What is it?
Ginkgo is an herb. The leaves are generally used to make “extracts” that are used as medicine. However, a few medicines are made from the seed, but these are not well studied.
Ginkgo is often used for memory disorders including Alzheimer’s disease. It is also used for conditions that seem to be due to reduced blood flow in the brain, especially in older people. These conditions include memory loss, headache, ringing in the ears, vertigo, difficulty concentrating, mood disturbances, and hearing disorders. Some people use it for other problems related to poor blood flow in the body, including leg pain when walking (claudication), and Raynaud’s syndrome (a painful response to cold, especially in the fingers and toes).
Ginkgo leaf is also used for thinking disorders related to Lyme disease and depression.
Some people use ginkgo to treat sexual performance problems. It is sometimes used to reverse the sexual performance problems that can accompany taking certain antidepressants called SSRIs.
Ginkgo been tried for eye problems including glaucoma, diabetic eye disease, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
The list of other uses of ginkgo is very long. This may be because this herb has been around for so long. Ginkgo biloba is one of the longest living tree species in the world. Ginkgo trees can live as long as a thousand years. Using ginkgo for asthma and bronchitis was described in 2600 BC.
In manufacturing, ginkgo leaf extract is used in cosmetics. In foods, roasted ginkgo seed, which has the pulp removed, is an edible delicacy in Japan and China. Remember, though, the whole seed is LIKELY UNSAFE to eat.
Ginkgo interacts with many medicines. Before taking it, talk with your healthcare provider if you take any medications.
How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
The effectiveness ratings for GINKGO are as follows:
Possibly effective for...
- Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia. Some evidence shows that taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth modestly improves symptoms of Alzheimer’s, vascular, or mixed dementias. However, there are concerns that findings from many of the early ginkgo studies may not be reliable. Although most clinical trials show ginkgo helps for symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, there are some conflicting findings, suggesting it may be hard to determine which people might benefit.
- Improving thinking problems caused by old age. Taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth seems to improve thinking skills in some elderly people with mild to moderate age-related memory loss or thinking problems. Ginkgo leaf extract might modestly improve short-term visual memory and speed of mental processing in non-demented people with age-related memory loss.
- Improving thinking in young people. Taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth seems to improve some thinking skills in healthy young to middle-aged people. Ginkgo might modestly improve memory and speed of mental processing in people without memory loss. Some evidence suggests a combination of Panax ginseng and ginkgo is effective for improving memory and that the combination might be more effective than either product alone.
- Painful response to cold especially in the fingers and toes (Raynaud’s syndrome). Taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth seems to decrease the number of painful attacks per week in people with Raynaud’s syndrome.
- Leg pain when walking due to poor blood flow (claudication, peripheral vascular disease). Some evidence shows that taking ginkgo seems to increase the distance people with poor blood circulation in their legs can walk without pain. Taking ginkgo might also reduce the chance of requiring surgery.
- Vertigo and dizziness. Taking ginkgo leaf by mouth seems to significantly improve symptoms of dizziness and balance disorders.
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth seems to produce significant relief in breast tenderness and other symptoms associated with PMS when started during the 16th day of the menstrual cycle and continued until the 5th day of the following cycle.
- Glaucoma. Taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth seems to improve pre-existing damage to the visual field in people with normal tension glaucoma.
- Improving color vision in people with diabetes. There is some evidence that taking ginkgo leaf extract by mouth for six months can significantly improve color vision in people whose retinas have been damaged by diabetes.
Possibly ineffective for...
- Ringing in the ears (tinnitus).
- Winter depression in people with seasonal affective disorder (SAD).
- Sexual problems related to antidepressant medicines.
- Preventing symptoms of mountain or altitude sickness in climbers.
Likely ineffective for...
- Heart disease. Taking ginkgo does not reduce the chance of having a heart attack, chest pain, or stroke in elderly people.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
GINKGO LEAF EXTRACT
- Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). There is some early evidence that ginkgo leaf extract might improve symptoms and distance vision in people with AMD.
- Anxiety. Preliminary clinical research shows that a specific ginkgo extract (EGb 761, Tanakan) can reduce symptoms of anxiety in adults with generalized anxiety disorder or adjustment disorder with anxious mood.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is preliminary evidence that a specific combination product (AD-fX, CV Technologies, Canada) containing ginkgo leaf extract, in combination with American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), might help improve ADHD symptoms such as anxiety, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness in 3 to 17 year-old children.
