Skip navigation


What is it?

Selenium is a mineral. It is taken into the body in water and foods. People use it for medicine.

Most of the selenium in the body comes from the diet. The amount of selenium in food depends on where it is grown or raised. Crab, liver, fish, poultry, and wheat are generally good selenium sources. The amount of selenium in soils varies a lot around the world, which means that the foods grown in these soils also have differing selenium levels. In the U.S., the Eastern Coastal Plain and the Pacific Northwest have the lowest selenium levels. People in these regions naturally take in about 60 to 90 mcg of selenium per day from their diet. Although this amount of selenium is adequate, it is below the average daily intake in the U.S., which is 125 mcg.

Selenium is used for diseases of the heart and blood vessels, including stroke and “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis). It is also used for preventing various cancers including cancer of the prostate, stomach, lung, and skin.

Some people use selenium for under-active thyroid, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an eye disease called macular degeneration, hay fever, infertility, cataracts, gray hair, abnormal pap smears, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), mood disorders, arsenic poisoning, and preventing miscarriage.

Selenium is also used for preventing serious complications and death from critical illnesses such as head injury and burns. It is also used for preventing bird flu, treating HIV/AIDS, and reducing side effects from cancer chemotherapy.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for SELENIUM are as follows:

Likely effective for...

  • Preventing lower than normal levels of selenium (selenium deficiency).

Possibly effective for...

  • Autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis). Taking selenium 200 mcg daily along with thyroid hormone might decrease antibodies in the body that contribute to this condition. Selenium might also help improve mood and general feelings of well-being in people with thyroiditis.
  • High cholesterol. Some research shows that taking a specific selenium supplement (SelenoPrecise, Pharma Nord, Denmark) 100-200 mcg daily for 6 months can modestly reduce cholesterol levels. Many people in this study had low levels of selenium in their body before the start of the study. It is not clear if taking extra selenium would have any benefit on cholesterol levels in people with normal selenium levels in the body.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Preventing cancer. Clinical research shows that taking a combination of selenium 100 mcg along with zinc 20 mg, vitamin C 120 mg, vitamin E 30 mg, and beta-carotene 6 mg/day once daily for 7.5 years does not lower the overall chance of developing cancer of any type.
  • Skin cancer. Taking 200 mcg of selenium does not seem to reduce the risk of getting a particular type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma. In fact, some scientific evidence suggests that taking extra selenium might actually increase the risk of getting another type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Lung cancer. Increasing selenium intake doesn’t seem to lower the risk of getting lung cancer, except in people who have lower than normal levels of selenium (selenium deficiency). Even in this group, the risk reduction is small.
  • Heart disease. Some research shows that people with heart disease who take selenium 100 mcg daily in combination with beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E do not seem to have a lower chance of having heart disease worsening or heart attacks.
  • Diabetes. Some research has shown that people with low selenium levels in the body have a higher chance of getting type 2 diabetes. But other research shows that people who have high amounts of selenium in the body also have increased chance of getting type 2 diabetes. Additionally, more reliable research shows that people who take a selenium supplement 200 mcg daily for an average of 7.7 years actually have a significantly increased chance of getting type 2 diabetes.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
  • Critical illness (burns, head injury, etc).

Likely ineffective for...

