking vitamin C along with estrogens might increase the effects and side effects of estrogens.

Fluphenazine (Prolixin)
Large amounts of vitamin C might decrease how much fluphenazine (Prolixin) is in the body. Taking vitamin C along with fluphenazine (Prolixin) might decrease the effectiveness of fluphenazine (Prolixin).

Medications for cancer (Chemotherapy)
Vitamin C is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for cancers. But it is too soon to know if this interaction occurs.

Medications used for HIV/AIDS (Protease Inhibitors)
Taking large doses of vitamin C might reduce how much of some medications used for HIV/AIDS stays in the body. This could decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for HIV/AIDS.

Some of these medications used for HIV/AIDS include amprenavir (Agenerase), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir), and saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase).

Medications used for lowering cholesterol (Statins)
Taking vitamin C, beta-carotene, selenium, and vitamin E together might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol. It is not known if vitamin C alone decreases the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol.

Some medications used for lowering cholesterol include atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), and pravastatin (Pravachol).

Taking vitamin C along with vitamin E, beta-carotene, and selenium might decrease some of the helpful effects of niacin. Niacin can increase the good cholesterol. Taking vitamin C along with these other vitamins might decrease the effectiveness of niacin for increasing good cholesterol.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Large amounts of vitamin C might decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Decreasing the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the risk of clotting. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.


Be watchful with this combination.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others)
The body breaks down acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) to get rid of it. Large amounts of vitamin C can decrease how quickly the body breaks down acetaminophen. It is not clear exactly when or if this interaction is a big concern.

Aspirin is removed by the body through the kidneys and in the urine. Some scientists have raised concern that vitamin C might decrease how the body removes aspirin and could potentially increase the amount of aspirin in the body. There is concern that this could increase the chance of aspirin-related side effects. However, some research suggests that this is not an important concern and that vitamin C does not interact in a meaningful way with aspirin. Some research actually suggests that taking vitamin C with buffered aspirin might decrease the stomach irritation caused by aspirin. More evidence is needed about this possible benefit.

Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate (Trilisate)
Vitamin C might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of choline magnesium trisalicylate (Trilisate). But it is not clear if this interaction is a big concern.

Nicardipine (Cardene)
Vitamin C is taken up by cells. Taking nicardipine (Cardene) along with vitamin C might decrease how much vitamin C is taken in by cells. The significance of this interaction is not clear.

Vitamin C is taken up by cells. Taking nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia) along with vitamin C might decrease how much vitamin C is taken in by cells. The significance of this interaction is not clear.

Salsalate (Disalcid)
Vitamin C might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of salsalate (Disalcid). Taking vitamin C along with salsalate (Disalcid) might cause too much salsalate (Disalcid) in the body, and increase the effects and side effects of salsalate.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Acerola contains high levels of vitamin C. Don't take large amounts of acerola along with vitamin C. This might give you too much vitamin C. Adults should not take more than 2000 mg vitamin C per day.

Cherokee rosehip
Cherokee rosehip contains high levels of vitamin C. Don't take large amounts of Cherokee rosehip along with vitamin C. This might give you too much vitamin C. Adults should not take more than 2000 mg vitamin C per day.

There is some information that suggests that vitamin C increases chromium absorption. Don't take large doses of chromium and vitamin C together. It isn't known whether separating the doses by several hours avoids this interaction.

High doses of vitamin C (1500 mg daily) can decrease copper levels in the blood in young men. Researchers aren't sure why this happens, but it may be that the acid in vitamin C converts copper to a form that doesn't pass easily from food in the intestine to the bloodstream. Or it may be that vitamin C somehow causes the body to use up copper in the blood. This interaction probably isn't important except in people whose dietary levels of copper is low.

These is early evidence that people with high blood pressure who take both vitamin C 500 mg/day plus grape seed polyphenols 1000 mg/day have significantly increased blood pressure. Researchers aren't sure why this happens.

Vitamin C increases the absorption of iron when taken at the same time. Taking a vitamin C supplement to improve absorption of iron from the diet or from supplements probably isn't necessary for most people, especially if their diet contains plenty of vitamin C.

Rosehip contains high levels of vitamin C. Don't take large amounts of rosehip along with vitamin C. This might give you too much vitamin C. Adults should not take more than 2000 mg vitamin C per day.

Vitamin B12
Early research suggests that vitamin C supplements can destroy vitamin B12 that comes from the diet. However, other ingredients in food, such as iron and nitrates, might counteract this effect. Researchers aren't sure how important this interaction is, but it can likely be avoided if vitamin C supplements are taken at least 2 hours after meals.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

  • For scurvy: 100-250 mg once or twice daily for several days.
  • For treating the common cold: 1-3 grams daily.
  • For preventing kidney damage related to contrast media used during diagnostic tests: vitamin C 3 grams is given before coronary angiography and then 2 grams is given after the procedure in the evening and again the following morning.
  • For slowing progression of hardening of the arteries: slow-release vitamin C 250 mg in combination with 91 mg (136 IU) of vitamin E twice daily for up to 6 years.
  • For tyrosinemia in premature infants on high protein diets: 100 mg of vitamin C.
  • For reducing protein in the urine of patients with type 2 diabetes: vitamin C 1250 mg with vitamin E 680 IU daily for 4 weeks.
  • For preventing complex regional pain syndrome in patients with wrist fractures, vitamin C 500 mg daily for 50 days.
The daily recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are: Infants 0 to 12 months, human milk content (older recommendations specified 30-35 mg); Children 1 to 3 years, 15 mg; Children 4 to 8 years, 25 mg; Children 9 to 13 years, 45 mg; Adolescents 14 to 18 years, 75 mg for boys and 65 mg for girls; Adults age 19 and greater, 90 mg for men and 75 mg for women; Pregnancy and Lactation: age 18 or younger, 115 mg; ages 19 to 50 years 120 mg. People who use tobacco should take an additional 35 mg per day.
Do not take more than the following amounts of vitamin C: 400 mg per day for children ages 1 to 3 years, 650 mg per day for children 4 to 8 years, 1200 mg per day for children 9 to 13 years, and 1800 mg per day for adolescents and pregnant and breast-feeding women 14 to 18 years, and 2000 mg per day for adults and pregnant and lactating women.