- Stroke. There is contradictory evidence about the effectiveness of ginkgo for improving recovery in people with strokes caused by a clot.
- Hearing loss. There is some evidence that ginkgo might help short-term hearing loss due to unknown causes. However, many of these people recover their hearing on their own. So it’s hard to know if ginkgo has any effect.
- Fibromyalgia. There is some preliminary research that suggests taking ginkgo along with coenzyme Q-10 might increase feelings of wellness and perception of overall health and reduced pain.
- Radiation exposure. There is some research that suggests taking ginkgo might decrease some of the negative effects of radiation on the body.
- Vitiligo. There is some preliminary research that taking ginkgo might decrease the size and spread of skin lesions.
- High cholesterol.
- “Hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis).
- Blood clots, heart disease.
- Colorectal cancer.
- Ovarian cancer.
- Thinking problems related to Lyme disease.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
- Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate ginkgo leaf extract for these uses.
- Urinary problems.
- Digestion disorders.
- Skin sores.
More evidence is needed to rate ginkgo seeds for these uses.
Ginkgo seems to improve blood circulation, which might help the brain, eyes, ears, and legs function better. It may slow down Alzheimer’s disease by interfering with changes in the brain that interfere with thinking.
Ginkgo seeds contain substances that might kill the bacteria and fungi that cause infections in the body. The seeds also contain a toxin that can cause side effects like seizure and loss of consciousness.
Ginkgo LEAF EXTRACT is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth for most people when used in appropriate doses. It can cause some minor side effects such as stomach upset, headache, dizziness, constipation, forceful heartbeat, and allergic skin reactions.
There is some concern that ginkgo leaf extract might increase the risk of liver and thyroid cancers. But this has only occurred in animals given extremely high doses of ginkgo. There isn’t enough information to know if it could happen in humans.
Ginkgo fruit and pulp can cause severe allergic skin reactions and irritation of mucous membranes. Ginkgo might cause an allergic reaction in people who are allergic to poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, mango rind, or cashew shell oil.
There is some concern that ginkgo leaf extract might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding. Ginkgo thins the blood and decreases its ability to form clots. A few people taking ginkgo have had bleeding into the eye and into the brain, and excessive bleeding following surgery. Ginkgo leaf extract can cause allergic skin reactions in some people.
The ROASTED SEED or crude ginkgo plant is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth. Eating more than 10 roasted seeds per day can cause difficulty breathing, weak pulse, seizures, loss of consciousness, and shock. The FRESH SEED is even more dangerous. Fresh seeds are poisonous, and eating them could cause seizures and death.
Not enough is known about the safety of ginkgo when applied to the skin to determine if it is safe.
Special precautions & warnings:
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Ginkgo is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used during pregnancy. It might cause early labor or extra bleeding during delivery if used near that time. Not enough is known about the safety of using ginkgo during breast-feeding. Don’t use ginkgo if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Children: Ginkgo leaf extract is POSSIBLY SAFE. Some research suggests that a specific combination of ginkgo leaf extract plus American ginseng might be safe in children when used short-term. Don’t let children eat the ginkgo seed. It is UNSAFE.
Diabetes: Ginkgo might interfere with the management of diabetes. If you have diabetes, monitor your blood sugar closely.
Seizures: There is a concern that ginkgo might cause seizures. If you have ever had a seizure, don’t use ginkgo.
Infertility: Ginkgo use might interfere with getting pregnant. Discuss your use of ginkgo with your healthcare provider if you are trying to get pregnant.
Bleeding disorders: Ginkgo might make bleeding disorders worse. If you have a bleeding disorder, don’t use ginkgo.
Surgery: Ginkgo might slow blood clotting. It might cause extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using ginkgo at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Be cautious with this combination.
Taking ginkgo along with alprazolam might decrease the effects of alprazolam.
Ginkgo seems to affect the brain. Buspirone (BuSpar) also affects the brain. One person felt hyper and overexcited when taking ginkgo, buspirone (BuSpar), and other medications. It is unclear if this interaction was caused by ginkgo or the other medications.
Efavirenz (Sustiva) is used to treat HIV infection. Taking efavirenz (Sustiva) along with ginkgo extract might decrease the effects of efavirenz (Sustiva). Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take medications for HIV.