  • Prostate cancer. There has been a lot of interest in studying whether taking selenium lowers the chance of getting prostate cancer. The interest was triggered by the observation that prostate cancer seems to be less common in men with higher selenium levels in their bodies. To date, there have been several large, long-term scientific studies. The majority of this evidence suggests that selenium does not reduce the chance of getting prostate cancer.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • HIV/AIDS. There is contradictory evidence about the effect of selenium supplements on HIV.
  • Arthritis (osteoarthritis). Low selenium levels seem to be linked with an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis. But it’s not known whether selenium supplements can prevent osteoarthritis.
  • Colorectal cancer. Evidence is conflicting about the effect of selenium on colorectal cancer.
  • Esophageal cancer. Taking selenium supplements does not seem to significantly decrease the risk of esophageal cancer.
  • Stomach cancer. Taking selenium in combination with vitamin C and vitamin E long-term (for about 7 years) does not seem to reduce the risk of developing precancerous stomach sores.
  • Hypothyroidism.
  • Atherosclerosis.
  • Macular degeneration (eye disease).
  • Hay fever.
  • Gray hair.
  • Mood disorders.
  • Chemotherapy side effects.
  • Swelling after surgery.
  • Abnormal pap smears.
  • Infertility.
  • Cataracts.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Bird flu.
  • Preventing miscarriage.
  • Overall cancer risk.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate selenium for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
Selenium is important for making many body processes work correctly. It seems to increase the action of antioxidants.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
Selenium is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in doses less than 400 mcg per day, short-term.

Higher doses are POSSIBLY UNSAFE. They can cause significant side effects including nausea, vomiting, nail changes, loss of energy, and irritability. Poisoning from long-term use is similar to arsenic poisoning, with symptoms including hair loss, white horizontal streaking on fingernails, nail inflammation, fatigue, irritability, nausea, vomiting, garlic breath odor, and a metallic taste.

Selenium can also cause muscle tenderness, tremor, lightheadedness, facial flushing, blood clotting problems, liver and kidney problems, and other side effects.

There is concern that taking selenium for a long time might not be safe. Long-term consumption of selenium supplements appears to increase the chance of getting type 2 diabetes. It also seems to increase the risk of skin cancer recurrence. There is also some concern that having too much selenium in the body might increase the risk of overall death as well as death from cancer.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Selenium use is POSSIBLY SAFE during pregnancy and breast-feeding when used short-term in amounts that are not larger than 400 mcg per day.

Fertility problems in men: Selenium might decrease the ability of sperm to move, which could reduce fertility. If you are trying to father a child, don’t take selenium supplements.

Prostate cancer: There is concern that taking large amounts of a multivitamin plus a separate selenium supplement might increase the chance of developing prostate cancer and dying from prostate cancer.

A history of skin cancer: Long-term use of selenium supplements might slightly increase the risk of skin cancer recurrence, but this is controversial. Until more is known about the possible increase in skin cancer risk, avoid long-term use of selenium supplements if you have ever had skin cancer.

Under-active thyroid (hypothyroidism): Taking selenium can worsen hypothyroidism especially in people with iodine deficiency. In this case, you should take iodine along with selenium. Check with your healthcare provider.

Surgery: Selenium might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop taking selenium at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top


Do not take this combination.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Selenium might slow blood clotting. Taking selenium along with medications that also slow blood clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.


Be cautious with this combination.

Medications used for lowering cholesterol (Statins)
Taking selenium, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E together might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol. It is not known if selenium alone decreases the effectiveness of medications used for lowering cholesterol.

Some medications used for lowering cholesterol include atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), and pravastatin (Pravachol).

Taking selenium along with vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene might decrease some of the beneficial effects of niacin. Niacin can increase the good cholesterol. Taking selenium along with these other vitamins might decrease how well niacin works for increasing good cholesterol.

Sedative medications (Barbiturates)
The body breaks down medications to get rid of them. Selenium might slow how fast the body breaks down sedative medications (barbiturates). Taking selenium with these medications might increase the effects and side effects of these medications.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Selenium might thin the blood. Selenium might also increase the effects of warfarin in the body. Taking selenium along with warfarin might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.


Be watchful with this combination.

Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)
Some research shows that women who take birth control pills might have increased blood levels of selenium. But other research shows no change in selenium levels in women who take birth control pills. There isn't enough information to know if there is an important interaction between birth control pills and selenium.

Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.

Gold salts
Gold salts bind to selenium and decrease selenium in parts of the body. This might decrease the normal activity of selenium, possibly resulting in symptoms of selenium deficiency.

Gold salts include aurothioglucose (Solganal), gold sodium thiomalate (Aurolate), and auranofin (Ridaura).