  • Most topical preparations used for aged or wrinkled skin are applied daily. Studies have used creams containing 5% to 10% vitamin C. In one study a specific vitamin C formulation (Cellex-C High Potency Serum) used 3 drops applied daily to areas of facial skin. Don’t apply vitamin C preparations to the eye or eyelids. Also avoid contact with hair or clothes. It can cause discoloration.

Other names

Return to top
Acide Ascorbique, Acide Cévitamique, Acide Iso-Ascorbique, Acide L-Ascorbique, Acido Ascorbico, Antiscorbutic Vitamin, Ascorbate, Ascorbate de Calcium, Ascorbate de Sodium, Ascorbic acid, Ascorbyl Palmitate, Calcium Ascorbate, Cevitamic Acid, Iso-Ascorbic Acid, L-Ascorbic Acid, Magnesium Ascorbate, Palmitate d'Ascorbyl, Selenium Ascorbate, Sodium Ascorbate, Vitamina C, Vitamine Antiscorbutique, Vitamine C.


Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (


Return to top
To see all references for the Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) page, please go to

  1. Gao X, Curhan G, Forman JP, et al. Vitamin C intake and serum uric acid concentration in men. J Rheumatol 2008;35:1853-8. View abstract.
  2. Stein HB, Hasan A, Fox IH. Ascorbic acid-induced uricosuria. A consequence of megavitamin therapy. Ann Intern Med 1976;84:385-8.. View abstract.
  3. Sutton JL, Basu TK, Dickerson JW. Effect of large doses of ascorbic acid in man on some nitrogenous components of urine. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr 1983;37:136-40. View abstract.
  4. Berger L, Gerson CD, Yu TF. The effect of ascorbic acid on uric acid excretion with a commentary on the renal handling of ascorbic acid. Am J Med 1977;62:71-6. View abstract.
  5. Mitch WE, Johnson MW, Kirschenbaum JM, Lopez RE. Effect of large doses of ascorbic acid on the uric acid excretion by normal subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1981;29:318-21. View abstract.
  6. Choi HK, Goa X, Curhan G. Vitamin C intake and the risk of gout in men. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:502-7. View abstract.
  7. Gaziano JM, Glynn RJ, Christen WG, et al. Vitamins E and C in the prevention of prostate total cancer in men: the physicians' health study II randomised controlled trial. JAMA 2009;301:52-62. View abstract.
  8. Heaney ML, Gardner JR, Karasavvas N, et al. Vitamin C antagonizes the cytotoxic effects of antineoplastic drugs. Cancer Res 2008;68:8031-8. View abstract.
  9. Zollinger PE, Tuinebreijer WE, Breederveld RS, Kreis RW. Can vitamin C prevent complex regional pain syndrome in patients with wrist fractures? A randomized, controlled, multicenter dose-response study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2007;89:1424-31. View abstract.
  10. Fortner BR Jr, Danziger RE, Rabinowitz PS, Nelson HS. The effect of ascorbic acid on cutaneous and nasal response to histamine and allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982;69:484-8. View abstract.
  1. Bucca C, Rolla G, Oliva A, Farina JC. Effect of vitamin C on histamine bronchial responsiveness of patients with allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy 1990;65:311-4. View abstract.
  2. Podoshin L, Gertner R, Fradis M. Treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with ascorbic acid solution. Ear Nose Throat J 1991;70:54-55. View abstract.
  3. Kompauer I, Heinrich J, Wolfram G, Linseisen J. Association of carotenoids, tocopherols, and vitamin C in plasma with allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization in adults. Public Health Nutr 2006;9:472-9. View abstract.
  4. Devereux G, Turner SW, Craig LC, et al. Low maternal vitamin E intake during pregnancy is associated with asthma in 5-year-old children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;174:499-507. View abstract.
  5. You WC, Brown LM, Zhang L, et al. Randomized double-blind factorial trial of three treatments to reduce the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:974-83. View abstract.
  6. Joshi K, Lad S, Kale M, et al. Supplementation with flax oil and vitamin C improves the outcome of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2006;74:17-21. View abstract.
  7. van Leeuwen R, Boekhoorn S, Vingerling JR, et al. Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 2005;294:3101-7. View abstract.
  8. Meyer F, Galan P, Douville P, et al. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplementation and prostate cancer prevention in the SU.VI.MAX trial. Int J Cancer 2005;116:182-6. View abstract.
  9. Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, et al. The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:2335-42. View abstract.
  10. Knekt P, Ritz J, Pereira MA, et al. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk: a pooled analysis of 9 cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1508-20. View abstract.
  11. Dammann HG, Saleki M, Torz M, et al. Effects of battered and plain acetylsalicylic acid formulations with and without ascorbic acid on gastric mucosa in healthy subjects. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;19:367-74. View abstract.
  12. Igarashi M. Augmentative effect of ascorbic acid upon induction of human ovulation in clomiphene-ineffective anovulatory women. Int J Fertil 1977;22:168-73. View abstract.
  13. Cross JM, MacAllister RJ, Woolfson RG. Vitamin C in renal failure--pro- or antioxidant? Kidney Int 2003;64:1531-2. View abstract.
  14. Wilson CW. Vitamin C and fertility. Lancet 1973;2:859-60. View abstract.
  15. Hemila H. Vitamin C and SARS coronavirus. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52:1049-50. View abstract.
  16. Chen WT, Yan HC, Yu FC. Vitamin C improves vascular resistance in patients with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 2003;64:2325-6. View abstract.
  17. Conklin KA. Cancer chemotherapy and antioxidants. J Nutr 2004;134:3201S-3204S. View abstract.
  18. Prasad KN. Rationale for using high-dose multiple dietary antioxidants as an adjunct to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. J Nutr 2004;134:3182S-3S. View abstract.
  19. Kim MK, Sasaki S, Sasazuki S, et al. Long-term vitamin C supplementation has no markedly favourable effect on serum lipids in middle-aged Japanese subjects. Br J Nutr 2004;91:81-90. View abstract.
  20. Block G, Jensen C, Dietrich M, et al. Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations in active and passive smokers: influence of antioxidant supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:141-7. View abstract.
