Skip navigation

Selenium


What is it?

Selenium is a mineral. It is taken into the body in water and foods. People use it for medicine.

Most of the selenium in the body comes from the diet. The amount of selenium in food depends on where it is grown or raised. Crab, liver, fish, poultry, and wheat are generally good selenium sources. The amount of selenium in soils varies a lot around the world, which means that the foods grown in these soils also have differing selenium levels. In the U.S., the Eastern Coastal Plain and the Pacific Northwest have the lowest selenium levels. People in these regions naturally take in about 60 to 90 mcg of selenium per day from their diet. Although this amount of selenium is adequate, it is below the average daily intake in the U.S., which is 125 mcg.

Selenium is used for diseases of the heart and blood vessels, including stroke and “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis). It is also used for preventing various cancers including cancer of the prostate, stomach, lung, and skin.

Some people use selenium for under-active thyroid, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an eye disease called macular degeneration, hay fever, infertility, cataracts, gray hair, abnormal pap smears, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), mood disorders, arsenic poisoning, and preventing miscarriage.

Selenium is also used for preventing serious complications and death from critical illnesses such as head injury and burns. It is also used for preventing bird flu, treating HIV/AIDS, and reducing side effects from cancer chemotherapy.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for SELENIUM are as follows:

Likely effective for...

  • Selenium deficiency. Taking selenium by mouth is effective for preventing selenium deficiency.

Possibly effective for...

  • Autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis). Research shows that taking 200 mcg of selenium daily along with thyroid hormone might decrease antibodies in the body that contribute to this condition. Selenium might also help improve mood and general feelings of well-being in people with this condition.
  • Abnormal cholesterol levels. Some research shows that taking a 100-200 mcg of a specific selenium supplement (SelenoPrecise, Pharma Nord, Denmark) daily for 6 months can modestly reduce cholesterol levels. Many people in this study had low levels of selenium in their body before the start of the study. It is not clear if taking extra selenium would have any benefit on cholesterol levels in people with normal selenium levels in the body.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Asthma. Research suggests that there is no link between selenium blood levels and asthma. Additionally, research suggests that taking 100 mcg of selenium daily for up to 24 weeks does not improve quality of life, lung function, asthma symptoms, or inhaler use in people with asthma.
  • Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Research suggests that taking yeast that is enriched with 600 mcg of selenium daily for 12 weeks, alone or together with vitamin E, does not improve the severity of eczema.
  • Heart disease. Taking 100 mcg of selenium in combination with beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E does not seem to prevent heart disease from becoming worse. Also, taking 200 mcg of selenium daily for almost 8 years does not reduce the risk of developing heart disease.
  • Neurotoxicity caused by chemotherapy drugs. Early research suggests that taking vitamins C and E with selenium does not prevent neurotoxicity or hearing loss caused by the chemotherapy drug cisplatin.
  • Critical illness (burns, head injury, trauma). Giving 500-1000 mcg of selenium intravenously (by IV) or 300 mg of selenium (ebselen) by mouth daily to critically ill people does not seem to reduce the risk of death or infection.
  • Diabetes. Some research shows that people with low selenium levels have a higher chance of developing type 2 diabetes. However, other research shows that people who have high levels of selenium also have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Additionally, the most reliable research shows that people who take 200 mcg of selenium daily for about 7.7 years have an increased chance of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Hepatitis. Research shows that taking 200 mcg of selenium along with vitamin C and vitamin E for 6 months does not improve liver function or virus levels in people with hepatitis C.
  • Infertility. Research suggests that taking 100-200 mcg of selenium daily, alone or together with vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E, for 3-4 months, does not improve sperm function in infertile men.
  • Low birth weight. Daily selenium supplementation, 7 mcg/kg by mouth or 5 mcg/kg intravenously (by IV), does not appear to improve health in low birth weight infants.
  • Lung cancer. Increasing selenium intake, either alone or along with vitamin E and beta-carotene, does not seem to lower the risk of getting lung cancer, except possibly in people who have lower than normal levels of selenium (selenium deficiency). Even in this group, the risk reduction is small.
  • Prostate cancer. There has been a lot of interest in studying whether taking selenium lowers the chance of getting prostate cancer. The interest was triggered by the observation that prostate cancer seems to be less common in men with higher selenium levels in their bodies. To date, there have been several large, long-term scientific studies. The majority of this evidence suggests that selenium does not reduce the chance of getting prostate cancer.
  • Red and irritated skin (psoriasis). Research suggests that taking yeast enriched with 600 mcg of selenium daily does not reduce the severity of psoriasis.
  • Skin cancer. Taking 200 mcg of selenium does not seem to reduce the risk of getting a certain type of skin cancer called basal cell carcinoma. In fact, some scientific evidence suggests that taking extra selenium might actually increase the risk of getting another type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Alcohol-related liver disease. Evidence shows that taking 200 mcg of selenium along with zinc and vitamin E daily can reduce the amount of time spent in the hospital and the risk of death in people with alcohol-related liver disease.
  • Arsenic poisoning. Yeast enriched with selenium seems to decrease how much arsenic the body absorbs in Chinese people exposed to high levels of arsenic in the environment.
  • Burns. Evidence suggests that taking 315-380 mcg of selenium along with copper and zinc daily can reduce the risk of pneumonia in people being treated in the hospital for burns. Other research suggests that this same combination might reduce the amount of time spent in the hospital but does not affect wound healing
  • Cancer. Some research shows that taking 400 mcg of selenium daily for 2 years or 100 mcg of selenium along with zinc, vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene daily for 7.5 years does not reduce the risk of developing cancer. However, other research suggests taking selenium might reduce the risk of cancer-related death. Additionally, when subdivided by gender, some research shows that selenium might reduce the risk of cancer in men only, while selenium plus allitridum might decrease the risk of cancer in women only.
  • Colon and rectal cancer. Evidence is conflicting about the effect of selenium on colon and rectal cancer. A population study suggests that low selenium blood levels are not linked with an increased risk of developing colon and rectal cancer. Some research suggests that taking selenium, alone or with antioxidants, might reduce the risk of colon and rectal cancer or precancerous sores. However, other research suggests that selenium has no effect.
  • Esophageal cancer. Taking selenium supplements does not seem to lower the risk of esophageal cancer.
  • Stomach cancer. Taking selenium in combination with vitamin C and vitamin E for about 7 years does not seem to reduce the risk of developing precancerous stomach sores.
  • HIV/AIDS. There is contradictory evidence about the effect of selenium supplements on HIV. Some evidence shows that taking selenium daily for up to 2 years can slow how quickly HIV spreads and can increase immune function. However, other early research shows that selenium has no effect.
  • Low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism). Some research shows that taking a selenium supplement might increase the conversion of thyroid hormones in older people. However, other research suggests that it has no benefit. Taking selenium can make hypothyroidism worse in people who are iodine deficient.
  • Stroke. Some research suggests that administering selenium (ebselen) within 24 hours of a stroke improves recovery.
  • Bone and joint disease (Kashin-Beck disease). Selenium does not seem to improve joint pain or movement in children with Kashin-Beck disease.
  • Liver cancer. Early research in China suggests that taking selenium for 2-5 years can reduce the occurrence of liver cancer. It is unclear if taking selenium will reduce the risk of liver cancer in Western countries.
  • Muscular dystrophy. Early research suggests that taking a water-soluble form of selenium daily for 6 months does not benefit people with muscular dystrophy.
  • Arthritis (osteoarthritis). Low selenium levels seem to be linked with an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis. However, it is not known if selenium supplements can prevent osteoarthritis.
  • Ovarian cancer. Research suggests that there is no link between selenium consumption in the diet and the risk for ovarian cancer.
  • Overall risk of death. Some research suggests that taking 100 mcg of selenium along with zinc, vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene daily for 7.5 years might lower the risk of death from any cause in men, but not women. Other research suggests that selenium, taken alone or with other nutrients, does not reduce the risk of death.
  • Pancreatitis. Evidence is conflicting about the effect of selenium on pancreatitis. Some research suggests that selenium has no benefit. However, other research suggests that taking a water-soluble form of selenium daily might reduce the risk of death caused by severe pancreatitis.
  • Swelling in the arms and legs after surgery. Early evidence suggests that taking selenium supplements for 15 weeks might prevent bacterial skin infections in women with swelling in the arms and legs after breast cancer surgery.
  • High blood pressure caused by pregnancy. Research suggests that taking 100 mcg of selenium liquid daily for 6-8 weeks during pregnancy can reduce the occurrence of high blood pressure.
  • Destruction of the bile ducts in the liver (primary biliary cirrhosis). Taking selenium with vitamin A, vitamin C, methionine, and coenzyme Q10 for 12 weeks does not seem to improve fatigue or other symptoms in people with primary biliary cirrhosis.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Evidence on the effects of selenium on rheumatoid arthritis is inconsistent. Some research suggests that taking yeast enriched with 200 mcg of selenium does not improve RA. However, other research suggests that taking 200 mcg of selenium daily for 3 months reduces joint swelling, tenderness, and stiffness in people with RA.
  • Sepsis. Some research suggests that administering selenium alone or with other antioxidants might reduce the risk of death caused by severe sepsis. However, other research suggests that administering selenium with L-arginine, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E, beta carotene, and zinc may increase the risk of death in people with sepsis.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). Early research suggests that taking selenium with fish oil, natural sweeteners, gum arabic, vitamin E, and vitamin C does not benefit people with an inflammatory bowel disease called ulcerative colitis. However, taking this same combination does seem to reduce the need for medications.
  • Atherosclerosis.
  • Macular degeneration (eye disease).
  • Hay fever.
  • Gray hair.
  • Mood disorders.
  • Chemotherapy side effects.
  • Abnormal pap smears.
  • Cataracts.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Bird flu.
  • Preventing miscarriage.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate selenium for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
Selenium is important for making many body processes work correctly. It seems to increase the action of antioxidants.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
Selenium is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in doses less than 400 mcg daily, short-term.

Selenium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses or for long-term. Taking doses above 400 mcg can increase the risk of developing selenium toxicity. Taking lower doses long-term can increase the risk of developing diabetes. High doses of selenium can cause significant side effects including nausea, vomiting, nail changes, loss of energy, and irritability. Poisoning from long-term use is similar to arsenic poisoning, with symptoms including hair loss, white horizontal streaking on fingernails, nail inflammation, fatigue, irritability, nausea, vomiting, garlic breath odor, and a metallic taste.

Selenium can also cause muscle tenderness, tremor, lightheadedness, facial flushing, blood clotting problems, liver and kidney problems, and other side effects.

Special precautions & warnings:

Children: Selenium is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. Selenium seems to be safe when used in the short-term in doses below 45 mcg daily for infants up to age 6 months, 60 mcg daily for infants 7 to 12 months, 90 mcg daily for children 1 to 3 years, 150 mcg daily for children 4 to 8 years, 280 mcg daily for children 9 to 13 years, and 400 mcg daily for children age 14 years and older.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Selenium use is POSSIBLY SAFE during pregnancy and breast-feeding when used short-term in amounts that are not above 400 mcg daily. Selenium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE in pregnancy and breastfeeding when taking by mouth in doses above 400 mcg daily, as this might cause toxicity.

Autoimmune diseases: Selenium might stimulate the immune system. In theory, selenium might make autoimmune disease worse by stimulating the activity of the disease. People with autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and other should avoid taking selenium supplements.

Hemodialysis: Blood levels of selenium can be low in people undergoing hemodialysis. Using a dialysis solution with selenium might increase selenium levels, but selenium supplementation might be needed for some people.

Fertility problems in men: Selenium might decrease the ability of sperm to move, which could reduce fertility. If you are trying to father a child, don’t take selenium supplements.

Skin cancer: Long-term use of selenium supplements might slightly increase the risk of skin cancer recurrence, but this is controversial. Until more is known about the possible increase in skin cancer risk, avoid long-term use of selenium supplements if you have ever had skin cancer.

Under-active thyroid (hypothyroidism): Taking selenium can worsen hypothyroidism especially in people with iodine deficiency. In this case, you should take iodine along with selenium. Check with your healthcare provider.

Surgery: Selenium might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop taking selenium at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top

Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)
Selenium might stimulate the immune system. By stimulating the immune system, selenium might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.

Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), and other corticosteroids (glucocorticoids).

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Selenium might slow blood clotting. Taking selenium along with medications that also slow blood clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Medications used for lowering cholesterol (Statins)
Taking selenium, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E together might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol. It is not known if selenium alone decreases the effectiveness of medications used for lowering cholesterol.

Some medications used for lowering cholesterol include atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), and pravastatin (Pravachol).

Niacin
Taking selenium along with vitamin E, vitamin C, and beta-carotene might decrease some of the beneficial effects of niacin. Niacin can increase levels of good cholesterol. Taking selenium along with these other vitamins might decrease how well niacin works for increasing good cholesterol.

Sedative medications (Barbiturates)
The body breaks down medications to get rid of them. Selenium might slow how fast the body breaks down sedative medications (barbiturates). Taking selenium with these medications might increase the effects and side effects of these medications.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Selenium might thin the blood. Selenium might also increase the effects of warfarin in the body. Taking selenium along with warfarin might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Minor

Be watchful with this combination.

Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)
Some research shows that women who take birth control pills might have increased blood levels of selenium. However, other research shows no change in selenium levels in women who take birth control pills. There isn't enough information to know if there is an important interaction between birth control pills and selenium.

Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.

Gold salts
Gold salts bind to selenium and decrease selenium in parts of the body. This might decrease the normal activity of selenium, possibly resulting in symptoms of selenium deficiency.

Gold salts include aurothioglucose (Solganal), gold sodium thiomalate (Aurolate), and auranofin (Ridaura).

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Astragalus
Some species of astragalus accumulate large amounts of selenium, especially when grown in selenium-rich soils. Taking products made from these plants along with selenium supplements could cause selenium poisoning. However, most astragalus supplements contain Astragalus membranaceus, which is not a selenium accumulator.

Copper
Selenium might increase how quickly the body processes removes copper. In theory, taking selenium might reduce copper levels in the body.

Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Using selenium with other herbs that can slow blood clotting might increase the risk of bleeding in some people. These other herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.