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Some species of astragalus accumulate large amounts of selenium, especially when grown in selenium-rich soils. Taking products made from these plants along with selenium supplements could cause selenium poisoning. However, most astragalus supplements contain Astragalus membranaceus, which is not a selenium accumulator.

Zinc might make it more difficult for the body to absorb selenium from food.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

  • Autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis): 200 mcg daily.
  • High cholesterol: 100-200 mcg daily of a specific selenium product (SelenoPrecise, Pharma Nord, Denmark).
The daily recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of selenium are:
  • Children 1-3 years, 20 mcg; children 4-8 years, 30 mcg; children 9-13 years, 40 mcg;
  • People over 13 years, 55 mcg;
  • Pregnant women, 60 mcg; and lactating women, 70 mcg. Due to the demands of the fetus on the mother, the dietary need for selenium increases during pregnancy.
  • The RDA for infants has not been determined. For infants up to 6 months old, 2.1 mcg/kg is adequate intake (AI). The AI for infants 7-12 months is 2.2 mcg/kg per day.
The tolerable upper limit is:
  • Adults, 400 mcg per day for adults and adolescents 14 years and older.
  • The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for infants up to age 6 months is 45 mcg per day;
  • Infants 7 to 12 months, 60 mcg per day;
  • Children 1 to 3 years, 90 mcg per day;
  • Children 4 to 8 years, 150 mcg per day;
  • Children 9 to 13 years, 280 mcg per day.

Other names

Return to top
Atomic number 34, Dioxyde de Sélénium, Ebselen, L-Selenomethionine, L-Sélénométhionine, Levure Sélénisée, Numéro Atomique 34, Se, Selenio, Selenite, Sélénite de Sodium, Sélénium, Selenium Ascorbate, Selenium Dioxide, Selenized Yeast, Selenomethionine, Sélénométhionine, Sodium Selenite.


Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (


Return to top
To see all references for the Selenium page, please go to

  1. Rayman MP, Stranges S, Griffin BA, et al. Effect of supplementation with high-selenium yeast on plasma lipids: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2011;154:656-65. View abstract.
  2. Balaz C, Feher J. The effect of selenium therapy on autoimmune thyroiditis. Clinical and Experimental Medical Journal 2009;3:269-77.
  3. Toulis KA, Anastasilakis AD, Tzellos TG, et al. Selenium supplementation in the treatment of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A systematic review and a meta-analysis. Thyroid 2010;20:1163-73. View abstract.
  4. Bonfig W, Gartner R, Schmidt H. Selenium supplementation does not decrease thyroid peroxidase antibody concentration in children and adolescents with autoimmune thyroiditis. ScientificWorldJournal 2010;10:990-6. View abstract.
  5. Mazokopakis EE, Papadakis JA, Papadomanolaki MG, et al. Effects of 12 months treatment with L-selenomethionine on serum anti-TPO levels in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid 2007;17:609-12. View abstract.
  6. Turker O, Kumanlioglu K, Karapolat I, Dogan I. Selenium treatment in autoimmune thyroiditis: 9-month follow-up with variable doses. J Endocrinol 2006;190:151-6. View abstract.
  7. Gartner R, Gasinier BC. Selenium in the treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis. Biofactors 2003;19:165-70. View abstract.
  8. Duntas LH, Mantzou E, Koutras DA. Effects of a six month treatment with selenomethionine in patients with autoimmune throiditis. Eur J Endocrinol 2003;148:389-93. View abstract.
  9. Rayman MP, Thompson AJ, Bekaert B, et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid function in the elderly in the United Kingdom. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:370-8. View abstract.
  10. Olivieri O, Girelli D, Azzini M, et al. Low selenium status in the elderly influences thyroid hormones. Clin Sci (Lond) 1995;89:637-42. View abstract.
  1. Reid SM, Middleton P, Cossich MC, Crowther CA. Interventions for clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;:CD007752. View abstract.
  2. Stranges S, Laclaustra M, Ji C, et al. Higher selenium status is associated with adverse blood lipid profile in British adults. J Nutr 2010;140:81-7. View abstract.
  3. Aldosary BM, Sutter ME, Schwartz M, Morgan BW. Case series of selenium toxicity from a nutritional supplement. Clin Toxicol 2012;50:57-64. View abstract.
  4. Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E. Serum selenium levels and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality amoung US adults. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:404-10. View abstract.
  5. Lippmann SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SELECT). JAMA 2009;301:39-51. View abstract.
  6. Sutter ME, Thomas JD, Brown J, Morgan B. Selenium toxicity: a case of selenosis caused by a nutritional supplement. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:970-1. View abstract.
  7. Stranges S, Marshall JR, Natarajan R, et al. Effects of long-term selenium supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med 2007;147:217-23. View abstract.
  8. Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E. Serum selenium and diabetes in U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 2007;30:829-34. View abstract.
  9. Rajpathak S, Rimm E, Morris JS, Hu F. Toenail selenium and cardiovascular disease in men with diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 2005;24:250-6. View abstract.
  10. Avenell A, Noble DW, Barr J, Engelhardt T. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;:CD003703. View abstract.
  11. Dennert G, Horneber M. Selenium for alleviating the side effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery in cancer patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;:CD005037. View abstract.
  12. Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Llabre MM, et al. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:148-54. View abstract.
  13. See KA, Lavercombe PS, Dillon J, Ginsberg R. Accidental death from acute selenium poisoning. Med J Aust 2006;185:388-9. View abstract.
  14. Ishikawa M, Sasaki M, Koiwai K, et al. Inhibition of hepatic mixed-function oxidase enzymes in mice by acute and chronic treatment with selenium. J Pharmacobiodyn 1992;15:377-85. View abstract.
  15. Debski B, Milner JA. Dietary selenium supplementation prolongs pentobarbital induced hypnosis. J Nutr Biochem 2004;15:548-53. View abstract.
  16. Vermeulen NP, Baldew GS, Los G, et al. Reduction of cisplatin nephrotoxicity by sodium selenite. Lack of interaction at the pharmacokinetic level of both compounds. Drug Metab Dispos 1993;21:30-6. View abstract.