  21. Antoniades C, Tousoulis D, Tountas C, et al. Vascular endothelium and inflammatory process, in patients with combined Type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary atherosclerosis: the effects of vitamin C. Diabet Med 2004;21;552-8. View abstract.
  22. Raschke T, Koop U, Dusing HJ, et al. Topical activity of ascorbic acid: from in vitro optimization to in vivo efficacy. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2004;17:200-6. View abstract.
  23. Cho E, Seddon JM, Rosner B, et al. Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 2004;122:883-92. View abstract.
  24. Cesari M, Pahor M, Bartali B, et al. Antioxidants and physical performance in elderly persons: the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:289-94. View abstract.
  25. Adams LA, Angulo P. Vitamins E and C for the treatment of NASH: duplication of results but lack of demonstration of efficacy. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:2348-50. View abstract.
  26. Montonen J, Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Reunanen A. Dietary antioxidant intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:362-6. View abstract.
  27. Corrada M, Kawas C. Reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease with high folate Intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Alzheimers Dement 2005;1:11-18. View abstract.
  28. Ward NC, Hodgson JM, Croft KD, et al. The combination of vitamin C and grape-seed polyphenols increases blood pressure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Hypertens 2005;23:427-34.. View abstract.
  29. Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: new insights after 14 years of follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:3225-32. View abstract.
  30. Stralsjo L, Alklint C, Olsson ME, Sjoholm I. Total folate content and retention in rosehips (Rosa ssp.) after drying. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:4291-5. View abstract.
  31. Pino JA, Marbot R. Volatile flavor constituents of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruit. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:5880-2. View abstract.
  32. Lee DH, Folsom AR, Harnack L, et al. Does supplemental vitamin C increase cardiovascular disease risk in women with diabetes? Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1194-200. View abstract.
  33. Spargias K, Alexopoulos E, Kyrzopoulos S, et al. Ascorbic acid prevents contrast-mediated nephropathy in patients with renal dysfunction undergoing coronary angiography or intervention. Circulation 2004;110:2837-42. View abstract.
  34. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2004;364:1219-28. View abstract.
  35. Kris-Etherton PM, Lichtenstein AH, Howard BV, et al. AHA Science Advisory: Antioxidant vitamin supplements and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2004;110:637-41. View abstract.
  36. Henmi H, Endo T, Kitajima Y, et al. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on serum progesteron levels in patients with luteal phase defect. Fertil Steril 2003;80:459-61. View abstract.
  37. Kennedy DD, Tucker KL, Ladas ED, et al. Low antioxidant vitamin intakes are associated with increases in adverse effects of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:1029-36. View abstract.
  38. Peters EM, Anderson R, Nieman DC, et al. Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increases in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running. Int J Sports Med. 2001;22:537-43. View abstract.
  39. Rivers JM, Devine MM. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations and oral contraceptives. Am J Clin Nutr 1972;25:684-9. View abstract.
  40. McLeroy VJ, Schendel HE. Influence of oral contraceptives on ascorbic acid concentrations in healthy, sexually mature women. Am J Clin Nutr 1973;26:191-6. View abstract.
  41. Sandstrom B. Micronutrient interactions: effects on absorption and bioavailability. Br J Nutr 2001;85:S181-5. View abstract.
  42. Weintraub M, Griner PF. Warfarin and ascorbic acid: lack of evidence for a drug interaction. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1974;28:53-6. View abstract.
  43. Feetam CL, Leach RH, Meynell MJ. Lack of a clinically important interaction between warfarin and ascorbic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1975;31:544-7. View abstract.
  44. Kelly G. The interaction of cigarette smoking and antioxidants. Part III: ascorbic acid. Altern Med Rev 2003;8:43-54. View abstract.
  45. Harris ED, Percival SS. A role for ascorbic acid in copper transport. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:1193s-7s. View abstract.
  46. Cheung MC, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Antioxidant supplements block the response of HDL to simvastatin-niacin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:1320-6. View abstract.
  47. Weininger J, King JC. Effect of oral contraceptives on ascorbic acid status of young women consuming a constant diet. Nutr Rep Int 1977;15:255-64. View abstract.
  48. Johansson U, Akesson B. Interaction between ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid and their effects on nutritional status in man. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1985;55:197-204. View abstract.
  49. Basu TK. Vitamin C-aspirin interactions. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl 1982;23:83-90. View abstract.
  50. Kaugars GE, Riley WT, Brandt RB, et al. The prevalence of oral lesions in smokeless tobacco users and an evaluation of risk factors. Cancer 1992;70:2579-85. View abstract.
  51. Giraud DW, Martin HD, Driskell JA. Plasma and dietary vitamin C and E levels of tobacco chewers, smokers, and nonusers. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:798-800. View abstract.
  52. Zandi PP, Anthony JC, Khachaturian AS, et al. Reduced risk of Alzheimer disease in users of antioxidant vitamin supplements: the Cache County Study. Arch Neurol 2004;61:82-8. View abstract.
  53. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. Potential public health impact of age-related eye disease study results: AREDS report no. 11. Arch Ophthalmol 2003;121:1621-4. View abstract.
  54. Slain D, Amsden JR, Khakoo RA, et al. Effect of high-dose vitamin C on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of the protease inhibitor indinavir in healthy volunteers. Pharmacotherapy 2005;25:165-70. View abstract.
  55. Vihtamaki T, Parantainen J, Koivisto AM, et al. Oral ascorbic acid increases plasma oestradiol during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas 2002;42:129-35. View abstract.
  56. Dysken MW, Cumming RJ, Channon RA, Davis JM. Drug interaction between ascorbic acid and fluphenazine. JAMA 1979;241:2008. View abstract.