Omega-3 fatty acids
Taking selenium with omega-3 fatty acids might reduce how much selenium the body absorbs.

Vitamin C
Taking vitamin C might affect how much selenium the body absorbs from some supplements. However, it is unlikely that this potential interaction is a big concern.

Zinc
Zinc might make it more difficult for the body to absorb selenium from food.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:
  • Autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis): 200 mcg daily.
  • High cholesterol: 100-200 mcg daily of a specific selenium product (SelenoPrecise, Pharma Nord, Denmark).
The daily recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of selenium are:
  • Children 1-3 years, 20 mcg; children 4-8 years, 30 mcg; children 9-13 years, 40 mcg;
  • People over 13 years, 55 mcg;
  • Pregnant women, 60 mcg; and lactating women, 70 mcg. Due to the demands of the fetus on the mother, the dietary need for selenium increases during pregnancy.
  • The RDA for infants has not been determined. For infants up to 6 months old, 2.1 mcg/kg is adequate intake (AI). The AI for infants 7-12 months is 2.2 mcg/kg per day.
The tolerable upper limit is:
  • Adults, 400 mcg per day for adults and adolescents 14 years and older.
  • The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for infants up to age 6 months is 45 mcg per day;
  • Infants 7 to 12 months, 60 mcg per day;
  • Children 1 to 3 years, 90 mcg per day;
  • Children 4 to 8 years, 150 mcg per day;
  • Children 9 to 13 years, 280 mcg per day.

Other names

Return to top
Atomic number 34, Dioxyde de Sélénium, Ebselen, L-Selenomethionine, L-Sélénométhionine, Levure Sélénisée, Numéro Atomique 34, Se, Selenio, Selenite, Sélénite de Sodium, Sélénium, Selenium Ascorbate, Selenium Dioxide, Selenized Yeast, Selenomethionine, Sélénométhionine, Sodium Selenite.

Methodology

Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (//www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

Return to top
To see all references for the Selenium page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/1003.html.