Taking ginkgo along with St. John's wort, other herbs, and fluoxetine (Prozac) might cause you to feel irritated, nervous, jittery, and excited. This is called hypomania. It's not known if this is a concern when just ginkgo is taken with fluoxetine (Prozac).
Ginkgo might slow blood clotting. Ibuprofen can also slow blood clotting. Taking ginkgo with ibuprofen might slow blood clotting too much and increase the chance of bruising and bleeding.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking ginkgo along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking ginkgo with these medications might decrease how well the medication works. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), carisoprodol (Soma), citalopram (Celexa), diazepam (Valium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), phenytoin (Dilantin), warfarin (Coumadin), and many others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking ginkgo along with these medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), diazepam (Valium), zileuton (Zyflo), celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking ginkgo along with some medications that are changed by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), clozapine (Clozaril), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), donepezil (Aricept), fentanyl (Duragesic), flecainide (Tambocor), fluoxetine (Prozac), meperidine (Demerol), methadone (Dolophine), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), tramadol (Ultram), trazodone (Desyrel), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might affect how quickly the liver breaks down some medications, and lead to a variety of effects and side effects. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), diltiazem (Cardizem), estrogens, indinavir (Crixivan), triazolam (Halcion), and others.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. Ginkgo might increase or decrease insulin and blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Taking ginkgo along with diabetes medications might decrease how well your medication works. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications that increase the chance of having a seizure (Seizure threshold lowering drugs)
Some medications increase the chance of having a seizure. Taking ginkgo might cause seizures in some people. If this combination is taken, it might greatly increase the chance of having a seizure. Do not take ginkgo with medications that increase the chance of having a seizure.
Some medications that increase the chance of having a seizure include anesthesia (propofol, others), antiarrhythmics (mexiletine), antibiotics (amphotericin, penicillin, cephalosporins, imipenem), antidepressants (bupropion, others), antihistamines (cyproheptadine, others), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), narcotics (fentanyl, others), stimulants (methylphenidate), theophylline, and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Ginkgo might slow blood clotting. Taking ginkgo along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, indomethacin (Indocin), ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Medications used to prevent seizures (Anticonvulsants)
Medications used to prevent seizures affect chemicals in the brain. Ginkgo can also affect chemicals in the brain in a way that might possibly decrease the effectiveness of medications used to prevent seizures.
Some medications used to prevent seizures include phenobarbital, primidone (Mysoline), valproic acid (Depakene), gabapentin (Neurontin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), phenytoin (Dilantin), and others.
Trazodone (Desyrel) affects chemicals in the brain. Ginkgo can also affect chemicals in the brain. Taking trazodone (Desyrel) along with ginkgo might cause serious side effects in the brain. One person taking trazodone and ginkgo went into a coma. Do not take ginkgo if you are taking trazodone (Desyrel).
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Ginkgo might also slow blood clotting. Taking ginkgo along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Be watchful with this combination.
Hydrochlorothiazide is used to help decrease swelling and control blood pressure. Taking hydrochlorothiazide along with ginkgo might increase blood pressure. Before taking ginkgo, talk to your healthcare provider if you take medications for high blood pressure.
Omeprazole (Prilosec) is changed and broken down by the liver. Ginkgo might increase how fast the liver breaks down omeprazole (Prilosec). Taking ginkgo with omeprazole (Prilosec) might decrease how well omeprazole (Prilosec) works.
Herbs and supplements that increase the risk of seizure
Ginkgo seeds contain a chemical that can cause seizures in high doses. People who are already taking supplements that may increase seizure risk might be at greater risk if they take ginkgo, too. Seizures after using ginkgo leaf have been reported in people with no history of seizure as well as in people with well- controlled epilepsy.
It's best to avoid taking ginkgo with herbs and supplements that can increase the risk of seizure. These herbs and supplements include: butanediol (BD), cedar leaf, Chinese club moss, EDTA, folic acid, gamma butyrolactone (GBL), gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), glutamine, huperzine A, hydrazine sulfate, hyssop oil, juniper, L-carnitine, melatonin, rosemary, sage, wormwood, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Using herbs and supplements that slow blood clotting along with ginkgo could increase the risk of bleeding in some people. This is because ginkgo might slow blood clotting. Some other herbs of this type include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, Panax ginseng, and others.
St. John's wort
Ginkgo, in combination with buspirone (BuSpar), fluoxetine (Prozac), melatonin, and St. John's wort might cause manic symptoms in people with depression. No one knows whether ginkgo alone, or in combination with St. John's wort, can cause these symptoms.