  57. Slater GJ, Jenkins D. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and the promotion of muscle growth and strength. Sports Med 2000;30:105-16.. View abstract.
  58. Enstrom JE, Kanim LE, Klein MA. Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiology 1992;3:194-202.. View abstract.
  59. Ness AR, Powles JW, Khaw KT. Vitamin C and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996;3:513-521.. View abstract.
  60. Tardif JC. Probucol and multivitamins in the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty. N Engl J Med 1997;337:365-372.. View abstract.
  61. Wu K, Helzlsouer KJ, Alberg AJ, et al. A prospective study of plasma ascorbic acid concentrations and breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:279-83.. View abstract.
  62. Michels KB, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, et al. Dietary antioxidant vitamins, retinol, and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women. Int J Cancer 2001;91:563-7.. View abstract.
  63. Gandini S, Merzenich H, Robertson C, Boyle P. Meta-analysis of studies on breast cancer risk and diet: the role of fruit and vegetable consumption and the intake of associated micronutrients. Eur J Cancer 2000;36:636-46.. View abstract.
  64. Freudenheim JL, Marshall JR, Vena JE, et al. Premenopausal breast cancer risk and intake of vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:340-8.. View abstract.
  65. You WC, Zhang L, Gail MH, et al. Gastric dysplasia and gastric cancer: Helicobacter pylori, serum vitamin C, and other risk factors. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:1607-12.. View abstract.
  66. Negri E, Franceschi S, Bosetti C, et al. Selected micronutrients and oral and pharyngeal cancer. Int J Cancer 2000;86:122-7.. View abstract.
  67. Byers T, Guerrero N. Epidemiologic evidence for vitamin C and vitamin E in cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:1385S-92S.. View abstract.
  68. Hodis HN, Mack WJ, LaBree L, et al. Serial coronary angiographic evidence that antioxidant vitamin intake reduces progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. JAMA 1995;273:1849-54.. View abstract.
  69. Ramirez J, Flowers NC. Leukocyte ascorbic acid and its relationship to coronary artery disease in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:2079-87.. View abstract.
  70. Kritchevsky SB, Shimakawa T, Tell GS, et al. Dietary antioxidants and carotid artery wall thickness. The ARIC Study. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Circulation 1995;92:2142-50.. View abstract.
  71. Nyyssonen K, Parviainen MT, Salonen R, et al. Vitamin C deficiency and risk of myocardial infarction: prospective population study of men from eastern Finland. BMJ 1997;314:634-8.. View abstract.
  72. Sahyoun NR, Jacques PF, Russell RM. Carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and mortality in an elderly population. Am J Epidemiol 1996;144:501-11.. View abstract.
  73. Takkouche B, Regueira-Mendez C, Garcia-Closas R, et al. Intake of vitamin C and zinc and risk of common cold: a cohort study. Epidemiology 2002;13:38-44.. View abstract.
  74. Johnston CS, Solomon RE, Corte C. Vitamin C depletion is associated with alterations in blood histamine and plasma free carnitine in adults. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:586-591. View abstract.
  75. Offenbacher EG. Promotion of chromium absorption by ascorbic acid. Trace Elements Electrolytes 1994;11:178-81.
  76. Wilson CW, Greene M. The relationship of aspirin to ascorbic acid metabolism during the common cold. J Clin Pharmacol 1978;18:21-8. View abstract.
  77. Sahud MA, Cohen RJ. Effect of aspirin ingestion on ascorbic-acid levels in rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 1971;1:937-8. View abstract.
  78. Loh HS, Wilson CW. The interactions of aspirin and ascorbic acid in normal men. J Clin Pharmacol 1975;15:36-45.
  79. Hansten PD, Hayton WL. Effect of antacid and ascorbic acid on serum salicylate concentration. J Clin Pharmacol 1980;20:326-31. View abstract.
  80. Mc Leod DC, Nahata MC. Inefficacy of ascorbic acid as a urinary acidifier (letter). N Engl J Med 1977;296:1413. View abstract.
  81. Kuo SM, Lin CP. 17Beta-estradiol inhibition of ascorbic acid accumulation in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Eur J Pharmacol 1998;361:253-9. View abstract.
  82. Hudiburgh NK, Milner AN. Influence of oral contraceptives on ascorbic acid and triglyceride status. J Am Diet Assoc 1979;75:19-22. View abstract.
  83. Rivers JM. Oral contraceptives and ascorbic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 1975;28:550-4. View abstract.
  84. Briggs M, Briggs M. Vitamin C requirements and oral contraceptives. Nature 1972;238:277.
  85. Mowat C, Carswell A, Wirz A, McColl KE. Omeprazole and dietary nitrate independently affect levels of vitamin C and nitrite in gastric juice. Gastroenterology 1999;116:813-22. View abstract.
  86. Partridge NA, Regnier FE, White JL, Hem SL. Influence of dietary constituents on intestinal absorption of aluminum. Kidney Int 1989;35:1413-7. View abstract.
  87. Domingo JL, Gomez M, Llobet JM, Corbella J. Influence of some dietary constituents on aluminum absorption and retention in rats. Kidney Int 1991;39:598-601. View abstract.
  88. Domingo JL, Gomez M, Llobet JM, Richart C. Effect of ascorbic acid on gastrointestinal aluminum absorption (letter). Lancet 1991;338:1467. View abstract.
  89. Thorp VJ. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on vitamin and mineral requirements. J Am Diet Assoc 1980;76:581-4.. View abstract.
  90. Salonen RM, Nyyssonen K, Kaikkonen J, et al. Six-year effect of combined vitamin C and E supplementation on atherosclerotic progression: the Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study. Circulation 2003;107:947-53.. View abstract.
  91. Gaede P, Poulsen HE, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Double-blind, randomised study of the effect of combined treatment with vitamin C and E on albuminuria in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 2001;18:756-60.. View abstract.
  92. Yoshinaga M, Ohtani A, Harada N, et al. Vitamin C inhibits corpus gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients during acid-suppressive therapy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;16:1206-10.. View abstract.
  93. Zullo A, Rinaldi V, Hassan C, et al. Ascorbic acid and intestinal metaplasia in the stomach: a prospective, randomized study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:1303-9.. View abstract.