  1. Bonelli, L., Camoriano, A., Ravelli, P., Missale, G., Bruzzi, P., and Aste, H. Reduction of the incidence of metachronous adenomas of the large bowel by means of antioxidants. Proceedings of International Selenium Tellurium Development Association 1998;91-94.
  2. Srivastava, K. C. Ascorbic acid enhances the formation of prostaglandin E1 in washed human platelets and prostacyclin in rat aortic rings. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 1985;18:227-233.
  3. Stevic, Z., Nicolic, A., and Blagojevic, D. A controlled trial of combination of methionine and antioxidants in ALS patients. Jugoslovenska Medicinska Biohemija 2011;20:223-228.
  4. Zima, T., Mestek, O., Nemecek, K., Bartova, V., Fialova, J., Tesar, V., and Suchanek, M. Trace elements in hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Blood Purif. 1998;16:253-260. View abstract.
  5. Liu, X., Yin, S., and Li, G. [Effects of selenium supplement on acute lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1997;31:358-361. View abstract.
  6. Apostolski, S., Marinkovic, Z., Nikolic, A., Blagojevic, D., Spasic, M. B., and Michelson, A. M. Glutathione peroxidase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the effects of selenium supplementation. J Environ.Pathol.Toxicol.Oncol. 1998;17(3-4):325-329. View abstract.
  7. Sieja, K. Selenium (Se) deficiency in women with ovarian cancer undergoing chemotherapy and the influence of supplementation with this micro-element on biochemical parameters. Pharmazie 1998;53:473-476. View abstract.
  8. Bogye, G., Alfthan, G., and Machay, T. Randomized clinical trial of enteral yeast-selenium supplementation in preterm infants. Biofactors 1998;8(1-2):139-142. View abstract.
  9. Scott, R., MacPherson, A., Yates, R. W., Hussain, B., and Dixon, J. The effect of oral selenium supplementation on human sperm motility. Br.J Urol. 1998;82:76-80. View abstract.
  10. Gail, M. H., You, W. C., Chang, Y. S., Zhang, L., Blot, W. J., Brown, L. M., Groves, F. D., Heinrich, J. P., Hu, J., Jin, M. L., Li, J. Y., Liu, W. D., Ma, J. L., Mark, S. D., Rabkin, C. S., Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., and Xu, G. W. Factorial trial of three interventions to reduce the progression of precancerous gastric lesions in Shandong, China: design issues and initial data. Control Clin.Trials 1998;19:352-369. View abstract.
  1. Pakdaman, A. Symptomatic treatment of brain tumor patients with sodium selenite, oxygen, and other supportive measures. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1998;62(1-2):1-6. View abstract.
  2. Persson-Moschos, M., Alfthan, G., and Akesson, B. Plasma selenoprotein P levels of healthy males in different selenium status after oral supplementation with different forms of selenium. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 1998;52:363-367. View abstract.
  3. Saito, I., Asano, T., Sano, K., Takakura, K., Abe, H., Yoshimoto, T., Kikuchi, H., Ohta, T., and Ishibashi, S. Neuroprotective effect of an antioxidant, ebselen, in patients with delayed neurological deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 1998;42:269-277. View abstract.
  4. Favier, M. and Hininger, I. [Trace elements: zinc, copper, selenium, chromium. Consequences of a deficiency, of excessive trace elements, and value of systematic supplementation]. J Gynecol.Obstet.Biol.Reprod.(Paris) 1997;26(3 Suppl):109-114. View abstract.
  5. Yamaguchi, T., Sano, K., Takakura, K., Saito, I., Shinohara, Y., Asano, T., and Yasuhara, H. Ebselen in acute ischemic stroke: a placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Ebselen Study Group. Stroke 1998;29:12-17. View abstract.
  6. Galan, P., Preziosi, P., Monget, A. L., Richard, M. J., Arnaud, J., Lesourd, B., Girodon, F., Alferez, M. J., Bourgeois, C., Keller, H., Favier, A., and Hercberg, S. Effects of trace element and/or vitamin supplementation on vitamin and mineral status, free radical metabolism and immunological markers in elderly long term-hospitalized subjects. Geriatric Network MIN. VIT. AOX. Int J Vitam.Nutr.Res. 1997;67:450-460. View abstract.
  7. Johnson, M. A. and Porter, K. H. Micronutrient supplementation and infection in institutionalized elders. Nutr Rev. 1997;55(11 Pt 1):400-404. View abstract.
  8. Zimmermann, T., Albrecht, S., Kuhne, H., Vogelsang, U., Grutzmann, R., and Kopprasch, S. [Selenium administration in patients with sepsis syndrome. A prospective randomized study]. Med Klin 9-15-1997;92 Suppl 3:3-4. View abstract.
  9. Heinle, K., Adam, A., Gradl, M., Wiseman, M., and Adam, O. [Selenium concentration in erythrocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical and laboratory chemistry infection markers during administration of selenium]. Med Klin 9-15-1997;92 Suppl 3:29-31. View abstract.
  10. Powis, G., Gasdaska, J. R., Gasdaska, P. Y., Berggren, M., Kirkpatrick, D. L., Engman, L., Cotgreave, I. A., Angulo, M., and Baker, A. Selenium and the thioredoxin redox system: effects on cell growth and death. Oncol.Res. 1997;9(6-7):303-312. View abstract.
  11. Meltzer, H. M., Folmer, M., Wang, S., Lie, O., Maage, A., Mundal, H. H., and Ydersbond, T. A. Supplementary selenium influences the response to fatty acid-induced oxidative stress in humans. Biol Trace Elem Res 1997;60(1-2):51-68. View abstract.
  12. Combs, G. F., Jr., Clark, L. C., and Turnbull, B. W. Reduction of cancer mortality and incidence by selenium supplementation. Med Klin 9-15-1997;92 Suppl 3:42-45. View abstract.
  13. Xu, G. L., Wang, S. C., Gu, B. Q., Yang, Y. X., Song, H. B., Xue, W. L., Liang, W. S., and Zhang, P. Y. Further investigation on the role of selenium deficiency in the aetiology and pathogenesis of Keshan disease. Biomed.Environ.Sci 1997;10(2-3):316-326. View abstract.
  14. Combs, G. F., Jr., Clark, L. C., and Turnbull, B. W. Reduction of cancer risk with an oral supplement of selenium. Biomed.Environ Sci 1997;10(2-3):227-234. View abstract.
  15. Gasmi, A., Garnier, R., Galliot-Guilley, M., Gaudillat, C., Quartenoud, B., Buisine, A., and Djebbar, D. Acute selenium poisoning. Vet Hum Toxicol 1997;39:304-308. View abstract.
  16. Engel, J. M., Menges, T., Neuhauser, C., Schaefer, B., and Hempelmann, G. [Effects of various feeding regimens in multiple trauma patients on septic complications and immune parameters]. Anasthesiol.Intensivmed.Notfallmed.Schmerzther. 1997;32:234-239. View abstract.
  17. Girodon, F., Blache, D., Monget, A. L., Lombart, M., Brunet-Lecompte, P., Arnaud, J., Richard, M. J., and Galan, P. Effect of a two-year supplementation with low doses of antioxidant vitamins and/or minerals in elderly subjects on levels of nutrients and antioxidant defense parameters. J Am.Coll.Nutr. 1997;16:357-365. View abstract.
  18. Hathcock, J. N. Vitamins and minerals: efficacy and safety. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1997;66:427-437. View abstract.
  19. Margaritis, I., Tessier, F., Prou, E., Marconnet, P., and Marini, J. F. Effects of endurance training on skeletal muscle oxidative capacities with and without selenium supplementation. J Trace Elem.Med Biol. 1997;11:37-43. View abstract.
  20. Zamora, A. J., Tessier, F., Marconnet, P., Margaritis, I., and Marini, J. F. Mitochondria changes in human muscle after prolonged exercise, endurance training and selenium supplementation. Eur.J Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1995;71:505-511. View abstract.
  21. Monget, A. L., Richard, M. J., Cournot, M. P., Arnaud, J., Galan, P., Preziosi, P., Herbeth, B., Favier, A., and Hercberg, S. Effect of 6 month supplementation with different combinations of an association of antioxidant nutrients on biochemical parameters and markers of the antioxidant defence system in the elderly. The Geriatrie/Min.Vit.Aox Network. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 1996;50:443-449. View abstract.
  22. Tortajada, J., Lopez Andreu, J. A., Benedito Monleon, M. C., and Castell, J. [The pediatrician and cancer prevention. Dietetic factors and smoking]. An.Esp.Pediatr. 1996;45:6-13. View abstract.
  23. Yagi, M., Tani, T., Hashimoto, T., Shimizu, K., Nagakawa, T., Miwa, K., and Miyazaki, I. Four cases of selenium deficiency in postoperative long-term enteral nutrition. Nutrition 1996;12:40-43. View abstract.
  24. Neve, J. Human selenium supplementation as assessed by changes in blood selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. J Trace Elem Med Biol 1995;9:65-73. View abstract.
  25. Badmaev, V., Majeed, M., and Passwater, R. A. Selenium: a quest for better understanding. Altern.Ther Health Med 1996;2:59-7. View abstract.
  26. Daniels, L., Gibson, R., and Simmer, K. Randomised clinical trial of parenteral selenium supplementation in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1996;74:F158-F164. View abstract.
  27. Mi, Y. Y., Hu, Y. J., and Zhou, M. Z. [Study of relationship between level of serum selenium and syndrome differentiation and typing of traditional Chinese medicine in lung cancer]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1995;15:658-660. View abstract.
  28. Bogye, G. and Tompos, G. [Endemic iodine deficiency in Hungary and possibilities of iodine substitution]. Orv.Hetil. 2-11-1996;137:287-290. View abstract.
  29. Delmas-Beauvieux, M. C., Peuchant, E., Couchouron, A., Constans, J., Sergeant, C., Simonoff, M., Pellegrin, J. L., Leng, B., Conri, C., and Clerc, M. The enzymatic antioxidant system in blood and glutathione status in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients: effects of supplementation with selenium or beta-carotene. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1996;64:101-107. View abstract.
  30. Srivastava, A. K., Gupta, B. N., Bihari, V., and Gaur, J. S. Generalized hair loss and selenium exposure. Vet.Hum.Toxicol. 1995;37:468-469. View abstract.
  31. Rannem, T., Ladefoged, K., Hylander, E., Christiansen, J., Laursen, H., Kristensen, J. H., Linstow, M., Beyer, N., Liguori, R., Dige-Petersen, H., and . The effect of selenium supplementation on skeletal and cardiac muscle in selenium-depleted patients. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1995;19:351-355. View abstract.
  32. Iwanier, K. and Zachara, B. A. Selenium supplementation enhances the element concentration in blood and seminal fluid but does not change the spermatozoal quality characteristics in subfertile men. J Androl 1995;16:441-447. View abstract.
  33. Bonomini, M., Forster, S., De Risio, F., Rychly, J., Nebe, B., Manfrini, V., Klinkmann, H., and Albertazzi, A. Effects of selenium supplementation on immune parameters in chronic uraemic patients on haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial.Transplant 1995;10:1654-1661. View abstract.
  34. Celerier, P., Richard, A., Litoux, P., and Dreno, B. Modulatory effects of selenium and strontium salts on keratinocyte-derived inflammatory cytokines. Arch.Dermatol.Res. 1995;287:680-682. View abstract.
  35. Hasselmark, L., Malmgren, R., Zetterstrom, O., and Unge, G. Selenium supplementation in intrinsic asthma. Allergy 1993;48:30-36. View abstract.
  36. Marcus, R. W. Myopathy and cardiomyopathy associated with selenium deficiency: case report, literature review, and hypothesis. Md Med J 1993;42:669-674. View abstract.
  37. Levy, J. B., Jones, H. W., and Gordon, A. C. Selenium deficiency, reversible cardiomyopathy and short-term intravenous feeding. Postgrad.Med J 1994;70:235-236. View abstract.
  38. Bunker, V. W., Stansfield, M. F., Deacon-Smith, R., Marzil, R. A., Hounslow, A., and Clayton, B. E. Dietary supplementation and immunocompetence in housebound elderly subjects. Br.J Biomed.Sci 1994;51:128-135. View abstract.
  39. Nyyssonen, K., Porkkala, E., Salonen, R., Korpela, H., and Salonen, J. T. Increase in oxidation resistance of atherogenic serum lipoproteins following antioxidant supplementation: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur.J Clin Nutr 1994;48:633-642. View abstract.
  40. Berger, M. M., Cavadini, C., Chiolero, R., Guinchard, S., Krupp, S., and Dirren, H. Influence of large intakes of trace elements on recovery after major burns. Nutrition 1994;10:327-334. View abstract.
  41. Mundal, H. H., Meltzer, H. M., and Aursnes, I. Bleeding times related to serum triglyceride levels in healthy young adults. Thromb.Res. 8-1-1994;75:285-291. View abstract.
  42. Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L., Roy, M., Wishe, H. I., Cohen, M. W., and Stotzky, G. Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. II. Effect on cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1994;41(1-2):115-127. View abstract.
  43. Roy, M., Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L., Wishe, H. I., Cohen, M. W., and Stotzky, G. Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. I. Effect on lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin 2 receptor expression. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1994;41(1-2):103-114. View abstract.
  44. Han, L. and Zhou, S. M. Selenium supplement in the prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension. Chin Med J (Engl) 1994;107:870-871. View abstract.
  45. Tessier, F., Hida, H., Favier, A., and Marconnet, P. Muscle GSH-Px activity after prolonged exercise, training, and selenium supplementation. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1995;47(1-3):279-285. View abstract.
  46. Van, Gossum A. and Neve, J. Low selenium status in alcoholic cirrhosis is correlated with aminopyrine breath test. Preliminary effects of selenium supplementation. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1995;47(1-3):201-207. View abstract.
  47. Portal, B., Richard, M. J., Coudray, C., Arnaud, J., and Favier, A. Effect of double-blind cross-over selenium supplementation on lipid peroxidation markers in cystic fibrosis patients. Clin.Chim.Acta 1-31-1995;234(1-2):137-146. View abstract.
  48. Kelloff, G. J., Boone, C. W., Steele, V. E., Fay, J. R., Lubet, R. A., Crowell, J. A., and Sigman, C. C. Mechanistic considerations in chemopreventive drug development. J Cell Biochem.Suppl 1994;20:1-24. View abstract.
  49. Meltzer, H. M. and Haug, E. Oral intake of selenium has no effect on the serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 3 in healthy women. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1995;33:411-415. View abstract.
  50. Collipp, P. J. and Chen, S. Y. Cardiomyopathy and selenium deficiency in a two-year-old girl. N.Engl.J Med 5-21-1981;304:1304-1305. View abstract.
  51. Robinson, M. F., Campbell, D. R., Stewart, R. D., Rea, H. M., Thomson, C. D., Snow, P. G., and Squires, I. H. Effect of daily supplements of selenium on patients with muscular complaints in Otago and Canterbury. N.Z.Med J 5-13-1981;93:289-292. View abstract.
  52. Wilber, C. G. Toxicology of selenium: a review. Clin Toxicol. 1980;17:171-230. View abstract.
  53. Orndahl, G., Rindby, A., and Selin, E. Selenium therapy of myotonic dystrophy. Acta Med Scand. 1983;213:237-239. View abstract.
  54. Fleming, C. R., Lie, J. T., McCall, J. T., O'Brien, J. F., Baillie, E. E., and Thistle, J. L. Selenium deficiency and fatal cardiomyopathy in a patient on home parenteral nutrition. Gastroenterology 1982;83:689-693. View abstract.
  55. Quercia, R. A., Korn, S., O'Neill, D., Dougherty, J. E., Ludwig, M., Schweizer, R., and Sigman, R. Selenium deficiency and fatal cardiomyopathy in a patient receiving long-term home parenteral nutrition. Clin.Pharm 1984;3:531-535. View abstract.
  56. Kien, C. L. and Ganther, H. E. Manifestations of chronic selenium deficiency in a child receiving total parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;37:319-328. View abstract.
  57. Aberg, B. [Selenium as a trace element]. Nord.Med 5-26-1966;75:589-593. View abstract.
  58. Kumpulainen, J., Salmenpera, L., Siimes, M. A., Koivistoinen, P., and Perheentupa, J. Selenium status of exclusively breast-fed infants as influenced by maternal organic or inorganic selenium supplementation. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1985;42:829-835. View abstract.
  59. Pentel, P., Fletcher, D., and Jentzen, J. Fatal acute selenium toxicity. J Forensic Sci 1985;30:556-562. View abstract.
  60. Dworkin, B., Newman, L. J., Berezin, S., Rosenthal, W. S., Schwarz, S. M., and Weiss, L. Low blood selenium levels in patients with cystic fibrosis compared to controls and healthy adults. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1987;11:38-41. View abstract.