There are no known interactions with foods.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For dementia syndromes: a dosage of 120-240 mg per day of ginkgo leaf extract, divided in two or three doses.
- For cognitive function improvement in healthy young people: dosages of 120-600 mg per day.
- For Raynaud’s disease: a dosage of 360 mg per day of ginkgo leaf extract, divided into three doses.
- For walking pain due to poor circulation (claudication, peripheral vascular disease): a dosage of 120-240 mg per day of ginkgo leaf extract, divided into two or three doses, has been used; however, the higher dose may be more effective.
- For vertigo: dosages of 120-160 mg per day of ginkgo leaf extract, divided into two or three doses.
- For premenstrual syndrome (PMS): 80 mg twice daily, starting on the sixteenth day of the menstrual cycle until the fifth day of the next cycle.
- For the treatment of normal tension glaucoma: ginkgo leaf extract 40 mg 3 times daily up to four weeks.
For all uses, start at a lower dose of not more than 120 mg per day to avoid gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. Increase to higher doses indicated as needed. Dosing may vary depending on the specific formulation used. Most researchers used specific standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts. Some people take 0.5 mL of a standard 1:5 tincture of the crude ginkgo leaf three times daily.
You should avoid crude ginkgo plant parts. These can contain dangerous levels of the toxic chemicals found in the seed of the plant and elsewhere. These chemicals can cause severe allergic reactions.
Abricot Argenté Japonais, Adiantifolia, Arbre aux Écus, Arbre aux Quarante Écus, Arbre du Ciel, Arbre Fossile, Bai Guo Ye, Baiguo, Extrait de Feuille de Ginkgo, Extrait de Ginkgo, Fossil Tree, Ginkgo biloba, Ginkgo Biloba Leaf, Ginkgo Extract, Ginkgo Folium, Ginkgo Leaf Extact, Ginkgo Seed, Graine de Ginkgo, Herba Ginkgo Biloba, Japanese Silver Apricot, Kew Tree, Maidenhair Tree, Noyer du Japon, Pei Go Su Ye, Salisburia Adiantifolia, Yen Xing, Yinhsing.
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).
To see all references for the Ginkgo page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/333.html.
- National Toxicology Program. Technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of Ginkgo biloba extract in F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice. Research Triangle Park, NC. March 2013. NIH publication number 13-5920. Available at: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/LT_rpts/TR578_508.pdf (Accessed 9 May 2013).
- Emerit I, Ogansian N, Sarkisian T, et al. Clastogenic factors in the plasma of Chernobyl accident recovery workers: anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract. Radiat Res 1995;144:198-205.
- Szczurko O, Shear N, Taddio A, Boon H. Ginkgo biloba for the treatment of vitiligo vulgaris: an open label pilot clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011;11:21.
- Ihl R, Tribanek M, Bachinskaya N. Baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms are effect modifiers in Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) treatment of dementia with neuropsychiatric features. Retrospective data analyses of a randomized controlled trial. J Neurol Sci 2010;299:184-7.
- Lister RE. An open, pilot study to evaluate the potential benefits of coenzyme Q10 combined with Ginkgo biloba extract in fibromyalgia syndrome. J Int Med Res 2002;30:195-9.
- Kuller LH, Ives DG, Fitzpatrick AL, et al. Does Ginkgo biloba reduce the risk of cardiovascular events? Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2010;3:41-7.
- Yoshitake T, Yoshitake S, Kehr J. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and its main constituent flavonoids and ginkgolides increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortex. Br J Pharmacol 2010;159:659-68.
- Fehske CJ, Leuner K, Muller WE. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) influences monoaminergic neurotransmission via inhibition of NE uptake, but not MAO activity after chronic treatment. Pharmacol Res 2009;60:68-73.
- Ihl R, Tribanek M, Bachinskaya N; GOTADAY Study Group. Efficacy and tolerability of a once daily formulation of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: results from a randomised controlled trial. Pharmacopsychiatry 2012;45:41-6.
- Kellermann AJ, Kloft C. Is there a risk of bleeding associated with standardized ginkgo biloba extract therapy? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacotherapy 2011;31:490-502.
Salehi B, Imani R, Mohammadi MR, et al. Ginkgo biloba for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a double blind, randomized controlled trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2010;34:76-80.