  94. Osganian SK, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, et al. Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:246-52.. View abstract.
  95. Pohle T, Brzozowski T, Becker JC, et al. Role of reactive oxygen metabolites in aspirin-induced gastric damage in humans: gastroprotection by vitamin C. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001;15:677-87.. View abstract.
  96. Traxer O, Huet B, Poindexter J, et al. Effect of ascorbic acid consumption on urinary stone risk factors. J Urol 2003;170:397-401.. View abstract.
  97. Nishiguchi S, Shiomi S, Enomoto M, et al. Does ascorbic acid prevent retinopathy during interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C? J Gastroenterol 2001;36:486-91.. View abstract.
  98. Block G, Mangels AR, Norkus EP, et al. Ascorbic acid status and subsequent diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Hypertension 2001;37:261-7.. View abstract.
  99. Brody S, Preut R, Schommer K, Schurmeyer TH. A randomized controlled trial of high dose ascorbic acid for reduction of blood pressure, cortisol, and subjective responses to psychological stress. Psychopharmacology 2002;159:319-24.. View abstract.
  100. Engler MM, Engler MB, Malloy MJ, et al. Antioxidant Vitamins C and E Improve Endothelial Function in Children With Hyperlipidemia: Endothelial Assessment of Risk from Lipids in Youth (EARLY) Trial. Circulation 2003;108:1059-63.. View abstract.
  101. Luchsinger JA, Tang M, Shea S, Mayeux R. Antioxidant vitamin intake and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:203-8.. View abstract.
  102. Klipstein-Grobusch K, den Breeijen JH, Grobbee DE, et al. Dietary antioxidants and peripheral arterial disease: the Rotterdam study. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154:145-9.. View abstract.
  103. Kershner J, Hawke W. Megavitamins and learning disorders: a controlled double-blind experiment. J Nutr 1979;109:819-26.. View abstract.
  104. Arnold LE, Christopher J, Huestis RD, Smeltzer DJ. Megavitamins for minimal brain dysfunction. A placebo-controlled study. JAMA 1978;240:2642-43.. View abstract.
  105. Haslam RH, Dalby JT, Rademaker AW. Effects of megavitamin therapy on children with attention deficit disorders. Pediatrics 1984;74:103-11.. View abstract.
  106. Jacobs EJ, Henion AK, Briggs PJ, et al. Vitamin C and vitamin E supplement use and bladder cancer mortality in a large cohort of US men and women. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:1002-10.. View abstract.
  107. Mayne ST, Risch HA, Dubrow R, et al. Nutrient intake and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10:1055-62.. View abstract.
  108. Bachleitner-Hofmann T, Gisslinger B, Grumbeck E, Gisslinger H. Arsenic trioxide and ascorbic acid: synergy with potential implications for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia? Br J Haematol 2001;112:783-6.. View abstract.
  109. Hemila H. Vitamin C supplementation and common cold symptoms: problems with inaccurate reviews. Nutrition 1996;12:804-9.. View abstract.
  110. Hemila H. Vitamin C supplementation and the common cold--was Linus Pauling right or wrong? Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1997;67:329-35.. View abstract.
  111. Hemila H. Vitamin C supplementation and common cold symptoms: factors affecting the magnitude of the benefit. Med Hypotheses 1999;52:171-8. View abstract.
  112. Audera C, Patulny RV, Sander BH, Douglas RM. Mega-dose vitamin C in treatment of the common cold: a randomized controlled trial. Med J Aust 2001;175:359-62.. View abstract.
  113. Carr AB, Einstein R, Lai LY, et al. Vitamin C and the common cold: using identical twins as controls. Med J Aust 1981;2:411-2.. View abstract.
  114. Hemila H. Vitamin C and common cold incidence: a review of studies with subjects under heavy physical stress. Int J Sports Med 1996;17:379-83.. View abstract.
  115. Batterham M, Gold J, Naidoo D, et al. A preliminary open label dose comparison using an antioxidant regimen to determine the effect on viral load and oxidative stress in men with HIV/AIDS. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55:107-14.. View abstract.
  116. Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relation of ascorbic acid to bone mineral density and self-reported fractures among US adults. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154:427-33.. View abstract.
  117. Evans AT, Husain S, Durairaj L, et al. Azithromycin for acute bronchitis: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet 2002;359:1648-54.. View abstract.
  118. Prasad KN, Cole WC, Kumar B, Che Prasad K. Pros and cons of antioxidant use during radiation therapy. Cancer Treat Rev 2002;28:79-91.. View abstract.
  119. Kennedy M, Bruninga K, Mutlu EA, et al. Successful and sustained treatment of chronic radiation proctitis with antioxidant vitamins E and C. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:1080-4.. View abstract.
  120. Laurin D, Foley DJ, Masaki KH, et al. Vitamin E and C supplements and risk of dementia. JAMA 2002;288:2266-8. View abstract.
  121. Flood V, Smith W, Wang JJ, et al. Dietary antioxidant intake and incidence of early age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 2002;109:2272-8.. View abstract.
  122. Mullan BA, Young IS, Fee H, McCance DR. Ascorbic acid reduces blood pressure and arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes. Hypertension 2002;40:804-9.. View abstract.
  123. Kim MK, Sasaki S, Sasazuki S, et al. Lack of long-term effect of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure. Hypertension 2002;40:797-803.. View abstract.
  124. Natali A, Sironi AM, Toschi E, et al. Effect of vitamin C on forearm blood flow and glucose metabolism in essential hypertension. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:2401-6.. View abstract.
  125. Hirashima O, Kawano H, Motoyama T, et al. Improvement of endothelial function and insulin sensitivity with vitamin C in patients with coronary spastic angina: possible role of reactive oxygen species. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:1860-6.. View abstract.
  126. Raitakari OT, Adams MR, McCredie RJ, et al. Oral vitamin C and endothelial function in smokers: short-term improvement, but no sustained beneficial effect. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:1616-21.. View abstract.
  127. Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:23-33.. View abstract.
  128. Rossig L, Hoffmann J, Hugel B, et al. Vitamin C inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis in congestive heart failure. Circulation 2001;104:2182-7.. View abstract.