  61. Orndahl, G., Sellden, U., Hallin, S., Wetterqvist, H., Rindby, A., and Selin, E. Myotonic dystrophy treated with selenium and vitamin E. Acta Med Scand 1986;219:407-414. View abstract.
  62. Neve, J., Vertongen, F., and Capel, P. Selenium supplementation in healthy Belgian adults: response in platelet glutathione peroxidase activity and other blood indices. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1988;48:139-143. View abstract.
  63. Gamstorp, I., Gustavson, K. H., Hellstrom, O., and Nordgren, B. A trial of selenium and vitamin E in boys with muscular dystrophy. J Child Neurol 1986;1:211-214. View abstract.
  64. Backman, E., Nylander, E., Johansson, I., Henriksson, K. G., and Tagesson, C. Selenium and vitamin E treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: no effect on muscle function. Acta Neurol Scand 1988;78:429-435. View abstract.
  65. Fairris, G. M., Lloyd, B., Hinks, L., Perkins, P. J., and Clayton, B. E. The effect of supplementation with selenium and vitamin E in psoriasis. Ann Clin Biochem 1989;26 ( Pt 1):83-88. View abstract.
  66. Korpela, H., Kumpulainen, J., Jussila, E., Kemila, S., Kaariainen, M., Kaariainen, T., and Sotaniemi, E. A. Effect of selenium supplementation after acute myocardial infarction. Res.Commun.Chem.Pathol.Pharmacol. 1989;65:249-252. View abstract.
  67. Holness, D. L., Taraschuk, I. G., and Nethercott, J. R. Health status of copper refinery workers with specific reference to selenium exposure. Arch.Environ.Health 1989;44:291-297. View abstract.
  68. Reeves, W. C., Marcuard, S. P., Willis, S. E., and Movahed, A. Reversible cardiomyopathy due to selenium deficiency. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 1989;13:663-665. View abstract.
  69. Fairris, G. M., Perkins, P. J., Lloyd, B., Hinks, L., and Clayton, B. E. The effect on atopic dermatitis of supplementation with selenium and vitamin E. Acta Derm.Venereol. 1989;69:359-362. View abstract.
  70. Jackson, M. J., Coakley, J., Stokes, M., Edwards, R. H., and Oster, O. Selenium metabolism and supplementation in patients with muscular dystrophy. Neurology 1989;39:655-659. View abstract.
  71. Mutanen, M., Viita, L., and Mykkanen, H. M. Selenium supplementation does not alter platelet activation in subjects with normal selenium status. Int J Vitam.Nutr.Res. 1989;59:309-313. View abstract.
  72. Clausen, J., Nielsen, S. A., and Kristensen, M. Biochemical and clinical effects of an antioxidative supplementation of geriatric patients. A double blind study. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1989;20(1-2):135-151. View abstract.
  73. Meltzer, H. M., Norheim, G., Bibow, K., Myhre, K., and Holm, H. The form of selenium determines the response to supplementation in a selenium replete population. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 1990;44:435-446. View abstract.
  74. Hommeren, O. J. [A comparative study of absorption of 2 organic selenium preparations and a placebo]. Tidsskr.Nor Laegeforen. 10-30-1990;110:3350-3351. View abstract.
  75. Fan, A. M. and Kizer, K. W. Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects. West J Med 1990;153:160-167. View abstract.
  76. Hill, J. and Bird, H. A. Failure of selenium-ace to improve osteoarthritis. Br.J Rheumatol. 1990;29:211-213. View abstract.
  77. Backman, E. and Henriksson, K. G. Effect of sodium selenite and vitamin E treatment in myotonic dystrophy. J Intern.Med 1990;228:577-581. View abstract.
  78. Lockitch, G., Taylor, G. P., Wong, L. T., Davidson, A. G., Dison, P. J., Riddell, D., and Massing, B. Cardiomyopathy associated with nonendemic selenium deficiency in a Caucasian adolescent. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1990;52:572-577. View abstract.
  79. Benton, D. and Cook, R. Selenium supplementation improves mood in a double-blind crossover trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1990;102:549-550. View abstract.
  80. Peretz, A., Neve, J., Desmedt, J., Duchateau, J., Dramaix, M., and Famaey, J. P. Lymphocyte response is enhanced by supplementation of elderly subjects with selenium-enriched yeast. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1991;53:1323-1328. View abstract.
  81. Butler, J. A., Thomson, C. D., Whanger, P. D., and Robinson, M. F. Selenium distribution in blood fractions of New Zealand women taking organic or inorganic selenium. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1991;53:748-754. View abstract.
  82. Huston, R. K., Jelen, B. J., and Vidgoff, J. Selenium supplementation in low-birthweight premature infants: relationship to trace metals and antioxidant enzymes. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 1991;15:556-559. View abstract.
  83. Schneider, M., Forster, H., Boersma, A., Seiler, A., Wehnes, H., Sinowatz, F., Neumuller, C., Deutsch, M. J., Walch, A., Hrabe de, Angelis M., Wurst, W., Ursini, F., Roveri, A., Maleszewski, M., Maiorino, M., and Conrad, M. Mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase 4 disruption causes male infertility. FASEB J 2009;23:3233-3242. View abstract.
  84. Hawkes, W. C., Alkan, Z., and Wong, K. Selenium supplementation does not affect testicular selenium status or semen quality in North American men. J Androl 2009;30:525-533. View abstract.
  85. Gartner, R. [Thyroid disorders during pregnancy]. Dtsch.Med Wochenschr. 2009;134:83-86. View abstract.
  86. Kamble, P., Mohsin, N., Jha, A., Date, A., Upadhaya, A., Mohammad, E., Khalil, M., Pakkyara, A., and Budruddin, M. Selenium intoxication with selenite broth resulting in acute renal failure and severe gastritis. Saudi.J Kidney Dis.Transpl. 2009;20:106-111. View abstract.
  87. Blazovics, A. [From free radicals to science of nutrition]. Orv.Hetil. 1-11-2009;150:53-63. View abstract.
  88. Saliba, W., El, Fakih R., and Shaheen, W. Heart failure secondary to selenium deficiency, reversible after supplementation. Int J Cardiol. 5-28-2010;141:e26-e27. View abstract.
  89. Hawkes, W. C. and Laslett, L. J. Selenium supplementation does not improve vascular responsiveness in healthy North American men. Am.J Physiol Heart Circ.Physiol 2009;296:H256-H262. View abstract.
  90. Schnabel, R., Lubos, E., Messow, C. M., Sinning, C. R., Zeller, T., Wild, P. S., Peetz, D., Handy, D. E., Munzel, T., Loscalzo, J., Lackner, K. J., and Blankenberg, S. Selenium supplementation improves antioxidant capacity in vitro and in vivo in patients with coronary artery disease The SElenium Therapy in Coronary Artery disease Patients (SETCAP) Study. Am.Heart J 2008;156:1201-1211. View abstract.
  91. Mocchegiani, E., Malavolta, M., Muti, E., Costarelli, L., Cipriano, C., Piacenza, F., Tesei, S., Giacconi, R., and Lattanzio, F. Zinc, metallothioneins and longevity: interrelationships with niacin and selenium. Curr.Pharm Des 2008;14:2719-2732. View abstract.
  92. Turner-McGrievy, G. M., Barnard, N. D., Cohen, J., Jenkins, D. J., Gloede, L., and Green, A. A. Changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants with type 2 diabetes following a low-fat vegan diet or a conventional diabetes diet for 22 weeks. J Am.Diet.Assoc. 2008;108:1636-1645. View abstract.
  93. Jackson, M. I. and Combs, G. F., Jr. Selenium and anticarcinogenesis: underlying mechanisms. Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2008;11:718-726. View abstract.
  94. Pappas, A. C., Zoidis, E., Surai, P. F., and Zervas, G. Selenoproteins and maternal nutrition. Comp Biochem.Physiol B Biochem.Mol.Biol. 2008;151:361-372. View abstract.
  95. Sanmartin, C., Plano, D., and Palop, J. A. Selenium compounds and apoptotic modulation: a new perspective in cancer therapy. Mini.Rev.Med Chem. 2008;8:1020-1031. View abstract.
  96. Benton, D. and Cook, R. The impact of selenium supplementation on mood. Biol.Psychiatry 6-1-1991;29:1092-1098. View abstract.
  97. Arasaradnam, R. P., Commane, D. M., Bradburn, D., and Mathers, J. C. A review of dietary factors and its influence on DNA methylation in colorectal carcinogenesis. Epigenetics. 2008;3:193-198. View abstract.
  98. Navarro-Alarcon, M. and Cabrera-Vique, C. Selenium in food and the human body: a review. Sci Total Environ. 8-1-2008;400(1-3):115-141. View abstract.
  99. Margis, R., Dunand, C., Teixeira, F. K., and Margis-Pinheiro, M. Glutathione peroxidase family - an evolutionary overview. FEBS J 2008;275:3959-3970. View abstract.
  100. Daniels, L., Gibson, R. A., Simmer, K., Van, Dael P., and Makrides, M. Selenium status of term infants fed selenium-supplemented formula in a randomized dose-response trial. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 2008;88:70-76. View abstract.
  101. Orrell, R. W., Lane, R. J., and Ross, M. A systematic review of antioxidant treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler. 2008;9:195-211. View abstract.
  102. Duntas, L. H. Environmental factors and autoimmune thyroiditis. Nat.Clin.Pract Endocrinol.Metab 2008;4:454-460. View abstract.
  103. Burney, P., Potts, J., Makowska, J., Kowalski, M., Phillips, J., Gnatiuc, L., Shaheen, S., Joos, G., Van, Cauwenberge P., van, Zele T., Verbruggen, K., van, Durme Y., Derudder, I., Wohrl, S., Godnic-Cvar, J., Salameh, B., Skadhauge, L., Thomsen, G., Zuberbier, T., Bergmann, K. C., Heinzerling, L., Renz, H., Al-Fakhri, N., Kosche, B., Hildenberg, A., Papadopoulos, N. G., Xepapadaki, P., Zannikos, K., Gjomarkaj, M., Bruno, A., Pace, E., Bonini, S., Bresciani, M., Gramiccioni, C., Fokkens, W., Weersink, E. J., Carlsen, K. H., Bakkeheim, E., Loureiro, C., Villanueva, C. M., Sanjuas, C., Zock, J. P., Lundback, B., and Janson, C. A case-control study of the relation between plasma selenium and asthma in European populations: a GAL2EN project. Allergy 2008;63:865-871. View abstract.
  104. Balazs, C. [The effect of selenium therapy on autoimmune thyroiditis]. Orv.Hetil. 6-29-2008;149:1227-1232. View abstract.
  105. Hawkes, W. C., Keim, N. L., Diane, Richter B., Gustafson, M. B., Gale, B., Mackey, B. E., and Bonnel, E. L. High-selenium yeast supplementation in free-living North American men: no effect on thyroid hormone metabolism or body composition. J Trace Elem.Med Biol. 2008;22:131-142. View abstract.
  106. Kupka, R., Mugusi, F., Aboud, S., Msamanga, G. I., Finkelstein, J. L., Spiegelman, D., and Fawzi, W. W. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of selenium supplements among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania: effects on maternal and child outcomes. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 2008;87:1802-1808. View abstract.
  107. Trujillo, M., Ferrer-Sueta, G., and Radi, R. Peroxynitrite detoxification and its biologic implications. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2008;10:1607-1620. View abstract.
  108. Schweizer, U., Chiu, J., and Kohrle, J. Peroxides and peroxide-degrading enzymes in the thyroid. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2008;10:1577-1592. View abstract.
  109. Gomm, S. A., Thatcher, N., Cuthbert, A., Chang, J., Burmester, H., Hall, P., and Carroll, K. B. High dose combination chemotherapy with ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide or cisplatin, mitomycin C and mustine with autologous bone marrow support in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A phase I/II study. Br.J Cancer 1991;63:293-297. View abstract.
  110. Gosney, M. A., Hammond, M. F., Shenkin, A., and Allsup, S. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on mood in nursing home residents. Gerontology 2008;54:292-299. View abstract.
  111. Reid, M. E., Duffield-Lillico, A. J., Slate, E., Natarajan, N., Turnbull, B., Jacobs, E., Combs, G. F., Jr., Alberts, D. S., Clark, L. C., and Marshall, J. R. The nutritional prevention of cancer: 400 mcg per day selenium treatment. Nutr.Cancer 2008;60:155-163. View abstract.
  112. Mahata, J., Argos, M., Verret, W., Kibriya, M. G., Santella, R. M., and Ahsan, H. Effect of selenium and vitamin e supplementation on plasma protein carbonyl levels in patients with arsenic-related skin lesions. Nutr Cancer 2008;60:55-60. View abstract.
  113. Vincent, J. L. and Forceville, X. Critically elucidating the role of selenium. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2008;21:148-154. View abstract.
  114. Thomson, A. Nutritional support in acute pancreatitis. Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2008;11:261-266. View abstract.
  115. Meplan, C., Crosley, L. K., Nicol, F., Horgan, G. W., Mathers, J. C., Arthur, J. R., and Hesketh, J. E. Functional effects of a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (GPX4c718t) in the glutathione peroxidase 4 gene: interaction with sex. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:1019-1027. View abstract.
  116. Boosalis, M. G. The role of selenium in chronic disease. Nutr.Clin.Pract 2008;23:152-160. View abstract.
  117. Brigelius-Flohe, R. Selenium compounds and selenoproteins in cancer. Chem.Biodivers. 2008;5:389-395. View abstract.
  118. Katzen-Luchenta, J. The declaration of nutrition, health, and intelligence for the child-to-be. Nutr.Health 2007;19(1-2):85-102. View abstract.
  119. Salonen, J. T., Salonen, R., Seppanen, K., Rinta-Kiikka, S., Kuukka, M., Korpela, H., Alfthan, G., Kantola, M., and Schalch, W. Effects of antioxidant supplementation on platelet function: a randomized pair-matched, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in men with low antioxidant status. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1991;53:1222-1229. View abstract.
  120. Hawkes, W. C., Richter, B. D., Alkan, Z., Souza, E. C., Derricote, M., Mackey, B. E., and Bonnel, E. L. Response of selenium status indicators to supplementation of healthy North American men with high-selenium yeast. Biol Trace Elem.Res 2008;122:107-121. View abstract.
  121. Gammelgaard, B., Gabel-Jensen, C., Sturup, S., and Hansen, H. R. Complementary use of molecular and element-specific mass spectrometry for identification of selenium compounds related to human selenium metabolism. Anal.Bioanal.Chem 2008;390:1691-1706. View abstract.
  122. Vina, J., Sastre, J., Pallardo, F. V., Gambini, J., and Borras, C. Modulation of longevity-associated genes by estrogens or phytoestrogens. Biol Chem 2008;389:273-277. View abstract.
  123. Voitsekhovskaia, IuG, Skesters, A., Orlikov, G. A., Silova, A. A., Rusakova, N. E., Larmane, L. T., Karpov, IuG, Ivanov, A. D., and Maulins, E. [Assessment of some oxidative stress parameters in bronchial asthma patients beyond add-on selenium supplementation]. Biomed Khim. 2007;53:577-584. View abstract.
  124. Ravn-Haren, G., Krath, B. N., Overvad, K., Cold, S., Moesgaard, S., Larsen, E. H., and Dragsted, L. O. Effect of long-term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) pilot study. Br J Nutr 2008;99:1190-1198. View abstract.
  125. Beale, R. J., Sherry, T., Lei, K., Campbell-Stephen, L., McCook, J., Smith, J., Venetz, W., Alteheld, B., Stehle, P., and Schneider, H. Early enteral supplementation with key pharmaconutrients improves Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score in critically ill patients with sepsis: outcome of a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:131-144. View abstract.
  126. Sanchez-Gutierrez, M., Garcia-Montalvo, E. A., Izquierdo-Vega, J. A., and Del Razo, L. M. Effect of dietary selenium deficiency on the in vitro fertilizing ability of mice spermatozoa. Cell Biol.Toxicol. 2008;24:321-329. View abstract.
  127. Flohe, L. Selenium in mammalian spermiogenesis. Biol.Chem. 2007;388:987-995. View abstract.
  128. Alexander, J. Selenium. Novartis.Found.Symp 2007;282:143-149. View abstract.
  129. Sidibe, el H. [Reflections on mental retardation and congenital hypothyroidism: effects of trace mineral deficiencies]. Sante 2007;17:41-50. View abstract.
  130. Bogatov, N. V. [Selenium deficiency and its dietary correction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and chronic catarrhal colitis]. Vopr.Pitan. 2007;76:35-39. View abstract.
  131. Joniau, S., Goeman, L., Roskams, T., Lerut, E., Oyen, R., and Van Poppel, H. Effect of nutritional supplement challenge in patients with isolated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Urology 2007;69:1102-1106. View abstract.
  132. Houston, M. C. The role of mercury and cadmium heavy metals in vascular disease, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction. Altern Ther Health Med 2007;13:S128-S133. View abstract.
  133. Heyland, D. K., Dhaliwalm, R., Day, A., Drover, J., Cote, H., and Wischmeyer, P. Optimizing the dose of glutamine dipeptides and antioxidants in critically ill patients: a phase I dose-finding study. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2007;31:109-118. View abstract.