  17. Baldew GS, Mol JG, de Kanter FJ, et al. The mechanism of interaction between cisplatin and selenite. Biochem Pharmacol 1991;41:1429-37. View abstract.
  18. Baldew GS, van den Hamer CJ, Los G, et al. Selenium-induced protection against cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) nephrotoxicity in mice and rats. Cancer Res 1989;49:3020-3. View abstract.
  19. Vernie LN, de Goeij JJ, Zegers C, et al. Cisplatin-induced changes of selenium levels and glutathione peroxidase activities in blood of testis tumor patients. Cancer Lett 1988;40:83-91. View abstract.
  20. Duffield AJ, Thomson CD, Hill KE, Williams S. An estimation of selenium requirements for New Zealanders. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:896-903. View abstract.
  21. Calomme MR, Vanderpas JB, Francois B, et al. Thyroid function parameters during a selenium repletion/depletion study in phenylketonuric subjects. Experientia 1995;51:1208-15. View abstract.
  22. Hofbauer LC, Spitzweg C, Magerstadt RA, Heufelder AE. Selenium-induced thyroid dysfunction. Postgrad Med J 1997;73:103-4. View abstract.
  23. Vanderpas JB, Contempre B, Duale NL, et al. Selenium deficiency mitigates hypothyroxinemia in iodine-deficient subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:271S-5S. View abstract.
  24. Contempre B, Dumont JE, Ngo B, et al. Effect of selenium supplementation in hypothyroid subjects of an iodine and selenium deficient area: the possible danger of indiscriminate supplementation of iodine-deficient subjects with selenium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:213-5. View abstract.
  25. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL. Are some major in vivo effects of gold related to microenvironments of decreased selenium? Med Hypotheses 1986;20:407-20. View abstract.
  26. Gregus Z, Gyurasics A, Csanaky I. Effects of arsenic-, platinum-, and gold-containing drugs on the disposition of exogenous selenium in rats. Toxicolog Sci 2000;57:22-31. View abstract.
  27. Capel ID, Jenner M, Williams DC, et al. The effect of prolonged oral contraceptive steroid use on erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity. J Steroid Biochem 1981;14:729-32. View abstract.
  28. Lloyd B, Lloyd RS, Clayton BE. Effect of smoking, alcohol and other factors on the selenium status of a healthy population. J Epidemiol Commun Health 1983;37:213-7. View abstract.
  29. Heese HD, Lawrence MA, Dempster WS, Pocock F. Reference concentrations of serum selenium and manganese in healthy nulliparas. S Afr Med J 1988;73:163-5. View abstract.
  30. Vaddadi KS, Soosai E, Vaddadi G. Low blood selenium concentrations in schizophrenic patients on clozapine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003;55:307-9. View abstract.
  31. Linday LA, Pippenger CE, Howard A, Lieberman JA. Free radical scavenging enzyme activity and related trace metals in clozapine-induced agranulocytosis: a pilot study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1995;15:353-60. View abstract.
  32. Davila JC, Edds GT, Osuna O, Simpson CF. Modification of the effects of aflatoxin B1 and warfarin in young pigs given selenium. Am J Vet Res 1983;44:1877-83. View abstract.
  33. Schiavon R, Freeman GE, Guidi GC, et al. Selenium enhances prostacyclin production by cultured endothelial cells: possible explanation for increased bleeding times in volunteers taking selenium as a dietary supplement. Thromb Res 1984;34:389-96. View abstract.
  34. Watanabe C, Kim CY, Satoh H. Tissue-specific modification of selenium concentration by acute and chronic dexamethasone administration in mice. Br J Nutr 1997;78:501-9. View abstract.
  35. Fenech AG, Ellul-Micallef R. Selenium, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in Maltese asthmatic patients: effect of glucocorticoid administration. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 1998;11:301-8. View abstract.
  36. Koskelo EK. Serum selenium in children during anti-cancer chemotherapy. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:799-802. View abstract.
  37. Marano G, Fischioni P, Graziano C, et al. Increased serum selenium levels in patients under corticosteroid treatment. Pharmacol Toxicol 1990;67:120-2. View abstract.
  38. Peretz A, Neve J, Vertongen F, et al. Selenium status in relation to clinical variables and corticosteroid treatment in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1987;14:1104-7. View abstract.
  39. Smith DK, Feldman EB, Feldman DS. Trace element status in multiple sclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:136-40. View abstract.
  40. Kurekci AE, Alpay F, Tanindi S, et al. Plasma trace element, plasma glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase levels in epileptic children receiving antiepileptic drug therapy. Epilepsia 1995;36:600-4. View abstract.