  129. Lonn E. Do antioxidant vitamins protect against atherosclerosis? The proof is still lacking. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1795-8. View abstract.
  130. McQuillan BM, Hung J, Beilby JP, et al. Antioxidant vitamins and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis. The Perth Carotid Ultrasound Disease Assessment study (CUDAS). J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1788-94.. View abstract.
  131. Langlois M, Duprez D, Delanghe J, et al. Serum vitamin C concentration is low in peripheral arterial disease and is associated with inflammation and severity of atherosclerosis. Circulation 2001;103:1863-8.. View abstract.
  132. Carr AC, Zhu BZ, Frei B. Potential antiatherogenic mechanisms of ascorbate (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Circ Res 2000;87:349-54. View abstract.
  133. Johnston CS, Bowling DL. Stability of ascorbic acid in commercially available orange juices. J Am Diet Assoc 2002;102:525-9.. View abstract.
  134. Johnston CS, Thompson LL. Vitamin C status of an outpatient population. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:366-70. View abstract.
  135. Padayatty SJ, Levine M. New insights into the physiology and pharmacology of vitamin C. CMAJ 2001;164:353-5. View abstract.
  136. Kuo SM, Lin CP, Morehouse HF Jr. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers inhibit ascorbic acid accumulation in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Life Sci 2001;68:1751-60.. View abstract.
  137. Smith EC, Skalski RJ, Johnson GC, Rossi GV. Interaction of ascorbic acid and warfarin. JAMA 1972;221:1166. View abstract.
  138. Hume R, Johnstone JM, Weyers E. Interaction of ascorbic acid and warfarin. JAMA 1972;219:1479. View abstract.
  139. Rosenthal G. Interaction of ascorbic acid and warfarin. JAMA 1971;215:1671. View abstract.
  140. Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Hunter D, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding and early child mortality. AIDS 2002;16:1935-44.. View abstract.
  141. Lynch SR. Interaction of iron with other nutrients. Nutr Rev 1997;55:102-10.. View abstract.
  142. Hallberg L, Hulthen L. Prediction of dietary iron absorption: an algorithm for calculating absorption and bioavailability of dietary iron. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1147-60.. View abstract.
  143. Cook JD, Reddy MB. Effect of ascorbic acid intake on nonheme-iron absorption from a complete diet. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:93-8.. View abstract.
  144. Fleming DJ, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, et al. Dietary determinants of iron stores in a free-living elderly population: The Framingham Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:722-33.. View abstract.
  145. Cook JD. Food iron availability: back to the basics. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:593-4. View abstract.
  146. Mydlik M, Derzsiova K, Zemberova E. Influence of water and sodium diuresis and furosemide on urinary excretion of vitamin B6, oxalic acid and vitamin C in chronic renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1999;25:352-6.. View abstract.
  147. Fishman SM, Christian P, West KP. The role of vitamins in the prevention and control of anaemia. Public Health Nutr 2000;3:125-50.. View abstract.
  148. Herbert V, Jacob E. Destruction of vitamin B12 by ascorbic acid. JAMA 1974;230:241-2. View abstract.
  149. Botterweck AA, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. Vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and the risk of gastric carcinoma: results from a prospective study after 6.3 years of follow-up. Cancer 2000;88:737-48.. View abstract.
  150. Fairfield KM, Hankinson SE, Rosner BA, et al. Risk of ovarian carcinoma and consumption of vitamins A, C, and E and specific carotenoids: a prospective analysis. Cancer 2001;92:2318-26.. View abstract.
  151. Watkins ML, Erickson JD, Thun MJ, et al. Multivitamin use and mortality in a large prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 2000;152:149-62.. View abstract.
  152. Keli SO, Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:637-42. View abstract.
  153. Knekt P, Reunanen A, Jarvinen R, et al. Antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality in a longitudinal population study. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:1180-9. View abstract.
  154. Gey KF, Stahelin HB, Eichholzer M. Poor plasma status of carotene and vitamin C is associated with higher mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke: Basel Prospective Study. Clin Investig 1993;71:3-6. View abstract.
  155. Joshipura KJ, Ascherio A, Manson JE, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of ischemic stroke. JAMA 1999;282:1233-39.. View abstract.
  156. Yochum LA, Folsom AR, Kushi LH. Intake of antioxidant vitamins and risk of death from stroke in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:476-83.. View abstract.
  157. Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1583-93. View abstract.
  158. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E and beta carotene for age-related cataract and vision loss: AREDS report no. 9. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1439-52. View abstract.
  159. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss. AREDS report no. 8. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1417-36. View abstract.
  160. Gorton HC, Jarvis K. The effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing and relieving the symptoms of virus-induced respiratory infections. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22:530-3. View abstract.
  161. Hemila H. Vitamin C intake and susceptibility to the common cold. Br J Nutr 1997;77:59-72. View abstract.
  162. Gorman JF. The vitamin C controversy. Postgrad Med 1980;67:64,69. View abstract.
  163. Lee SH, Oe T, Blair IA. Vitamin C-induced decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to endogenous genotoxins. Science 2001;292:2083-4. View abstract.
  164. Douglas RM, Chalker EB, Treacy B. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;:CD000980. View abstract.
  165. Houston JB, Levy G. Drug biotransformation interactions in man VI: Acetaminophen and ascorbic acid. J Pharm Sci 1976;65:1218-21. View abstract.
  166. Cellex-C product information for professionals. Cellex-C. Available at: (Accessed 14 June 2000).
  167. Traikovich SS. Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999;125:1091-8. View abstract.