  134. Negro, R., Greco, G., Mangieri, T., Pezzarossa, A., Dazzi, D., and Hassan, H. The influence of selenium supplementation on postpartum thyroid status in pregnant women with thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2007;92:1263-1268. View abstract.
  135. Yu, S. Y., Zhu, Y. J., Li, W. G., Huang, Q. S., Huang, C. Z., Zhang, Q. N., and Hou, C. A preliminary report on the intervention trials of primary liver cancer in high-risk populations with nutritional supplementation of selenium in China. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1991;29:289-294. View abstract.
  136. Singh, U., Otvos, J., Dasgupta, A., de Lemos, J. A., Devaraj, S., and Jialal, I. High-dose alpha-tocopherol therapy does not affect HDL subfractions in patients with coronary artery disease on statin therapy. Clin Chem 2007;53:525-528. View abstract.
  137. Shaheen, S. O., Newson, R. B., Rayman, M. P., Wong, A. P., Tumilty, M. K., Phillips, J. M., Potts, J. F., Kelly, F. J., White, P. T., and Burney, P. G. Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of selenium supplementation in adult asthma. Thorax 2007;62:483-490. View abstract.
  138. Dawczynski, J., Winnefeld, K., and Strobel, J. Selenium and zinc in patients with acute and chronic uveitis. Biol Trace Elem.Res 2006;113:131-137. View abstract.
  139. Mishra, V., Baines, M., Perry, S. E., McLaughlin, P. J., Carson, J., Wenstone, R., and Shenkin, A. Effect of selenium supplementation on biochemical markers and outcome in critically ill patients. Clin Nutr 2007;26:41-50. View abstract.
  140. Narayanan, B. A. Chemopreventive agents alters global gene expression pattern: predicting their mode of action and targets. Curr.Cancer Drug Targets. 2006;6:711-727. View abstract.
  141. Angstwurm, M. W., Engelmann, L., Zimmermann, T., Lehmann, C., Spes, C. H., Abel, P., Strauss, R., Meier-Hellmann, A., Insel, R., Radke, J., Schuttler, J., and Gartner, R. Selenium in Intensive Care (SIC): results of a prospective randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple-center study in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, and septic shock. Crit Care Med 2007;35:118-126. View abstract.
  142. Berger, M. M., Eggimann, P., Heyland, D. K., Chiolero, R. L., Revelly, J. P., Day, A., Raffoul, W., and Shenkin, A. Reduction of nosocomial pneumonia after major burns by trace element supplementation: aggregation of two randomised trials. Crit Care 2006;10:R153. View abstract.
  143. Flores-Mateo, G., Navas-Acien, A., Pastor-Barriuso, R., and Guallar, E. Selenium and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:762-773. View abstract.
  144. Dawczynski, J., Winnefeld, K., Konigsdorffer, E., Augsten, R., Blum, M., and Strobel, J. [Selenium and cataract--risk factor or useful dietary supplement?]. Klin Monatsbl.Augenheilkd. 2006;223:675-680. View abstract.
  145. Richelle, M., Sabatier, M., Steiling, H., and Williamson, G. Skin bioavailability of dietary vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, zinc and selenium. Br J Nutr 2006;96:227-238. View abstract.
  146. Czernichow, S., Couthouis, A., Bertrais, S., Vergnaud, A. C., Dauchet, L., Galan, P., and Hercberg, S. Antioxidant supplementation does not affect fasting plasma glucose in the Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) study in France: association with dietary intake and plasma concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:395-399. View abstract.
  147. Groenbaek, K., Friis, H., Hansen, M., Ring-Larsen, H., and Krarup, H. B. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;18:985-989. View abstract.
  148. Spiller, H. A. and Pfiefer, E. Two fatal cases of selenium toxicity. Forensic Sci Int 8-24-2007;171:67-72. View abstract.
  149. McCarty, M. F. and Block, K. I. Preadministration of high-dose salicylates, suppressors of NF-kappaB activation, may increase the chemosensitivity of many cancers: an example of proapoptotic signal modulation therapy. Integr.Cancer Ther 2006;5:252-268. View abstract.
  150. Elango, N., Samuel, S., and Chinnakkannu, P. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status in stage (III) human oral squamous cell carcinoma and treated with radical radio therapy: influence of selenium supplementation. Clin Chim Acta 2006;373(1-2):92-98. View abstract.
  151. Serwin, A. B., Wasowicz, W., and Chodynicka, B. Selenium supplementation, soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor type 1, and C-reactive protein during psoriasis therapy with narrowband ultraviolet B. Nutrition 2006;22:860-864. View abstract.
  152. Vanderpas, J. Nutritional epidemiology and thyroid hormone metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr 2006;26:293-322. View abstract.
  153. Cai, L., You, N. C., Lu, H., Mu, L. N., Lu, Q. Y., Yu, S. Z., Le, A. D., Marshall, J., Heber, D., and Zhang, Z. F. Dietary selenium intake, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 genetic polymorphisms, and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer 6-1-2006;106:2345-2354. View abstract.
  154. Burk, R. F., Norsworthy, B. K., Hill, K. E., Motley, A. K., and Byrne, D. W. Effects of chemical form of selenium on plasma biomarkers in a high-dose human supplementation trial. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:804-810. View abstract.
  155. Stranges, S., Marshall, J. R., Trevisan, M., Natarajan, R., Donahue, R. P., Combs, G. F., Farinaro, E., Clark, L. C., and Reid, M. E. Effects of selenium supplementation on cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality: secondary analyses in a randomized clinical trial. Am J Epidemiol. 4-15-2006;163:694-699. View abstract.
  156. Kuklinski, B., Buchner, M., Schweder, R., and Nagel, R. [Acute pancreatitis--a free radical disease. Decrease in fatality with sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) therapy]. Z.Gesamte Inn.Med 1991;46:145-149. View abstract.
  157. van, Dokkum W., Van der Torre, H. W., Schaafsma, G., Kistemaker, C., and Ockhuizen, T. Supplementation with selenium-rich bread does not influence platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 1992;46:445-450. View abstract.
  158. Misso, N. L. and Thompson, P. J. Oxidative stress and antioxidant deficiencies in asthma: potential modification by diet. Redox Rep. 2005;10:247-255. View abstract.
  159. Frank, J. E. Diagnosis and management of G6PD deficiency. Am.Fam.Physician 10-1-2005;72:1277-1282. View abstract.
  160. Rayman, M., Thompson, A., Warren-Perry, M., Galassini, R., Catterick, J., Hall, E., Lawrence, D., and Bliss, J. Impact of selenium on mood and quality of life: a randomized, controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry 1-15-2006;59:147-154. View abstract.
  161. Mego, M., Koncekova, R., Mikuskova, E., Drgona, L., Ebringer, L., Demitrovicova, L., Nemova, I., Trupl, J., Mardiak, J., Koza, I., and Zajac, V. Prevention of febrile neutropenia in cancer patients by probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M-74. Phase II study. Support.Care Cancer 2006;14:285-290. View abstract.
  162. Riccioni, G. and D'Orazio, N. The role of selenium, zinc and antioxidant vitamin supplementation in the treatment of bronchial asthma: adjuvant therapy or not? Expert.Opin Investig.Drugs 2005;14:1145-1155. View abstract.
  163. Fakih, M., Cao, S., Durrani, F. A., and Rustum, Y. M. Selenium protects against toxicity induced by anticancer drugs and augments antitumor activity: a highly selective, new, and novel approach for the treatment of solid tumors. Clin.Colorectal Cancer 2005;5:132-135. View abstract.
  164. Bodnar, L. M. and Wisner, K. L. Nutrition and depression: implications for improving mental health among childbearing-aged women. Biol Psychiatry 11-1-2005;58:679-685. View abstract.
  165. Volkovova, K., Barancokova, M., Kazimirova, A., Collins, A., Raslova, K., Smolkova, B., Horska, A., Wsolova, L., and Dusinska, M. Antioxidant supplementation reduces inter-individual variation in markers of oxidative damage. Free Radic.Res 2005;39:659-666. View abstract.
  166. Kim, J., Sun, P., Lam, Y. W., Troncoso, P., Sabichi, A. L., Babaian, R. J., Pisters, L. L., Pettaway, C. A., Wood, C. G., Lippman, S. M., McDonnell, T. J., Lieberman, R., Logothetis, C., and Ho, S. M. Changes in serum proteomic patterns by presurgical alpha-tocopherol and L-selenomethionine supplementation in prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:1697-1702. View abstract.
  167. Burk, R. F. and Hill, K. E. Selenoprotein P: an extracellular protein with unique physical characteristics and a role in selenium homeostasis. Annu Rev Nutr 2005;25:215-235. View abstract.
  168. Meltzer, H. M., Norheim, G., Loken, E. B., and Holm, H. Supplementation with wheat selenium induces a dose-dependent response in serum and urine of a Se-replete population. Br.J Nutr. 1992;67:287-294. View abstract.
  169. Jackson, M. J., Dillon, S. A., Broome, C. S., McArdle, A., Hart, C. A., and McArdle, F. Are there functional consequences of a reduction in selenium intake in UK subjects? Proc.Nutr.Soc. 2004;63:513-517. View abstract.
  170. Xia, Y., Hill, K. E., Byrne, D. W., Xu, J., and Burk, R. F. Effectiveness of selenium supplements in a low-selenium area of China. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2005;81:829-834. View abstract.
  171. Mego, M., Ebringer, L., Drgona, L., Mardiak, J., Trupl, J., Greksak, R., Nemova, I., Oravcova, E., Zajac, V., and Koza, I. Prevention of febrile neutropenia in cancer patients by probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M-74. Pilot study phase I. Neoplasma 2005;52:159-164. View abstract.
  172. Chelchowska, M., Laskowska-Klita, T., Kubik, P., and Leibschang, J. [The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the level of MDA and activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in blood of matched maternal-cord pairs]. Przegl.Lek. 2004;61:760-763. View abstract.
  173. Bonnefont-Rousselot, D. The role of antioxidant micronutrients in the prevention of diabetic complications. Treat.Endocrinol 2004;3:41-52. View abstract.
  174. Dodig, S. and Cepelak, I. The facts and controversies about selenium. Acta Pharm 2004;54:261-276. View abstract.
  175. Lindner, D., Lindner, J., Baumann, G., Dawczynski, H., and Bauch, K. [Investigation of antioxidant therapy with sodium selenite in acute pancreatitis. A prospective randomized blind trial]. Med Klin.(Munich) 12-15-2004;99:708-712. View abstract.
  176. McClelland, R. S., Baeten, J. M., Overbaugh, J., Richardson, B. A., Mandaliya, K., Emery, S., Lavreys, L., Ndinya-Achola, J. O., Bankson, D. D., Bwayo, J. J., and Kreiss, J. K. Micronutrient supplementation increases genital tract shedding of HIV-1 in women: results of a randomized trial. J Acquir.Immune.Defic.Syndr. 12-15-2004;37:1657-1663. View abstract.
  177. Peretz, A., Neve, J., Duchateau, J., and Famaey, J. P. Adjuvant treatment of recent onset rheumatoid arthritis by selenium supplementation: preliminary observations. Br.J Rheumatol. 1992;31:281-282. View abstract.
  178. Smolkova, B., Dusinska, M., Raslova, K., Barancokova, M., Kazimirova, A., Horska, A., Spustova, V., and Collins, A. Folate levels determine effect of antioxidant supplementation on micronuclei in subjects with cardiovascular risk. Mutagenesis 2004;19:469-476. View abstract.
  179. Rayman, M. P. The use of high-selenium yeast to raise selenium status: how does it measure up? Br.J Nutr. 2004;92:557-573. View abstract.
  180. Subudhi, A. W., Jacobs, K. A., Hagobian, T. A., Fattor, J. A., Fulco, C. S., Muza, S. R., Rock, P. B., Hoffman, A. R., Cymerman, A., and Friedlander, A. L. Antioxidant supplementation does not attenuate oxidative stress at high altitude. Aviat.Space Environ.Med 2004;75:881-888. View abstract.
  181. Reid, M. E., Stratton, M. S., Lillico, A. J., Fakih, M., Natarajan, R., Clark, L. C., and Marshall, J. R. A report of high-dose selenium supplementation: response and toxicities. J Trace Elem.Med Biol. 2004;18:69-74. View abstract.
  182. Pan, S. Y., Ugnat, A. M., Mao, Y., Wen, S. W., and Johnson, K. C. A case-control study of diet and the risk of ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13:1521-1527. View abstract.
  183. Faure, P., Ramon, O., Favier, A., and Halimi, S. Selenium supplementation decreases nuclear factor-kappa B activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from type 2 diabetic patients. Eur.J Clin.Invest 2004;34:475-481. View abstract.
  184. Weijl, N. I., Elsendoorn, T. J., Lentjes, E. G., Hopman, G. D., Wipkink-Bakker, A., Zwinderman, A. H., Cleton, F. J., and Osanto, S. Supplementation with antioxidant micronutrients and chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur.J Cancer 2004;40:1713-1723. View abstract.
  185. Angstwurm, M. W., Schopohl, J., and Gaertner, R. Selenium substitution has no direct effect on thyroid hormone metabolism in critically ill patients. Eur.J Endocrinol. 2004;151:47-54. View abstract.
  186. Broome, C. S., McArdle, F., Kyle, J. A., Andrews, F., Lowe, N. M., Hart, C. A., Arthur, J. R., and Jackson, M. J. An increase in selenium intake improves immune function and poliovirus handling in adults with marginal selenium status. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2004;80:154-162. View abstract.
  187. Allam, M. F. and Lucane, R. A. Selenium supplementation for asthma. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2004;:CD003538. View abstract.
  188. Sakaguchi, S. [Metabolic aspects of endotoxin as a model of septic shock--approached from oxidative stress]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2004;124:69-87. View abstract.
  189. Al-Taie, O. H., Seufert, J., Karvar, S., Adolph, C., Mork, H., Scheurlen, M., Kohrle, J., and Jakob, F. Selenium supplementation enhances low selenium levels and stimulates glutathione peroxidase activity in peripheral blood and distal colon mucosa in past and present carriers of colon adenomas. Nutr.Cancer 2003;46:125-130. View abstract.
  190. Allsup, S. J., Shenkin, A., Gosney, M. A., Taylor, S., Taylor, W., Hammond, M., and Zambon, M. C. Can a short period of micronutrient supplementation in older institutionalized people improve response to influenza vaccine? A randomized, controlled trial. J Am.Geriatr.Soc. 2004;52:20-24. View abstract.
  191. Schrauzer, G. N. The nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicology of selenomethionine. Adv.Food Nutr.Res. 2003;47:73-112. View abstract.
  192. Pietschmann, A., Kuklinski, B., and Otterstein, A. [Protection from uv-light-induced oxidative stress by nutritional radical scavengers]. Z.Gesamte Inn.Med 1992;47:518-522. View abstract.
  193. Darlow, B. A. and Austin, N. C. Selenium supplementation to prevent short-term morbidity in preterm neonates. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2003;:CD003312. View abstract.
  194. Serwin, A. B., Mysliwiec, H., Hukalowicz, K., Porebski, P., Borawska, M., and Chodynicka, B. Soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor type 1 during selenium supplementation in psoriasis patients. Nutrition 2003;19:847-850. View abstract.
  195. Contempre, B., Duale, N. L., Dumont, J. E., Ngo, B., Diplock, A. T., and Vanderpas, J. Effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid hormone metabolism in an iodine and selenium deficient population. Clin Endocrinol.(Oxf) 1992;36:579-583. View abstract.
  196. Li, W. G. [Preliminary observations on effect of selenium yeast on high risk populations with primary liver cancer]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1992;26:268-271. View abstract.
  197. Abrams, C. K., Siram, S. M., Galsim, C., Johnson-Hamilton, H., Munford, F. L., and Mezghebe, H. Selenium deficiency in long-term total parenteral nutrition. Nutr Clin Pract 1992;7:175-178. View abstract.
  198. Singhal, N. and Austin, J. A clinical review of micronutrients in HIV infection. J Int Assoc.Physicians AIDS Care (Chic.) 2002;1:63-75. View abstract.
  199. Shor-Posner, G., Lecusay, R., Miguez, M. J., Moreno-Black, G., Zhang, G., Rodriguez, N., Burbano, X., Baum, M., and Wilkie, F. Psychological burden in the era of HAART: impact of selenium therapy. Int J Psychiatry Med 2003;33:55-69. View abstract.
  200. Hou, J., Wu, Y., and Ling, Y. [Modulation of the inflammatory response through complement-neutrophil activation feedback mechanism with selenium and vitamin E]. Zhongguo Yi.Xue.Ke.Xue.Yuan Xue.Bao. 2000;22:580-584. View abstract.