  41. Ip C. Interaction of vitamin C and selenium supplementation in the modification of mammary carcinogenesis in rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 1986;77:299-303. View abstract.
  42. Sieja K, Talerczyk M. Selenium as an element in the treatment of ovarian cancer in women receiving chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol 2004;93:320-7. View abstract.
  43. Sors TG, Ellis DR, Na GN, et al. Analysis of sulfur and selenium assimilation in Astragalus plants with varying capacities to accumulate selenium. Plant J 2005;42:785-97. View abstract.
  44. You WC, Brown LM, Zhang L, et al. Randomized double-blind factorial trial of three treatments to reduce the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:974-83. View abstract.
  45. Meyer F, Galan P, Douville P, et al. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplementation and prostate cancer prevention in the SU.VI.MAX trial. Int J Cancer 2005;116:182-6. View abstract.
  46. Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, et al. The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:2335-42. View abstract.
  47. Jordan JM, Fang F, Arab L, et al. Low selenium levels are associated with increased risk for osteoarthritis of the knee. American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting. San Diego November 12 - 17, 2005. Abstract 1189.
  48. Duffield-Lillico AJ, Dalkin BL, Reid ME, et al. Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. BJU Int 2003;91:608-12. View abstract.
  49. Taylor PR, Parnes HL, Lippman SM. Science peels the onion of selenium effects on prostate carcinogenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004;96:645-7. View abstract.
  50. Li H, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, et al. A prospective study of plasma selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004;96:696-703. View abstract.
  51. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2004;364:1219-28. View abstract.
  52. House WA, Welch RM. Bioavailability of and interactions between zinc and selenium in rats fed wheat grain intrinsically labeled with 65Zn and 75Se. J Nutr 1989;119:916-21. View abstract.
  53. Schrauzer GN. Anticarcinogenic effects of selenium. Cell Mol Life Sci 2000;57:1864-73. View abstract.
  54. Flodin NW. Micronutrient supplements: toxicity and drug interactions. Prog Food Nutr Sci 1990;14:277-331. View abstract.
  55. Venkateswaran V, Fleshner NE, Klotz LH. Synergistic effect of vitamin E and selenium in human prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2004;7:54-6. View abstract.
  56. Verrotti A, Basciani F, Trotta D, et al. Serum copper, zinc, selenium, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels in epileptic children before and after 1 year of sodium valproate and carbamazepine therapy. Epilepsy Res 2002;48:71-5. View abstract.
  57. Fatemi SH, Calabrese JR. Treatment of valproate-induced alopecia (letter). Ann Pharmacother 1995;29;1302. View abstract.
  58. Hurd RW, Van Rinsvelt HA, Wilder BJ, et al. Selenium, zinc, and copper changes with valproic acid: possible relation to drug side effects. Neurology 1984;34:1393-5. View abstract.
  59. Karagas MR, Greenberg ER, Nierenberg D, et al. Risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in relation to plasma selenium, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and retinol: a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997;6:25-9.. View abstract.
  60. Berger MM, Shenkin A, Revelly JP, et al. Copper, selenium, zinc, and thiamine balances during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration in critically ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:410-6. View abstract.
  61. Duffield-Lillico AJ, Slate EH, Reid ME, et al. Selenium supplementation and secondary prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer in a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1477-81.. View abstract.
  62. Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:2018-23.. View abstract.
  63. Dawson EB, Albers JH, McGanity WJ. The apparent effect of iron supplementation on serum selenium levels in teenage pregnancy. Biol Trace Elem Res 2000;77:209-17.. View abstract.
  64. Reid ME, Duffield-Lillico AJ, Garland L, et al. Selenium supplementation and lung cancer incidence: an update of the nutritional prevention of cancer trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:1285-91.. View abstract.
  65. Gartner R, Gasnier BC, Dietrich JW, et al. Selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis decreases thyroid peroxidase antibodies concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:1687-91.. View abstract.
  66. Bogye G, Alfthan G, Machay T. Bioavailability of enteral yeast-selenium in preterm infants. Biol Trace Elem Res 1998;65:143-51.. View abstract.