  168. Israel RJ, Sonis ST. Topical dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) reduces moderate to severe mucositis in the hamster acute radiation model. 36th Am Soc Clin Oncol Ann Mtg Prog Proceedings/Abstracts: Abstract 2367.
  169. Kligman AM. Topical treatments for photoaged skin. Separating the reality from the hype. Postgrad Med 1997;102:115-26. View abstract.
  170. Keller KL, Fenske NA. Uses of vitamins A, C, and E and related compounds in dermatology: A review. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;39:611-25. View abstract.
  171. McAlindon TE, Jacques P, Zhang Y, et al. Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis? Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:648-56. View abstract.
  172. Sherman DL, Keaney JF, Biegelsen ES, et al. Pharmacological concentrations of ascorbic acid are required for the beneficial effect on endothelial vasomotor function in hypertension. Hypertension 2000;35:936-41. View abstract.
  173. Loria CM, Klag MJ, Caulfield LE, Whelton PK. Vitamin C status and mortality in US adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:139-45. View abstract.
  174. Simon JA, Hudes ES. Serum ascorbic acid and gallbladder disease prevalence among US adults. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:931-6. View abstract.
  175. Riemersma RA, Carruthers KF, Elton RA, Fox KA. Vitamin C and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1181-6. View abstract.
  176. Lykkesfeldt J, Christen S, Wallock LM, et al. Ascorbate is depleted by smoking and replaced by moderate supplementation: a study in male smokers and nonsmokers with matched dietary antioxidant intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:530-6. View abstract.
  177. Mainous AG, Hueston WJ, Connor MK. Serum vitamin C levels and use of health care resources for wheezing episodes. Arch Fam Med 2000;9:241-5. View abstract.
  178. Heartwire. Antioxidants get a vote of confidence in cardiac transplant patients. Available at: (Accessed 13 December 2001).
  179. Ohnishi ST, Ohnishi T, Ogunmola GB. Sickle cell anemia: a potential nutritional approach for a molecular disease. Nutrition 2000;16:330-8. View abstract.
  180. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at:
  181. Creagan ET, Moertel CG, O'Fallon JR, et al. Failure of high-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy to benefit patients with advanced cancer. A controlled trial. N Engl J Med 1979;301:687-90. View abstract.
  182. Moertel CG, Fleming TR, Creagan ET, et al. High-dose vitamin C versus placebo in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer who have had no prior chemotherapy. A randomized double-blind comparison. N Engl J Med 1985;312:137-41. View abstract.
  183. Agus DB, Vera JC, Golde DW. Stromal cell oxidation: a mechanism by which tumors obtain vitamin C. Cancer Res 1999;59:4555-8. View abstract.
  184. Vera JC, Rivas CI, Zhang RH, Golde DW. Colony-stimulating factors signal for increased transport of vitamin C in human host defense cells. Blood 1998;91:2536-46. View abstract.
  185. Spielholz C, Golde DW, Houghton AN, et al. Increased facilitated transport of dehydroascorbic acid without changes in sodium-dependent ascorbate transport in human melanoma cells. Cancer Res 1997;57:2529-37. View abstract.
  186. Vera JC, Rivas CI, Zhang RH, et al. Human HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells transport dehydroascorbic acid via the glucose transporters and accumulate reduced ascorbic acid. Blood 1994;84:1628-34. View abstract.
  187. Eberlein-Konig B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:45-8. View abstract.
  188. Fuchs J, Kern H. Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by D-alpha-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid: a clinical study using solar simulated radiation. Free Radic Biol Med 1998;25:1006-12. View abstract.
  189. Dreher F, Denig N, Gabard B, et al. Effect of topical antioxidants on UV-induced erythema formation when administered after exposure. Dermatol 1999;198:52-5. View abstract.
  190. Dreher F, Gabard B, Schwindt DA, Maibach HI. Topical melatonin in combination with vitamins E and C protects skin from ultraviolet-induced erythema: a human study in vivo. Br J Dermatol 1998;139:332-9. View abstract.
  191. Masaki KH, Losonczy KG, Izmirlian G, et al. Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men. Neurology 2000;54:1265-72. View abstract.
  192. Segal S, Kaminski S. Drug-nutrient interactions. American Druggist 1996 Jul;42-8.
  193. Mares-Perlman JA, Lyle BJ, Klein R, et al. Vitamin supplement use and incident cataracts in a population-based study. Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118:1556-63. View abstract.
  194. Losonczy KG, Harris TB, Havlik RJ. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons:epidemiologic studies of the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:190-6. View abstract.
  195. Kushi LH, Folsom AR, Prineas RJ, et al. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1156-62. View abstract.
  196. Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med 1993;328:1450-6. View abstract.
  197. Khaw KT, Bingham S, Welch A, et al. Relation between plasma ascorbic acid and mortality in men and women in EPIC-Norfolk prospective study: a prospective population study. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Lancet 2001;357:657-63. View abstract.
  198. Chappell LC, Seed PT, Briley AL, et al. Effect of antioxidants on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;354:810-6. View abstract.
  199. Cheng Y, Willett WC, Schwartz J, et al. Relation of nutrition to bone lead and blood lead levels in middle-aged to elderly men. The Normative Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol 1998;147:1162-74. View abstract.
  200. Dawson EB, Evans DR, Harris WA, et al. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on the blood lead levels of smokers. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:166-70. View abstract.
  201. Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relationship of ascorbic acid to blood lead levels. JAMA 1999;281:2289-93. View abstract.
  202. Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug Interactions Analysis and Management. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics Inc., 1997 and updates.
  203. Levine M, Rumsey SC, Daruwala R, et al. Criteria and recommendations for vitamin C intake. JAMA 1999;281:1415-23. View abstract.
  204. Correa P, Fontham ETH, Bravo JC, et al. Chemoprevention of gastric dysplasia: randomized trial of antioxidant supplements and anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:1881-8. View abstract.