  201. Ferencik, M. and Ebringer, L. Modulatory effects of selenium and zinc on the immune system. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 2003;48:417-426. View abstract.
  202. Wallace, K., Byers, T., Morris, J. S., Cole, B. F., Greenberg, E. R., Baron, J. A., Gudino, A., Spate, V., and Karagas, M. R. Prediagnostic serum selenium concentration and the risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma: a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12:464-467. View abstract.
  203. Bertolini, G., Iapichino, G., Radrizzani, D., Facchini, R., Simini, B., Bruzzone, P., Zanforlin, G., and Tognoni, G. Early enteral immunonutrition in patients with severe sepsis: results of an interim analysis of a randomized multicentre clinical trial. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:834-840. View abstract.
  204. Margaritis, I., Palazzetti, S., Rousseau, A. S., Richard, M. J., and Favier, A. Antioxidant supplementation and tapering exercise improve exercise-induced antioxidant response. J Am.Coll.Nutr. 2003;22:147-156. View abstract.
  205. Keskes-Ammar, L., Feki-Chakroun, N., Rebai, T., Sahnoun, Z., Ghozzi, H., Hammami, S., Zghal, K., Fki, H., Damak, J., and Bahloul, A. Sperm oxidative stress and the effect of an oral vitamin E and selenium supplement on semen quality in infertile men. Arch.Androl 2003;49:83-94. View abstract.
  206. Venn, B. J., Grant, A. M., Thomson, C. D., and Green, T. J. Selenium supplements do not increase plasma total homocysteine concentrations in men and women. J Nutr. 2003;133:418-420. View abstract.
  207. Kelley, M. J. and McCrory, D. C. Prevention of lung cancer: summary of published evidence. Chest 2003;123(1 Suppl):50S-59S. View abstract.
  208. Benton, D. Selenium intake, mood and other aspects of psychological functioning. Nutr.Neurosci. 2002;5:363-374. View abstract.
  209. Burbano, X., Miguez-Burbano, M. J., McCollister, K., Zhang, G., Rodriguez, A., Ruiz, P., Lecusay, R., and Shor-Posner, G. Impact of a selenium chemoprevention clinical trial on hospital admissions of HIV-infected participants. HIV.Clin.Trials 2002;3:483-491. View abstract.
  210. Bialy, T. L., Rothe, M. J., and Grant-Kels, J. M. Dietary factors in the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and melanoma. Dermatol.Surg. 2002;28:1143-1152. View abstract.
  211. El-Bayoumy, K., Richie, J. P., Jr., Boyiri, T., Komninou, D., Prokopczyk, B., Trushin, N., Kleinman, W., Cox, J., Pittman, B., and Colosimo, S. Influence of selenium-enriched yeast supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative damage and hormone status in healthy adult males: a clinical pilot study. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11:1459-1465. View abstract.
  212. Apostolidis, N. S., Panoussopoulos, D. G., Stamou, K. M., Kekis, P. B., Paradellis, T. P., Karydas, A. G., Zarkadas, C., Zirogiannis, P. N., and Manouras, A. J. Selenium metabolism in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Perit.Dial.Int 2002;22:400-404. View abstract.
  213. Whanger, P. D. Selenocompounds in plants and animals and their biological significance. J Am.Coll.Nutr. 2002;21:223-232. View abstract.
  214. Gazdik, F., Kadrabova, J., and Gazdikova, K. Decreased consumption of corticosteroids after selenium supplementation in corticoid-dependent asthmatics. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 2002;103:22-25. View abstract.
  215. Gazdik, F., Horvathova, M., Gazdikova, K., and Jahnova, E. The influence of selenium supplementation on the immunity of corticoid-dependent asthmatics. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 2002;103:17-21. View abstract.
  216. Jahnova, E., Horvathova, M., Gazdik, F., and Weissova, S. Effects of selenium supplementation on expression of adhesion molecules in corticoid-dependent asthmatics. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 2002;103:12-16. View abstract.
  217. Vinceti, M., Wei, E. T., Malagoli, C., Bergomi, M., and Vivoli, G. Adverse health effects of selenium in humans. Rev.Environ.Health 2001;16:233-251. View abstract.
  218. Sole, M. J. and Jeejeebhoy, K. N. Conditioned nutritional requirements: therapeutic relevance to heart failure. Herz 2002;27:174-178. View abstract.
  219. Adamowicz, A., Trafikowska, U., Trafikowska, A., Zachara, B., and Manitius, J. Effect of erythropoietin therapy and selenium supplementation on selected antioxidant parameters in blood of uremic patients on long- term hemodialysis. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8:CR202-CR205. View abstract.
  220. Burke, M. P. and Opeskin, K. Fulminant heart failure due to selenium deficiency cardiomyopathy (Keshan disease). Med Sci Law 2002;42:10-13. View abstract.
  221. Yusuf, S. W., Rehman, Q., and Casscells, W. Cardiomyopathy in association with selenium deficiency: a case report. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2002;26:63-66. View abstract.
  222. Cornelli, U., Terranova, R., Luca, S., Cornelli, M., and Alberti, A. Bioavailability and antioxidant activity of some food supplements in men and women using the D-Roms test as a marker of oxidative stress. J Nutr. 2001;131:3208-3211. View abstract.
  223. Ogawa, A., Ogawa, I., Obayashi, R., Umezu, K., Doi, M., and Hirao, T. Highly Selective Thioselenation of Vinylcyclopropanes with a (PhS)-(PhSe) Binary System and Its Application to Thiotelluration. J Org.Chem. 1-8-1999;64:86-92. View abstract.
  224. Elsendoorn, T. J., Weijl, N. I., Mithoe, S., Zwinderman, A. H., Van, Dam F., De Zwart, F. A., Tates, A. D., and Osanto, S. Chemotherapy-induced chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients supplemented with antioxidants or placebo. Mutat.Res. 11-15-2001;498(1-2):145-158. View abstract.
  225. Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L. and Roy, M. Effect of selenium on the immunocompetence of patients with head and neck cancer and on adoptive immunotherapy of early and established lesions. Biofactors 2001;14(1-4):161-168. View abstract.
  226. Kalita, B., Nowak, P., Slimok, M., Sikora, A., Szkilnik, R., Obuchowicz, A., Sulej, J., and Sabat, D. [Selenium plasma concentration level in children with food allergy]. Pol.Merkur Lekarski. 2001;10:411-413. View abstract.
  227. Federico, A., Iodice, P., Federico, P., Del Rio, A., Mellone, M. C., Catalano, G., and Federico, P. Effects of selenium and zinc supplementation on nutritional status in patients with cancer of digestive tract. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55:293-297. View abstract.
  228. Miller, A. L. The etiologies, pathophysiology, and alternative/complementary treatment of asthma. Altern.Med Rev. 2001;6:20-47. View abstract.
  229. Alfthan, G., Xu, G. L., Tan, W. H., Aro, A., Wu, J., Yang, Y. X., Liang, W. S., Xue, W. L., and Kong, L. H. Selenium supplementation of children in a selenium-deficient area in China: blood selenium levels and glutathione peroxidase activities. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2000;73:113-125. View abstract.
  230. Seppanen, K., Kantola, M., Laatikainen, R., Nyyssonen, K., Valkonen, V. P., Kaarlopp, V., and Salonen, J. T. Effect of supplementation with organic selenium on mercury status as measured by mercury in pubic hair. J Trace Elem.Med Biol. 2000;14:84-87. View abstract.
  231. Winterbourn, C. C., Chan, T., Buss, I. H., Inder, T. E., Mogridge, N., and Darlow, B. A. Protein carbonyls and lipid peroxidation products as oxidation markers in preterm infant plasma: associations with chronic lung disease and retinopathy and effects of selenium supplementation. Pediatr.Res. 2000;48:84-90. View abstract.
  232. Brown, K. M., Pickard, K., Nicol, F., Beckett, G. J., Duthie, G. G., and Arthur, J. R. Effects of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on selenoenzyme activity in blood lymphocytes, granulocytes, platelets and erythrocytes. Clin.Sci (Lond) 2000;98:593-599. View abstract.
  233. Darlow, B. A., Winterbourn, C. C., Inder, T. E., Graham, P. J., Harding, J. E., Weston, P. J., Austin, N. C., Elder, D. E., Mogridge, N., Buss, I. H., and Sluis, K. B. The effect of selenium supplementation on outcome in very low birth weight infants: a randomized controlled trial. The New Zealand Neonatal Study Group. J Pediatr 2000;136:473-480. View abstract.
  234. Finley, J. W., Duffield, A., Ha, P., Vanderpool, R. A., and Thomson, C. D. Selenium supplementation affects the retention of stable isotopes of selenium in human subjects consuming diets low in selenium. Br.J Nutr. 1999;82:357-360. View abstract.
  235. Temple, K. A., Smith, A. M., and Cockram, D. B. Selenate-supplemented nutritional formula increases plasma selenium in hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr. 2000;10:16-23. View abstract.
  236. Welch, R. W., Turley, E., Sweetman, S. F., Kennedy, G., Collins, A. R., Dunne, A., Livingstone, M. B., McKenna, P. G., McKelvey-Martin, V. J., and Strain, J. J. Dietary antioxidant supplementation and DNA damage in smokers and nonsmokers. Nutr.Cancer 1999;34:167-172. View abstract.
  237. Schumacher, K. [Effect of selenium on the side effect profile of adjuvant chemotherapy/radiotherapy in patients with breast carcinoma. Design for a clinical study]. Med Klin.(Munich) 10-15-1999;94 Suppl 3:45-48. View abstract.
  238. Chao, W. H., Askew, E. W., Roberts, D. E., Wood, S. M., and Perkins, J. B. Oxidative stress in humans during work at moderate altitude. J Nutr. 1999;129:2009-2012. View abstract.
  239. Pfeiffer, J. M., Askew, E. W., Roberts, D. E., Wood, S. M., Benson, J. E., Johnson, S. C., and Freedman, M. S. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on urine and blood markers of oxidative stress during extended moderate-altitude training. Wilderness.Environ.Med 1999;10:66-74. View abstract.
  240. Barceloux, D. G. Selenium. J Toxicol.Clin.Toxicol. 1999;37:145-172. View abstract.
  241. Ciliberto, H., Ciliberto, M., Briend, A., Ashorn, P., Bier, D., and Manary, M. Antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of kwashiorkor in Malawian children: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMJ 5-14-2005;330:1109. View abstract.
  242. Olsen, A., Thiong'o, F. W., Ouma, J. H., Mwaniki, D., Magnussen, P., Michaelsen, K. F., Friis, H., and Geissler, P. W. Effects of multimicronutrient supplementation on helminth reinfection: a randomized, controlled trial in Kenyan schoolchildren. Trans.R.Soc.Trop.Med.Hyg. 2003;97:109-114. View abstract.
  243. Singletary, K. and Milner, J. Diet, autophagy, and cancer: a review. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:1596-1610. View abstract.
  244. Rana, S. V. Metals and apoptosis: recent developments. J.Trace Elem.Med.Biol. 2008;22:262-284. View abstract.
  245. Safarinejad, M. R. and Safarinejad, S. Efficacy of selenium and/or N-acetyl-cysteine for improving semen parameters in infertile men: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study. J Urol. 2009;181:741-751. View abstract.
  246. Rumiris, D., Purwosunu, Y., Wibowo, N., Farina, A., and Sekizawa, A. Lower rate of preeclampsia after antioxidant supplementation in pregnant women with low antioxidant status. Hypertens.Pregnancy. 2006;25:241-253. View abstract.
  247. Davison, G. W., Hughes, C. M., and Bell, R. A. Exercise and mononuclear cell DNA damage: the effects of antioxidant supplementation. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2005;15:480-492. View abstract.
  248. Heinrich, U., Tronnier, H., Stahl, W., Bejot, M., and Maurette, J. M. Antioxidant supplements improve parameters related to skin structure in humans. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2006;19:224-231. View abstract.
  249. Block, K. I., Koch, A. C., Mead, M. N., Tothy, P. K., Newman, R. A., and Gyllenhaal, C. Impact of antioxidant supplementation on chemotherapeutic toxicity: a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Int.J Cancer 9-15-2008;123:1227-1239. View abstract.
  250. Moreno-Reyes, R., Mathieu, F., Boelaert, M., Begaux, F., Suetens, C., Rivera, M. T., Neve, J., Perlmutter, N., and Vanderpas, J. Selenium and iodine supplementation of rural Tibetan children affected by Kashin-Beck osteoarthropathy. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:137-144. View abstract.
  251. Dunstan, J. A., Breckler, L., Hale, J., Lehmann, H., Franklin, P., Lyons, G., Ching, S. Y., Mori, T. A., Barden, A., and Prescott, S. L. Supplementation with vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and selenium has no effect on anti-oxidant status and immune responses in allergic adults: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Exp.Allergy 2007;37:180-187. View abstract.
  252. Zhang, L., Gail, M. H., Wang, Y. Q., Brown, L. M., Pan, K. F., Ma, J. L., Amagase, H., You, W. C., and Moslehi, R. A randomized factorial study of the effects of long-term garlic and micronutrient supplementation and of 2-wk antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2006;84:912-919. View abstract.
  253. Li, H., Li, H. Q., Wang, Y., Xu, H. X., Fan, W. T., Wang, M. L., Sun, P. H., and Xie, X. Y. An intervention study to prevent gastric cancer by micro-selenium and large dose of allitridum. Chin Med.J.(Engl.) 2004;117:1155-1160. View abstract.
  254. Kubik, P., Kowalska, B., Laskowska-Klita, T., Chelchowska, M., and Leibschang, J. [Effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the status of some microelements in pregnant women]. Przegl.Lek. 2004;61:764-768. View abstract.
  255. Lockwood, K., Moesgaard, S., Hanioka, T., and Folkers, K. Apparent partial remission of breast cancer in 'high risk' patients supplemented with nutritional antioxidants, essential fatty acids and coenzyme Q10. Mol.Aspects Med 1994;15 Suppl:s231-s240. View abstract.
  256. Pepe, S., Leong, J. Y., Van der Merwe, J., Marasco, S. F., Hadj, A., Lymbury, R., Perkins, A., and Rosenfeldt, F. L. Targeting oxidative stress in surgery: effects of ageing and therapy. Exp.Gerontol. 2008;43:653-657. View abstract.
  257. Witte, K. K., Nikitin, N. P., Parker, A. C., von Haehling, S., Volk, H. D., Anker, S. D., Clark, A. L., and Cleland, J. G. The effect of micronutrient supplementation on quality-of-life and left ventricular function in elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 2005;26:2238-2244. View abstract.
  258. Hoenjet, K. M., Dagnelie, P. C., Delaere, K. P., Wijckmans, N. E., Zambon, J. V., and Oosterhof, G. O. Effect of a nutritional supplement containing vitamin E, selenium, vitamin c and coenzyme Q10 on serum PSA in patients with hormonally untreated carcinoma of the prostate: a randomised placebo-controlled study. Eur Urol 2005;47:433-439. View abstract.
  259. Hofstad, B., Almendingen, K., Vatn, M., Andersen, S. N., Owen, R. W., Larsen, S., and Osnes, M. Growth and recurrence of colorectal polyps: a double-blind 3-year intervention with calcium and antioxidants. Digestion 1998;59:148-156. View abstract.
  260. Wenzel, G., Kuklinski, B., Ruhlmann, C., and Ehrhardt, D. [Alcohol-induced toxic hepatitis--a "free radical" associated disease. Lowering fatality by adjuvant antioxidant therapy]. Z.Gesamte Inn.Med. 1993;48:490-496. View abstract.
  261. Bjelakovic, G., Nikolova, D., Simonetti, R. G., and Gluud, C. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;:CD004183. View abstract.
  262. Bjelakovic, G., Nikolova, D., Gluud, L. L., Simonetti, R. G., and Gluud, C. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;:CD007176. View abstract.
  263. Evans, J. R. and Henshaw, K. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;:CD000253. View abstract.
  264. Bardia, A., Tleyjeh, I. M., Cerhan, J. R., Sood, A. K., Limburg, P. J., Erwin, P. J., and Montori, V. M. Efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in reducing primary cancer incidence and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin.Proc. 2008;83:23-34. View abstract.
  265. Hercberg, S., Ezzedine, K., Guinot, C., Preziosi, P., Galan, P., Bertrais, S., Estaquio, C., Briancon, S., Favier, A., Latreille, J., and Malvy, D. Antioxidant supplementation increases the risk of skin cancers in women but not in men. J.Nutr. 2007;137:2098-2105. View abstract.
  266. Bleys, J., Miller, E. R., III, Pastor-Barriuso, R., Appel, L. J., and Guallar, E. Vitamin-mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2006;84:880-887. View abstract.
  267. Kamangar, F., Qiao, Y. L., Yu, B., Sun, X. D., Abnet, C. C., Fan, J. H., Mark, S. D., Zhao, P., Dawsey, S. M., and Taylor, P. R. Lung cancer chemoprevention: a randomized, double-blind trial in Linxian, China. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1562-1564. View abstract.