- Kim BH, Kim KP, Lim KS, et al. Influence of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetic properties of ticlopidine: An open-label, randomized, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence, single-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers. Clin Ther 2010;32:380-90.
- Wiegman DJ, Brinkman K, Franssen EJ. Interaction of Ginkgo biloba with efavirenz. AIDS 2009;23:1184-5.
- Meston CM, Rellini AH, Telch MJ. Short- and long-term effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on sexual dysfunction in women. Arch Sex Behav 2008;37:530-47.
- Doruk A, Uzun O, Ozsahin A. A placebo-controlled study of extract of ginkgo biloba added to clozapine in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2008;23:223-7.
- Gardner CD, Taylor-Piliae RE, Kiazand A, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on treadmill walking time among adults with peripheral artery disease: a randomized clinical trial. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2008;28:258-65.
- Schneider LS, DeKosky ST, Farlow MR, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of two doses of Ginkgo biloba extract in dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Curr Alzheimer Res 2005;2:541-51.
- Birks J, Grimley Evans J. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;:CD003120.
- Dodge HH, Zitzelberger T, Oken BS, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of ginkgo biloba for the prevention of cognitive decline. Neurology 2008;70(19 Pt 2):1809-17.
- DeKosky ST, Williamson JD, Fitzpatrick AL, et al. Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia. JAMA 2008;300:2253-62.
- Woelk H, Arnoldt KH, Kieser M, Hoerr R. Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder with anxious mood: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Psychiatr Res 2007;41:472-80.
- Jiang X, Blair EY, McLachlan AJ. Investigation of the effects of herbal medicines on warfarin response in healthy subjects: a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling approach. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46:1370-8.
- Dugoua JJ, Mills E, Perri D, Koren G. Safety and efficacy of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) during pregnancy and lactation. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2006;13:e277-84.
- Ye B, Aponte M, Dai Y, et al. Ginkgo biloba and ovarian cancer prevention: epidemiological and biological evidence. Cancer Lett 2007;251:43-52.
- Dartigues JF, Carcaillon L, Helmer C, et al. Vasodilators and nootropics as predictors of dementia and mortality in the PAQUID cohort. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:395-9.
- Aruna D, Naidu MU. Pharmacodynamic interaction studies of Ginkgo biloba with cilostazol and clopidogrel in healthy human subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2007;63:333-8.
- Bush TM, Rayburn KS, Holloway SW, et al. Adverse interactions between herbal and dietary substances and prescription medications: a clinical survey. Altern Ther Health Med 2007;13:30-5.
- Mazza M, Capuano A, Bria P, Mazza S. Ginkgo biloba and donepezil: a comparison in the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia in a randomized placebo-controlled double blind study. Eur J Neruol 2006;13:981-5.
- Vale S. Subarachnoid haemorrhage associated with Ginkgo biloba. Lancet 1998;352:36.
- Kudolo GB, Delaney D, Blodgett J. Short-term oral ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) reduces malondialdehyde levels in washed platelets of type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2005;68:29-38.
- Kudolo GB, Wang W, Javors M, Blodgett J. The effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the pharmacokinetics of metformin in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects-A double blind placebo-controlled, crossover study. Clin Nutr 2006;25:606-16.
- Yagmur E, Piatkowski A, Groger A, et al. Bleeding complication under Gingko biloba medication. Am J Hematol 2005;79:343-4.
- Chatterjee SS, Doelman CJ, Noldner M, et al. Influence of the Ginkgo extract EGb 761 on rat liver cytochrome P450 and steroid metabolism and excretion in rats and man. J Pharm Pharmacol 2005;57:641-50.
- Lu WJ, Huang JD, Lai ML. The effects of ergoloid mesylates and ginkgo biloba on the pharmacokinetics of ticlopidine. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46:628-34.
- Pennisi RS. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis induced by the herbal remedy Ginkgo biloba. Med J Aust 2006;184:583-4.
- Kudolo GB. The effect of 3-month ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on pancreatic beta-cell function in response to glucose loading in individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Pharmacol 2001;41:600-11.
- Zeng X, Liu M, Yang Y, et al. Ginkgo biloba for acute ischaemic stroke. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;:CD003691.
- Wheatley D. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs. Hum Psychopharmacol 2004;19:545-8.