  67. Peretz A, Siderova V, Neve J. Selenium supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis investigated in a double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Rheumatol 2001;30:208-12.. View abstract.
  68. Robinson MF, Thomson CD, Jenkinson CP, et al Long-term supplementation with selenate and selenomethionine: urinary excretion by New Zealand women. Br J Nutr 1997;77:551-63.. View abstract.
  69. Van Dael P, Davidsson L, Munoz-Box R, et al. Selenium absorption and retention from a selenite- or selenate-fortified milk-based formula in men measured by a stable-isotope technique. Br J Nutr 2001;85:157-63.. View abstract.
  70. Rao CV, Wang CQ, Simi B, et al. Chemoprevention of colon cancer by a glutathione conjugate of 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate, a novel organoselenium compound with low toxicity. Cancer Res 2001;61:3647-52.. View abstract.
  71. Hawkes WC, Turek PJ. Effects of dietary selenium on sperm motility in healthy men. J Androl 2001;22:764-72.. View abstract.
  72. Beck MA, Nelson HK, Shi Q, et al. Selenium deficiency increases the pathology of an influenza virus infection. FASEB J 2001;15:1481-3. View abstract.
  73. Navarrete M, Gaudry A, Revel G, et al. Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer. Biol Trace Elem Res 2001;79:97-105.. View abstract.
  74. Milde D, Novak O, Stu ka V, et al. Serum levels of selenium, manganese, copper, and iron in colorectal cancer patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 2001;79:107-14.. View abstract.
  75. Berger MM, Reymond MJ, Shenkin A, et al. Influence of selenium supplements on the post-traumatic alterations of the thyroid axis: a placebo-controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:91-100.. View abstract.
  76. Sher L. Role of selenium depletion in the etiopathogenesis of depression in patient with alcoholism. Med Hypotheses 2002;59:330-3.. View abstract.
  77. Finley JW, Ip C, Lisk DJ, et al. Cancer-protective properties of high-selenium broccoli. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:2679-83.. View abstract.
  78. Duffield-Lillico AJ, Reid ME, et al. Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:630-9.. View abstract.
  79. Djujic IS, Jozanov-Stankov ON, Milovac M, et al. Bioavailability and possible benefits of wheat intake naturally enriched with selenium and its products. Biol Trace Elem Res 2000;77:273-85.. View abstract.
  80. Baeten JM, Mostad SB, Hughes MP, et al. Selenium deficiency is associated with shedding of HIV-1--infected cells in the female genital tract. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;26:360-4.. View abstract.
  81. Schrauzer GN, Sacher J. Selenium in the maintenance and therapy of HIV-infected patients. Chem Biol Interact 1994;91:199-205.. View abstract.
  82. Combs GF Jr. Selenium in global food systems. Br J Nutr 2001;85:517-47.. View abstract.
  83. Thomson CD, Robinson MF. Urinary and fecal excretions and absorption of a large supplement of selenium: superiority of selenate over selenite. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;44:659-63.. View abstract.
  84. Dias MF, Sousa E, Cabrita S, et al. Chemoprevention of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats by a combined regimen of alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and ascorbic Acid. Breast J 2000;6:14-19.. View abstract.
  85. Brooks JD, Metter EJ, Chan DW, et al. Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development. J Urol 2001;166:2034-8.. View abstract.
  86. Nomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN, Combs GF. Serum selenium and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:883-7.. View abstract.
  87. Yoshizawa K, Willett WC, Morris SJ, et al. Study of prediagnostic selenium level in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1219-24.. View abstract.
  88. Shen CL, Song W, Pence BC. Interactions of selenium compounds with other antioxidants in DNA damage and apoptosis in human normal keratinocytes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10:385-90. View abstract.
  89. Ustundag Y, Boyacioglu S, Haberal A, et al. Plasma and gastric tissue selenium levels in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. J Clin Gastroenterol 2001;32:405-8. View abstract.
  90. Zapletal C, Heyne S, Golling M, et al. Influence of selenium therapy on liver microcirculation after warm ischemia/reperfusion: an intravital microscopy study. Transplant Proc 2001;33:974-5. View abstract.
  91. Trafikowska U, Zachara BA, Wiacek M, et al. Selenium supply and glutathione peroxidase activity in breastfed Polish infants. Acta Paediatr 1996;85:1143-5. View abstract.