  268. Huang, H. Y., Caballero, B., Chang, S., Alberg, A. J., Semba, R. D., Schneyer, C. R., Wilson, R. F., Cheng, T. Y., Vassy, J., Prokopowicz, G., Barnes, G. J., and Bass, E. B. The efficacy and safety of multivitamin and mineral supplement use to prevent cancer and chronic disease in adults: a systematic review for a National Institutes of Health state-of-the-science conference. Ann.Intern.Med. 9-5-2006;145:372-385. View abstract.
  269. Bjelakovic, G., Nagorni, A., Nikolova, D., Simonetti, R. G., Bjelakovic, M., and Gluud, C. Meta-analysis: antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention of colorectal adenoma. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 7-15-2006;24:281-291. View abstract.
  270. Coulter, I. D., Hardy, M. L., Morton, S. C., Hilton, L. G., Tu, W., Valentine, D., and Shekelle, P. G. Antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin e for the prevention and treatment of cancer. J Gen.Intern Med 2006;21:735-744. View abstract.
  271. McNaughton, S. A., Marks, G. C., and Green, A. C. Role of dietary factors in the development of basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer of the skin. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:1596-1607. View abstract.
  272. Bjelakovic, G., Nikolova, D., Simonetti, R. G., and Gluud, C. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2004;:CD004183. View abstract.
  273. Wood, L. G., Fitzgerald, D. A., Lee, A. K., and Garg, M. L. Improved antioxidant and fatty acid status of patients with cystic fibrosis after antioxidant supplementation is linked to improved lung function. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2003;77:150-159. View abstract.
  274. Prince, M. I., Mitchison, H. C., Ashley, D., Burke, D. A., Edwards, N., Bramble, M. G., James, O. F., and Jones, D. E. Oral antioxidant supplementation for fatigue associated with primary biliary cirrhosis: results of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Aliment.Pharmacol.Ther. 2003;17:137-143. View abstract.
  275. Greul, A. K., Grundmann, J. U., Heinrich, F., Pfitzner, I., Bernhardt, J., Ambach, A., Biesalski, H. K., and Gollnick, H. Photoprotection of UV-irradiated human skin: an antioxidative combination of vitamins E and C, carotenoids, selenium and proanthocyanidins. Skin Pharmacol Appl.Skin Physiol 2002;15:307-315. View abstract.
  276. Schmidt, M. C., Askew, E. W., Roberts, D. E., Prior, R. L., Ensign, W. Y., Jr., and Hesslink, R. E., Jr. Oxidative stress in humans training in a cold, moderate altitude environment and their response to a phytochemical antioxidant supplement. Wilderness.Environ.Med. 2002;13:94-105. View abstract.
  277. Rooney, J. P. The role of thiols, dithiols, nutritional factors and interacting ligands in the toxicology of mercury. Toxicology 5-20-2007;234:145-156. View abstract.
  278. Kies, C. and Harms, J. M. Copper absorption as affected by supplemental calcium, magnesium, manganese, selenium and potassium. Adv.Exp.Med Biol. 1989;258:45-58. View abstract.
  279. Mutanen, M. and Mykkanen, H. M. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on selenium bioavailability in humans. Hum.Nutr.Clin.Nutr. 1985;39:221-226. View abstract.
  280. Rivera JA, González-Cossío T, Flores M, et al. Multiple micronutrient supplementation increases the growth of Mexican infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Nov;74:657-63. View abstract.
  281. Rayman MP, Stranges S, Griffin BA, et al. Effect of supplementation with high-selenium yeast on plasma lipids: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2011;154:656-65. View abstract.
  282. Balaz C, Feher J. The effect of selenium therapy on autoimmune thyroiditis. Clinical and Experimental Medical Journal 2009;3:269-77.
  283. Toulis KA, Anastasilakis AD, Tzellos TG, et al. Selenium supplementation in the treatment of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A systematic review and a meta-analysis. Thyroid 2010;20:1163-73. View abstract.
  284. Bonfig W, Gartner R, Schmidt H. Selenium supplementation does not decrease thyroid peroxidase antibody concentration in children and adolescents with autoimmune thyroiditis. ScientificWorldJournal 2010;10:990-6. View abstract.
  285. Mazokopakis EE, Papadakis JA, Papadomanolaki MG, et al. Effects of 12 months treatment with L-selenomethionine on serum anti-TPO levels in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid 2007;17:609-12. View abstract.
  286. Turker O, Kumanlioglu K, Karapolat I, Dogan I. Selenium treatment in autoimmune thyroiditis: 9-month follow-up with variable doses. J Endocrinol 2006;190:151-6. View abstract.
  287. Gartner R, Gasinier BC. Selenium in the treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis. Biofactors 2003;19:165-70. View abstract.
  288. Duntas LH, Mantzou E, Koutras DA. Effects of a six month treatment with selenomethionine in patients with autoimmune throiditis. Eur J Endocrinol 2003;148:389-93. View abstract.
  289. Rayman MP, Thompson AJ, Bekaert B, et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid function in the elderly in the United Kingdom. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:370-8. View abstract.
  290. Olivieri O, Girelli D, Azzini M, et al. Low selenium status in the elderly influences thyroid hormones. Clin Sci (Lond) 1995;89:637-42. View abstract.
  291. Reid SM, Middleton P, Cossich MC, Crowther CA. Interventions for clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;:CD007752. View abstract.
  292. Stranges S, Laclaustra M, Ji C, et al. Higher selenium status is associated with adverse blood lipid profile in British adults. J Nutr 2010;140:81-7. View abstract.
  293. Aldosary BM, Sutter ME, Schwartz M, Morgan BW. Case series of selenium toxicity from a nutritional supplement. Clin Toxicol 2012;50:57-64. View abstract.
  294. Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E. Serum selenium levels and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality amoung US adults. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:404-10. View abstract.
  295. Lippmann SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SELECT). JAMA 2009;301:39-51. View abstract.
  296. Sutter ME, Thomas JD, Brown J, Morgan B. Selenium toxicity: a case of selenosis caused by a nutritional supplement. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:970-1. View abstract.
  297. Stranges S, Marshall JR, Natarajan R, et al. Effects of long-term selenium supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med 2007;147:217-23. View abstract.
  298. Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E. Serum selenium and diabetes in U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 2007;30:829-34. View abstract.
  299. Rajpathak S, Rimm E, Morris JS, Hu F. Toenail selenium and cardiovascular disease in men with diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 2005;24:250-6. View abstract.
  300. Avenell A, Noble DW, Barr J, Engelhardt T. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;:CD003703. View abstract.
  301. Dennert G, Horneber M. Selenium for alleviating the side effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery in cancer patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;:CD005037. View abstract.
  302. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud LL, et al. Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2007;297:842-57. View abstract.
  303. Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Llabre MM, et al. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:148-54. View abstract.
  304. See KA, Lavercombe PS, Dillon J, Ginsberg R. Accidental death from acute selenium poisoning. Med J Aust 2006;185:388-9. View abstract.
  305. Ishikawa M, Sasaki M, Koiwai K, et al. Inhibition of hepatic mixed-function oxidase enzymes in mice by acute and chronic treatment with selenium. J Pharmacobiodyn 1992;15:377-85. View abstract.
  306. Debski B, Milner JA. Dietary selenium supplementation prolongs pentobarbital induced hypnosis. J Nutr Biochem 2004;15:548-53. View abstract.
  307. Vermeulen NP, Baldew GS, Los G, et al. Reduction of cisplatin nephrotoxicity by sodium selenite. Lack of interaction at the pharmacokinetic level of both compounds. Drug Metab Dispos 1993;21:30-6. View abstract.
  308. Baldew GS, Mol JG, de Kanter FJ, et al. The mechanism of interaction between cisplatin and selenite. Biochem Pharmacol 1991;41:1429-37. View abstract.
  309. Baldew GS, van den Hamer CJ, Los G, et al. Selenium-induced protection against cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) nephrotoxicity in mice and rats. Cancer Res 1989;49:3020-3. View abstract.
  310. Vernie LN, de Goeij JJ, Zegers C, et al. Cisplatin-induced changes of selenium levels and glutathione peroxidase activities in blood of testis tumor patients. Cancer Lett 1988;40:83-91. View abstract.
  311. Duffield AJ, Thomson CD, Hill KE, Williams S. An estimation of selenium requirements for New Zealanders. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:896-903. View abstract.
  312. Calomme MR, Vanderpas JB, Francois B, et al. Thyroid function parameters during a selenium repletion/depletion study in phenylketonuric subjects. Experientia 1995;51:1208-15. View abstract.
  313. Hofbauer LC, Spitzweg C, Magerstadt RA, Heufelder AE. Selenium-induced thyroid dysfunction. Postgrad Med J 1997;73:103-4. View abstract.
  314. Vanderpas JB, Contempre B, Duale NL, et al. Selenium deficiency mitigates hypothyroxinemia in iodine-deficient subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:271S-5S. View abstract.
  315. Contempre B, Dumont JE, Ngo B, et al. Effect of selenium supplementation in hypothyroid subjects of an iodine and selenium deficient area: the possible danger of indiscriminate supplementation of iodine-deficient subjects with selenium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:213-5. View abstract.
  316. Dillard CJ, Tappel AL. Are some major in vivo effects of gold related to microenvironments of decreased selenium? Med Hypotheses 1986;20:407-20. View abstract.
  317. Gregus Z, Gyurasics A, Csanaky I. Effects of arsenic-, platinum-, and gold-containing drugs on the disposition of exogenous selenium in rats. Toxicolog Sci 2000;57:22-31. View abstract.
  318. Capel ID, Jenner M, Williams DC, et al. The effect of prolonged oral contraceptive steroid use on erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity. J Steroid Biochem 1981;14:729-32. View abstract.
  319. Lloyd B, Lloyd RS, Clayton BE. Effect of smoking, alcohol and other factors on the selenium status of a healthy population. J Epidemiol Commun Health 1983;37:213-7. View abstract.
  320. Heese HD, Lawrence MA, Dempster WS, Pocock F. Reference concentrations of serum selenium and manganese in healthy nulliparas. S Afr Med J 1988;73:163-5. View abstract.
  321. Vaddadi KS, Soosai E, Vaddadi G. Low blood selenium concentrations in schizophrenic patients on clozapine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003;55:307-9. View abstract.
  322. Linday LA, Pippenger CE, Howard A, Lieberman JA. Free radical scavenging enzyme activity and related trace metals in clozapine-induced agranulocytosis: a pilot study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1995;15:353-60. View abstract.
  323. Davila JC, Edds GT, Osuna O, Simpson CF. Modification of the effects of aflatoxin B1 and warfarin in young pigs given selenium. Am J Vet Res 1983;44:1877-83. View abstract.
  324. Schiavon R, Freeman GE, Guidi GC, et al. Selenium enhances prostacyclin production by cultured endothelial cells: possible explanation for increased bleeding times in volunteers taking selenium as a dietary supplement. Thromb Res 1984;34:389-96. View abstract.
  325. Watanabe C, Kim CY, Satoh H. Tissue-specific modification of selenium concentration by acute and chronic dexamethasone administration in mice. Br J Nutr 1997;78:501-9. View abstract.
  326. Fenech AG, Ellul-Micallef R. Selenium, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in Maltese asthmatic patients: effect of glucocorticoid administration. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 1998;11:301-8. View abstract.
  327. Koskelo EK. Serum selenium in children during anti-cancer chemotherapy. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990;44:799-802. View abstract.
  328. Marano G, Fischioni P, Graziano C, et al. Increased serum selenium levels in patients under corticosteroid treatment. Pharmacol Toxicol 1990;67:120-2. View abstract.
  329. Peretz A, Neve J, Vertongen F, et al. Selenium status in relation to clinical variables and corticosteroid treatment in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1987;14:1104-7. View abstract.
  330. Smith DK, Feldman EB, Feldman DS. Trace element status in multiple sclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:136-40. View abstract.
  331. Kurekci AE, Alpay F, Tanindi S, et al. Plasma trace element, plasma glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase levels in epileptic children receiving antiepileptic drug therapy. Epilepsia 1995;36:600-4. View abstract.
  332. Ip C. Interaction of vitamin C and selenium supplementation in the modification of mammary carcinogenesis in rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 1986;77:299-303. View abstract.
  333. Sieja K, Talerczyk M. Selenium as an element in the treatment of ovarian cancer in women receiving chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol 2004;93:320-7. View abstract.
  334. Sors TG, Ellis DR, Na GN, et al. Analysis of sulfur and selenium assimilation in Astragalus plants with varying capacities to accumulate selenium. Plant J 2005;42:785-97. View abstract.
  335. You WC, Brown LM, Zhang L, et al. Randomized double-blind factorial trial of three treatments to reduce the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:974-83. View abstract.
  336. Meyer F, Galan P, Douville P, et al. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplementation and prostate cancer prevention in the SU.VI.MAX trial. Int J Cancer 2005;116:182-6. View abstract.
  337. Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, et al. The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:2335-42. View abstract.
  338. Seidner DL, Lashner BA, Brzezinski A, et al. An oral supplement enriched with fish oil, soluble fiber, and antioxidants for corticosteroid sparing in ulcerative colitis: a randomized, controlled trial. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;3:358-69. View abstract.
  339. Jordan JM, Fang F, Arab L, et al. Low selenium levels are associated with increased risk for osteoarthritis of the knee. American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting. San Diego November 12 - 17, 2005. Abstract 1189.
  340. Duffield-Lillico AJ, Dalkin BL, Reid ME, et al. Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. BJU Int 2003;91:608-12. View abstract.
  341. Taylor PR, Parnes HL, Lippman SM. Science peels the onion of selenium effects on prostate carcinogenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004;96:645-7. View abstract.
  342. Li H, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, et al. A prospective study of plasma selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004;96:696-703. View abstract.
  343. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Simonetti RG, Gluud C. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2004;364:1219-28. View abstract.
  344. House WA, Welch RM. Bioavailability of and interactions between zinc and selenium in rats fed wheat grain intrinsically labeled with 65Zn and 75Se. J Nutr 1989;119:916-21. View abstract.
  345. Schrauzer GN. Anticarcinogenic effects of selenium. Cell Mol Life Sci 2000;57:1864-73. View abstract.
  346. Flodin NW. Micronutrient supplements: toxicity and drug interactions. Prog Food Nutr Sci 1990;14:277-331. View abstract.
  347. Venkateswaran V, Fleshner NE, Klotz LH. Synergistic effect of vitamin E and selenium in human prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2004;7:54-6. View abstract.
  348. Verrotti A, Basciani F, Trotta D, et al. Serum copper, zinc, selenium, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels in epileptic children before and after 1 year of sodium valproate and carbamazepine therapy. Epilepsy Res 2002;48:71-5. View abstract.
  349. Fatemi SH, Calabrese JR. Treatment of valproate-induced alopecia (letter). Ann Pharmacother 1995;29;1302. View abstract.