- Kudolo GB, Wang W, Elrod R, et al. Short-term ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract does not alter whole body insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic or type 2 diabetic subjects--a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Clin Nutr 2006;25:123-34.
- Mohutsky MA, Anderson GD, Miller JW, Elmer GW. Ginkgo biloba: evaluation of CYP2C9 drug interactions in vitro and in vivo. Am J Ther 2006;13:24-31.
- Hauser D, Gayowski T, Singh N. Bleeding complications precipitated by unrecognized Gingko biloba use after liver transplantation. Transpl Int 2002;15:377-9.
- Kupiec T, Raj V. Fatal seizures due to potential herb-drug interactions with Ginkgo biloba. J Anal Toxicol 2005:755-8.
- Buss K, Drewke C, Lohmann S, et al. Properties and interaction of heterologously expressed glutamate decarboxylase isoenzymes GAD(65kDa) and GAD(67kDa) from human brain with ginkgotoxin and its 5'-phosphate. J Med Chem 2001;44:3166-74.
- Bebbington A, Kulkarni R, Roberts P. Ginkgo biloba: Persistent bleeding after total hip arthroplasty caused by herbal self-medication. J Arthroplasty 2005;20:125-6.
- Meisel C, Johne A, Roots I. Fatal intracerebral mass bleeding associated with Ginkgo biloba and ibuprofen. Atherosclerosis 2003;167:367.
- Bent S, Goldberg H, Padula A, Avins AL. Spontaneous bleeding associated with Ginkgo biloba: a case report and systematic review of the literature. J Gen Intern Med 2005;20;657-61.
- Yin OQ, Tomlinson B, Waye MM, et al. Pharmacogenetics and herb-drug interactions: experience with Ginkgo biloba and omeprazole. Pharmacogenetics 2004;14:841-50.
- Destro MW, Speranzini MB, Cavalheiro Filho C, et al. Bilateral haematoma after rhytidoplasty and blepharoplasty following chronic use of Ginkgo biloba. Br J Plast Surg 2005;58:100-1.
- Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, et al. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005;59:425-32.
- Shannon M, McElroy EA, Liebelt EL. Toxic seizures in children: Case scenarios and treatment strategies. Pediatr Emerg Care 2003;19:206-10.
- Kohler S, Funk P, Kieser M. Influence of a 7-day treatment with Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on bleeding time and coagulation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in healthy volunteers. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2004;15:303–9.
- Gaudineau C, Beckerman R, Welbourn S, Auclair K. Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by multiple constituents of the Ginkgo biloba extract. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 2004;318:1072–8.
- Kurz A, Van Baelen B. Ginkgo biloba compared with cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of dementia: a review based on meta-analyses by the Cochrane collaboration. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;18:217-26.
- Engelsen J, Nielsen JD, Winther K. Effect of coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in stable, long-term warfarin treated outpatients. A randomised, double blind, placebo-crossover trial. Thromb Haemost 2002;87:1075-6.
- Fies P, Dienel A. [Ginkgo extract in impaired vision--treatment with special extract EGb 761 of impaired vision due to dry senile macular degeneration]. Wien Med Wochenschr 2002;152:423-6.
- Gertsch JH, Basnyat B, Johnson EW, et al. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide for prevention of acute mountain sickness among Himalayan trekkers: the prevention of high altitude illness trial (PHAIT). BMJ 2004;328:797.
- Yang X, Chen J, Qian Z, Guo T. [Study on the antibacterial activity of ginkgolic acids]. Zhong Yao Cai 2002;25:651-3.
- Wang H, Ng TB. Ginkbilobin, a novel antifungal protein from Ginkgo biloba seeds with sequence similarity to embryo-abundant protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000;279:407-11.
- Muir AH, Robb R, McLaren M, et al. The use of Ginkgo biloba in Raynaud's disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Vasc Med 2002;7:265-7.
- Arenz A, Kelin M, Flehe K, et al. Occurrence of neurotoxic 4'-O-methylpyridoxine in ginkgo biloba leaves, ginkgo medications and Japanese ginkgo food. Planta Med 1996;62:548-51.
- Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, Lindsay DeVane C, et al. Multiple-dose administration of Ginkgo biloba did not affect cytochrome P-450 2D6 or 3A4 activity in normal volunteers. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2003;23:576-81.
- von Moltke LL, Weemhoff JL, Bedir E, et al. Inhibition of human cytochromes P450 by components of Ginkgo biloba. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004;56:1039-44 .