  92. King JC. Effect of reproduction on the bioavailability of calcium, zinc and selenium. J Nutr 2001;131:1355S-8S. View abstract.
  93. Schrauzer GN. Nutritional selenium supplements: product types, quality, and safety. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:1-4. View abstract.
  94. Bogye G, Alfthan G, Machay T, Zubovics L. Enteral yeast-selenium supplementation in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998;78:F225-6. View abstract.
  95. Schrauzer GN. Selenomethionine: a review of its nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicity. J Nutr 2000;130:1653-6. View abstract.
  96. Finley JW, Davis CD, Feng Y. Selenium from high selenium broccoli protects rats from colon cancer. J Nutr 2000;130:2384-9. View abstract.
  97. Shiobara Y, Yoshida T, Suzuki KT. Effects of dietary selenium species on Se concentrations in hair, blood, and urine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1998;152:309-14. View abstract.
  98. Wuyi W, Linsheng Y, Shaofan H, et al. Prevention of endemic arsenism with selenium. Curr Sci 2001;81:1215-8.
  99. Constans J, Delmas-Beauvieux MC, Sergeant C, et al. One-year antioxidant supplementation with beta-carotene or selenium for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a pilot study. Clin Infect Dis 1996;23:654-6. View abstract.
  100. Baum MK, Miguez-Burbano MJ, Campa A, Shor-Posner G. Selenium and interleukins in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis 2000;182 Suppl 1:S69-73. View abstract.
  101. Liu S, Shia D, Liu G, et al. Roles of Se and NO in apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Life Sci 2000;68:603-10. View abstract.
  102. Stewart MS, Spallholz JE, Neldner KH, Pence BC. Selenium compounds have disparate abilities to impose oxidative stress and induce apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;26:42-8. View abstract.
  103. Fleshner NE, Kucuk O. Antioxidant dietary supplements: Rationale and current status as chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Urology 2001;57:90-4. View abstract.
  104. El-Bayoumy K. The protective role of selenium on genetic damage and on cancer. Mutat Res 2001;475:123-39. View abstract.
  105. Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1583-93. View abstract.
  106. Wen HY, Davis RL, Shi B, et al. Bioavailability of selenium from veal, chicken, beef, lamb, flounder, tuna, selenomethionine, and sodium selenite assessed in selenium-deficient rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 1997;58:43–53. View abstract.
  107. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at:
  108. Vinceti M, Rothman KJ, Bergomi KJ, et al. Excess melanoma incidence in a cohort exposed to high levels of environmental selenium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998;7:853-6. View abstract.
  109. Rayman MP. The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 2000;356:233-41. View abstract.
  110. Neve J. Selenium as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996;3:42-7. View abstract.
  111. Mark SD, Wang W, Fraumeni JF Jr, et al. Do nutritional supplements lower the risk of stroke or hypertension? Epidemiology 1998;9:9-15. View abstract.
  112. Koller LD, Exon JH. The two faces of selenium-deficiency and toxicity--are similar in animals and man. Can J Vet Res 1986;50:297-306. View abstract.
  113. Clark LC, Dalkin B, Krongrad A, et al. Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double-blind cancer prevention trial. Br J Urol 1998;81:730-4. View abstract.
  114. Clark LC, Combs GF Jr, Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1996;276:1957-63. View abstract.
  115. Chan S, Gerson B, Subramaniam S. The role of copper, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc in nutrition and health. Clin Lab Med 1998;18:673-85. View abstract.
  116. Aaseth J, Haugen M, Forre O. Rheumatoid arthritis and metal compounds-perspectives on the role of oxygen radical detoxification. Analyst 1998;123:3-6. View abstract.
  117. Krizek M, Senft V, Motan J. Influence of hemodialysis on selenium blood levels. Sb Lek 2000;101:241-8.. View abstract.
  118. Neve J. New approaches to assess selenium status and requirement. Nutr Rev 2000;58:363-9.. View abstract.
  119. Arnaud J, Malvy D, Richard MJ, et al. Selenium status in an iodine deficient population of the West Ivory Coast. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 2001;20:81-4.. View abstract.
  120. Wasowicz W, Gromadzinska J, Szram K, et al. Selenium, zinc, and copper concentrations in the blood and milk of lactating women. Biol Trace Elem Res 2001;79:221-33.. View abstract.
  121. Ellenhorn MJ, et al. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnoses and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1997.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 08/21/2014

Page last updated: 08 September 2014