  350. Hurd RW, Van Rinsvelt HA, Wilder BJ, et al. Selenium, zinc, and copper changes with valproic acid: possible relation to drug side effects. Neurology 1984;34:1393-5. View abstract.
  351. Karagas MR, Greenberg ER, Nierenberg D, et al. Risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in relation to plasma selenium, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and retinol: a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997;6:25-9.. View abstract.
  352. Berger MM, Shenkin A, Revelly JP, et al. Copper, selenium, zinc, and thiamine balances during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration in critically ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:410-6. View abstract.
  353. Duffield-Lillico AJ, Slate EH, Reid ME, et al. Selenium supplementation and secondary prevention of nonmelanoma skin cancer in a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1477-81.. View abstract.
  354. Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:2018-23.. View abstract.
  355. Dawson EB, Albers JH, McGanity WJ. The apparent effect of iron supplementation on serum selenium levels in teenage pregnancy. Biol Trace Elem Res 2000;77:209-17.. View abstract.
  356. Reid ME, Duffield-Lillico AJ, Garland L, et al. Selenium supplementation and lung cancer incidence: an update of the nutritional prevention of cancer trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:1285-91.. View abstract.
  357. Gartner R, Gasnier BC, Dietrich JW, et al. Selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis decreases thyroid peroxidase antibodies concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:1687-91.. View abstract.
  358. Bogye G, Alfthan G, Machay T. Bioavailability of enteral yeast-selenium in preterm infants. Biol Trace Elem Res 1998;65:143-51.. View abstract.
  359. Peretz A, Siderova V, Neve J. Selenium supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis investigated in a double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Rheumatol 2001;30:208-12.. View abstract.
  360. Robinson MF, Thomson CD, Jenkinson CP, et al Long-term supplementation with selenate and selenomethionine: urinary excretion by New Zealand women. Br J Nutr 1997;77:551-63.. View abstract.
  361. Van Dael P, Davidsson L, Munoz-Box R, et al. Selenium absorption and retention from a selenite- or selenate-fortified milk-based formula in men measured by a stable-isotope technique. Br J Nutr 2001;85:157-63.. View abstract.
  362. Rao CV, Wang CQ, Simi B, et al. Chemoprevention of colon cancer by a glutathione conjugate of 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate, a novel organoselenium compound with low toxicity. Cancer Res 2001;61:3647-52.. View abstract.
  363. Hawkes WC, Turek PJ. Effects of dietary selenium on sperm motility in healthy men. J Androl 2001;22:764-72.. View abstract.
  364. Beck MA, Nelson HK, Shi Q, et al. Selenium deficiency increases the pathology of an influenza virus infection. FASEB J 2001;15:1481-3. View abstract.
  365. Navarrete M, Gaudry A, Revel G, et al. Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer. Biol Trace Elem Res 2001;79:97-105.. View abstract.
  366. Milde D, Novak O, Stu ka V, et al. Serum levels of selenium, manganese, copper, and iron in colorectal cancer patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 2001;79:107-14.. View abstract.
  367. Berger MM, Reymond MJ, Shenkin A, et al. Influence of selenium supplements on the post-traumatic alterations of the thyroid axis: a placebo-controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:91-100.. View abstract.
  368. Sher L. Role of selenium depletion in the etiopathogenesis of depression in patient with alcoholism. Med Hypotheses 2002;59:330-3.. View abstract.
  369. Finley JW, Ip C, Lisk DJ, et al. Cancer-protective properties of high-selenium broccoli. J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:2679-83.. View abstract.
  370. Duffield-Lillico AJ, Reid ME, et al. Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:630-9.. View abstract.
  371. Djujic IS, Jozanov-Stankov ON, Milovac M, et al. Bioavailability and possible benefits of wheat intake naturally enriched with selenium and its products. Biol Trace Elem Res 2000;77:273-85.. View abstract.
  372. Baeten JM, Mostad SB, Hughes MP, et al. Selenium deficiency is associated with shedding of HIV-1--infected cells in the female genital tract. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;26:360-4.. View abstract.
  373. Schrauzer GN, Sacher J. Selenium in the maintenance and therapy of HIV-infected patients. Chem Biol Interact 1994;91:199-205.. View abstract.
  374. Combs GF Jr. Selenium in global food systems. Br J Nutr 2001;85:517-47.. View abstract.
  375. Thomson CD, Robinson MF. Urinary and fecal excretions and absorption of a large supplement of selenium: superiority of selenate over selenite. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;44:659-63.. View abstract.
  376. Dias MF, Sousa E, Cabrita S, et al. Chemoprevention of DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats by a combined regimen of alpha-tocopherol, selenium, and ascorbic Acid. Breast J 2000;6:14-19.. View abstract.
  377. Girodon F, Lombard M, Galan P, et al. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on infection in institutionalized elderly subjects: a controlled trial. Ann Nutr Metab 1997;41:98-107. View abstract.
  378. Brooks JD, Metter EJ, Chan DW, et al. Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development. J Urol 2001;166:2034-8.. View abstract.
  379. Nomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN, Combs GF. Serum selenium and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:883-7.. View abstract.
  380. Yoshizawa K, Willett WC, Morris SJ, et al. Study of prediagnostic selenium level in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1219-24.. View abstract.
  381. Shen CL, Song W, Pence BC. Interactions of selenium compounds with other antioxidants in DNA damage and apoptosis in human normal keratinocytes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10:385-90. View abstract.
  382. Ustundag Y, Boyacioglu S, Haberal A, et al. Plasma and gastric tissue selenium levels in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection. J Clin Gastroenterol 2001;32:405-8. View abstract.
  383. Zapletal C, Heyne S, Golling M, et al. Influence of selenium therapy on liver microcirculation after warm ischemia/reperfusion: an intravital microscopy study. Transplant Proc 2001;33:974-5. View abstract.
  384. Trafikowska U, Zachara BA, Wiacek M, et al. Selenium supply and glutathione peroxidase activity in breastfed Polish infants. Acta Paediatr 1996;85:1143-5. View abstract.
  385. King JC. Effect of reproduction on the bioavailability of calcium, zinc and selenium. J Nutr 2001;131:1355S-8S. View abstract.
  386. Schrauzer GN. Nutritional selenium supplements: product types, quality, and safety. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:1-4. View abstract.
  387. Bogye G, Alfthan G, Machay T, Zubovics L. Enteral yeast-selenium supplementation in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1998;78:F225-6. View abstract.
  388. Schrauzer GN. Selenomethionine: a review of its nutritional significance, metabolism and toxicity. J Nutr 2000;130:1653-6. View abstract.
  389. Finley JW, Davis CD, Feng Y. Selenium from high selenium broccoli protects rats from colon cancer. J Nutr 2000;130:2384-9. View abstract.
  390. Shiobara Y, Yoshida T, Suzuki KT. Effects of dietary selenium species on Se concentrations in hair, blood, and urine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1998;152:309-14. View abstract.
  391. Wuyi W, Linsheng Y, Shaofan H, et al. Prevention of endemic arsenism with selenium. Curr Sci 2001;81:1215-8.
  392. Constans J, Delmas-Beauvieux MC, Sergeant C, et al. One-year antioxidant supplementation with beta-carotene or selenium for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a pilot study. Clin Infect Dis 1996;23:654-6. View abstract.
  393. Baum MK, Miguez-Burbano MJ, Campa A, Shor-Posner G. Selenium and interleukins in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis 2000;182 Suppl 1:S69-73. View abstract.
  394. Liu S, Shia D, Liu G, et al. Roles of Se and NO in apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Life Sci 2000;68:603-10. View abstract.
  395. Stewart MS, Spallholz JE, Neldner KH, Pence BC. Selenium compounds have disparate abilities to impose oxidative stress and induce apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med 1999;26:42-8. View abstract.
  396. Fleshner NE, Kucuk O. Antioxidant dietary supplements: Rationale and current status as chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Urology 2001;57:90-4. View abstract.
  397. El-Bayoumy K. The protective role of selenium on genetic damage and on cancer. Mutat Res 2001;475:123-39. View abstract.
  398. Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1583-93. View abstract.
  399. Kelly P, Musonda R, Kafwembe E, et al. Micronutrient supplementation in the AIDS diarrhea-wasting syndrome in Zambia: a randomized controlled trial. AIDS 1999;13:495-500. View abstract.
  400. Girodon F, Galan P, Monget AL, et al. Impact of trace elements and vitamin supplementation on immunity and infections in institutionalized elderly patients: a randomized, controlled trial. MIN. VIT. AOX. geriatric network. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:748-54. View abstract.
  401. Berger MM, Spertini F, Shenkin A, et al. Trace element supplementation modulates pulmonary infection rates after major burns: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:365-71. View abstract.
  402. Wen HY, Davis RL, Shi B, et al. Bioavailability of selenium from veal, chicken, beef, lamb, flounder, tuna, selenomethionine, and sodium selenite assessed in selenium-deficient rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 1997;58:43–53. View abstract.
  403. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309069351/html/.
  404. Orndahl G, Grimby G, Grimby A, et al. Functional deterioration and selenium-vitamin E treatment in myotonic dystrophy. A placebo-controlled study. J Intern Med 1994;235:205-10. View abstract.
  405. Wang GQ, Dawsey SM, Li JY, et al. Effects of vitamin/mineral supplementation on the prevalence of histological dysplasia and early cancer of the esophagus and stomach: results from the General Population Trial in Linxian, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1994;3:161-6. View abstract.
  406. Suthutvoravut U, Hathirat P, Sirichakwal P, et al. Vitamin E status, glutathione peroxidase activity and the effect of vitamin E supplementation in children with thalassemia. J Med Assoc Thai 1993;76:146-52. View abstract.
  407. Vinceti M, Rothman KJ, Bergomi KJ, et al. Excess melanoma incidence in a cohort exposed to high levels of environmental selenium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998;7:853-6. View abstract.
  408. Rayman MP. The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 2000;356:233-41. View abstract.
  409. Neve J. Selenium as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996;3:42-7. View abstract.
  410. Mark SD, Wang W, Fraumeni JF Jr, et al. Do nutritional supplements lower the risk of stroke or hypertension? Epidemiology 1998;9:9-15. View abstract.
  411. Koller LD, Exon JH. The two faces of selenium-deficiency and toxicity--are similar in animals and man. Can J Vet Res 1986;50:297-306. View abstract.
  412. Clark LC, Dalkin B, Krongrad A, et al. Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double-blind cancer prevention trial. Br J Urol 1998;81:730-4. View abstract.
  413. Clark LC, Combs GF Jr, Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1996;276:1957-63. View abstract.
  414. Chan S, Gerson B, Subramaniam S. The role of copper, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc in nutrition and health. Clin Lab Med 1998;18:673-85. View abstract.
  415. Aaseth J, Haugen M, Forre O. Rheumatoid arthritis and metal compounds-perspectives on the role of oxygen radical detoxification. Analyst 1998;123:3-6. View abstract.
  416. Blot WJ, Li JY, Taylor PR. Nutritional intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:1483-92. View abstract.
  417. Krizek M, Senft V, Motan J. Influence of hemodialysis on selenium blood levels. Sb Lek 2000;101:241-8.. View abstract.
  418. Neve J. New approaches to assess selenium status and requirement. Nutr Rev 2000;58:363-9.. View abstract.
  419. Arnaud J, Malvy D, Richard MJ, et al. Selenium status in an iodine deficient population of the West Ivory Coast. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 2001;20:81-4.. View abstract.
  420. Wasowicz W, Gromadzinska J, Szram K, et al. Selenium, zinc, and copper concentrations in the blood and milk of lactating women. Biol Trace Elem Res 2001;79:221-33.. View abstract.
  421. Hiramatsu T, Imoto M, Koyano T, Umezawa K. Induction of normal phenotypes in ras-transformed cells by damnacanthal from Morinda citrifolia. Cancer Lett 1993;73:161-6. View abstract.
  422. Stein TP, Schluter MD, Leskiw MJ, Boden G. Attenuation of the protein wasting associated with bed rest by branched-chain amino acids. Nutrition 1999;15:656-60. View abstract.
  423. Jie KG, Bots ML, Vermeer C, et al. Vitamin K status and bone mass in women with and without aortic atherosclerosis: a population-based study. Calcif Tissue Int 1996;59:352-6. View abstract.
  424. Coleman M, Steinberg G, Tippett J, et al. A preliminary study of the effect of pyridoxine administration in a subgroup of hyperkinetic children: A double-blind crossover comparison with methylphenidate. Biol Psych 1979;14:741-51. View abstract.
  425. Baldwa VS, Bhandari CM, Pangaria A, Goyal RK. Clinical trial in patients with diabetes mellitus of an insulin-like compound obtained from plant sources. Ups J Med Sci 1977;82:39-41. View abstract.
  426. Raman A, et al. Anti-diabetic properties and phytochemistry of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). Phytomedicine 1996;294.
  427. Srivastava Y, Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H, Verma Y, et al. Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica charantia extract: An experimental and clinical evaluation. Phytother Res 1993;7:285-9.
  428. Leatherdale B, Panesar RK, Singh G, et al. Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;282:1823-4. View abstract.
  429. Chevallier A. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. New York, NY: DK Publishing, 1996.
  430. Kung AWC, Pun KK. Bone mineral density in premenopausal women receiving long-term physiological doses of levothyroxine. JAMA 1991;265:2688-91. View abstract.
  431. Golik A, Modai D, Averbukh Z, et al. Zinc metabolism in patients treated with captopril versus enalapril. Metabolism 1990;39:665-7. View abstract.
  432. Golik A, Zaidenstein R, Dishi V, et al. Effects of captopril and enalapril on zinc metabolism in hypertensive patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:75-8. View abstract.
  433. Adams ME. Hype about glucosamine. Lancet 1999;354:353-4. View abstract.
  434. Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 2nd ed. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications, 1998.
  435. Ellenhorn MJ, et al. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnoses and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1997.
  436. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
  437. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., ed. Drug Information for the Health Care Professional. 19th ed. Englewood, CO: Micromedex Inc., 1999.
  438. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. Terry C. Telger, transl. 3rd ed. Berlin, GER: Springer, 1998.
  439. The Review of Natural Products by Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co., 1999.
  440. Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 3rd ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1993.
  441. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Philpson JD. Herbal Medicine: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London, UK: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996.
  442. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994.
  443. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
  444. Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 02/16/2015




Page last updated: 20 March 2015