  205. Hornig B, Arakawa N, Kohler C, Drexler H. Vitamin C improves endothelial function of conduit arteries in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 1998;97:363-8. View abstract.
  206. Mak S, Newton GE. Vitamin C augments the inotropic response to dobutamine in humans with normal left ventricular function. Circulation 2001;103:826-30. View abstract.
  207. Chen R, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Bolton-Smith C, et al. Association of dietary antioxidants and waist circumference with pulmonary function and airway obstruction. Am J Epidemiol 2001:153:157-63. View abstract.
  208. Zollinger PE, Tuinebreijer WE, Kreis RW, Breederveld RS. Effect of vitamin C on frequency of reflex sympathetic dystrophy in wrist fractures: a randomized trial. Lancet 1999;354:2025-8. View abstract.
  209. Duffy SJ, Gokce N, Holbrook M, et al. Treatment of hypertension with ascorbic acid. Lancet 1999;354:2048-9. View abstract.
  210. Hemila H. Vitamin C, the placebo effect, and the common cold: a case study of how preconceptions influence the analysis of results. J Clin Epidemiol 1996;49:1079-84. View abstract.
  211. Hemila H, Herman ZS. Vitamin C and the common cold: a retrospective analysis of Chalmers' review. J Am Coll Nutr 1995;14:116-23. View abstract.
  212. Hemila H. Does vitamin C alleviate the symptoms of the common cold?- a review of current evidence. Scand J Infect Dis 1994;26:1-6. View abstract.
  213. Davies JE, Hughes RE, Jones E, et al. Metabolism of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in subjects infected with common cold viruses. Biochem Med 1979;21:78-85. View abstract.
  214. Coulehan JL. Ascorbic acid and the common cold: reviewing the evidence. Postgrad Med 1979;66:153-60. View abstract.
  215. Anderson TW. Vitamin C and the common cold. J Med Soc N J 1979;76:765-6. View abstract.
  216. Pitt HA, Costrini AM. Vitamin C prophylaxis in marine recruits. JAMA 1979;241:908-11.. View abstract.
  217. Martin NG, Carr AB, Oakeshott JG, Clark P. Co-twin control studies: vitamin C and the common cold. Prog Clin Biol Res 1982;103:365-73. View abstract.
  218. Vilter RW. Nutritional aspects of ascorbic acid: uses and abuses. West J Med 1980;133:485-92. View abstract.
  219. Kasa RM. Vitamin C: from scurvy to the common cold. Am J Med Technol 1983;49:23-6. View abstract.
  220. Leibovitz B, Siegel BV. Ascorbic acid and the immune response. Adv Exp Med Biol 1981;135:1-25. View abstract.
  221. Daniel TA, Nawarskas JJ. Vitamin C in the prevention of nitrate tolerance. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:1193-7. View abstract.
  222. Slivka A, Kang JO, Cohen G. Ascorbic acid. N Engl J Med 1986;315:708-9. View abstract.
  223. Alster TS, West TB. Effect of topical vitamin C on postoperative carbon dioxide laser resurfacing erythema. Dermatol Surg 1998;24:331-4. View abstract.
  224. Gale CR, Martyn CN, Winter PD, Cooper C. Vitamin C and risk of death from stroke and coronary heart disease in cohort of elderly people. BMJ 1995;310:1563-6. View abstract.
  225. Yokoyama T, Date C, Kokubo Y, et al. Serum vitamin C concentration was inversely associated with subsequent 20-year incidence of stroke in a Japanese rural community : the shibata study. Stroke 2000;31:2287-94. View abstract.
  226. Kaufmann PA, Gnecchi-Ruscone T, di Terlizzi M, et al. Coronary heart disease in smokers: vitamin C restores coronary microcirculatory function. Circulation 2000;102:1233-8. View abstract.
  227. Salonen JT, Nyyssonen K, Salonen R, et al. Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. J Intern Med 2000;248:377-86. View abstract.
  228. Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, et al. Relation of consumption of vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids to risk for stroke among men in the United States. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:963-70. View abstract.
  229. Zhang S, Hunter DJ, Forman MR, et al. Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:547-56. View abstract.
  230. Cohen HA, Neuman I, Nahum H. Blocking effect of vitamin C in exercise-induced asthma. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1997;151:103-9. View abstract.
  231. Watanabe H, Masaaki K, Ohtsuka S, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the preventative effect of supplemental oral vitamin C on attenuation of development of nitrate tolerance. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;31:1323-9. View abstract.
  232. Tribble DL. AHA Science Advisory. Antioxidant consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: emphasis on vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene: A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation 1999;99:591-5. View abstract.
  233. Slattery ML, West DW, Robison LM. Fluid intake and bladder cancer in Utah. Int J Cancer 1988;42:17-22. View abstract.
  234. Pannelli F, La Rosa F, Saltalamacchia G, et al. Tobacco smoking, coffee, cocoa and tea consumption in relation to mortality from urinary bladder cancer in Italy. Eur J Epidemiol 1989;5:392-7. View abstract.
  235. Dwyer JH, Merz NB, Shirocre AM, et al. Progression of early atherosclerosis and intake of vitamin C and vitamin E from supplements and food. The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study. 41st Annual Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention - Abstract P77. Circulation 2001;103:1365d.
  236. Halperin EC, Gaspar L, George S, et al. A double-blind, randomized, prospective trial to evaluate topical vitamin C solution for the prevention of radiation dermatitis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1993;26:413-6. View abstract.
  237. Finley EB, Cerklewski FL. Influence of ascorbic acid supplementation on copper status in young adult men. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;37:553-6. View abstract.
  238. Labriola D, Livingston R. Possible interactions between dietary antioxidants and chemotherapy. Oncology 1999;13:1003-8. View abstract.
  239. Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.
  240. Morris JC, Beeley L, Ballantine N. Interaction of ethinyloestradiol with ascorbic acid in man [letter]. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;283:503. View abstract.
  241. Back DJ, Breckenridge AM, MacIver M, et al. Interaction of ethinyloestradiol with ascorbic acid in man. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;282:1516. View abstract.
  242. McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 08/21/2014

Page last updated: 08 September 2014