- Yasui-Furukori N, Furukori H, Kaneda A, et al. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of donepezil. J Clin Pharmacol 2004;44:538-42.
- Yale SH, Glurich I. Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:433-9.
- Kang BJ, Lee SJ, Kim MD, Cho MJ. A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:279-84.
- Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, et al. Cytochrome P450 phenotypic ratios for predicting herb-drug interactions in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;72:276-87.
- Fong KC, Kinnear PE. Retrobulbar haemorrhage associated with chronic Ginkgo biloba ingestion. Postgrad Med J 2003;79:531-2.
- Quaranta L, Bettelli S, Uva MG, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on preexisting visual field damage in normal tension glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2003;110:359-62.
- Hauns B, Haring B, Kohler S, et al. Phase II study of combined 5-fluorouracil/ Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE 761 ONC) therapy in 5-fluorouracil pretreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Phytother Res 2001;15:34-38.
- Morgenstern C, Biermann E. The efficacy of Ginkgo special extract EGb 761 in patients with tinnitus. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;40:188-197.
- Kudolo GB, Dorsey S, Blodgett J. Effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on platelet aggregation and urinary prostanoid excretion in healthy and Type 2 diabetic subjects. Thromb Res 2002;108:151-60.
- Wesnes KA, Ward T, McGinty A, Petrini O. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination in healthy middle-aged volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;152:353-61.
- Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Acute, dose-dependent cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng and their combination in healthy young volunteers: differential interactions with cognitive demand. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:35-44.
- Mix JA, Crews WD. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:267-277.
- Nathan PJ, Ricketts E, Wesnes K, et al. The acute nootropic effects of Ginkgo biloba in healthy older human subjects: a preliminary investigation. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:45-9.
- Solomon PR, Adams F, Silver A, et al. Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:835-40.
- Kressmann S, Muller WE, Blume HH. Pharmaceutical quality of different Ginkgo biloba brands. J Pharm Pharmacol 2002;54:661-9.
- Kudolo G. Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibits collagen-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane A2 synthesis. Alt Ther 2001;7:105.
- Spinella M, Eaton LA. Hypomania induced by herbal and pharmaceutical psychotropic medicines following mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2002;16:359-67.
- Miller LG, Freeman B. Possible subdural hematoma associated with Ginkgo biloba. J Herb Pharmacother 2002;2:57-63.
- Polich J, Gloria R. Cognitive effects of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention and memory. Hum Psychopharmacol 2001;16:409-16.
- Burschka MA, Hassan HA, Reineke T, et al. Effect of treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (oral) on unilateral idiopathic sudden hearing loss in a prospective randomized double-blind study of 106 outpatients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2001;258:213-9.
- Li W, Fitzloff JF, Farnsworth NR, Fong HH. Evaluation of commercial Ginkgo biloba dietary supplements for the presence of colchicine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phytomedicine 2002;9:442-6.
- Petty HR, Fernando M, Kindzelskii AL, et al. Identification of colchicine in placental blood from patients using herbal medicines. Chem Res Toxicol 2001;14:1254-8.
- Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;151:416-23.
- Lyon MR, Cline JC, Totosy de Zepetnek J, et al. Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolium and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2001;26:221-8.
- Lingaerde O, Foreland AR, Magnusson A. Can winter depression be prevented by Ginkgo biloba extract? A placebo-controlled trial. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1999;100:62-6.
- Miwa H, Iijima M, Tanaka S, Mizuno Y. Generalized convulsions after consuming a large amount of gingko nuts. Epilepsia 2001;42:280-1.
- Kajiyama Y, Fujii K, Takeuchi H, Manabe Y. Ginkgo seed poisoning. Pediatrics 2002;109:325-7.
- Granger AS. Ginkgo biloba precipitating epileptic seizures. Age Ageing 2001;30:523-5.
- Gregory PJ. Seizure associated with Ginkgo biloba? Ann Intern Med 2001;134:344.
- Bastianetto S, Ramassamy C, Dore S, et al. The ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) protects hippocampal neurons against cell death induced by beta-amyloid. Eur J Neurosci 2000;12:1882-90.
- Campos-Toimil M, Lugnier C, Droy-Lefaix M, et al. Inhibition of type 4 phosphodiesterase by rolipram and Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) decreases agonist-induced rises in internal calcium in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:e34-e40.
- Forstl H. Clinical issues in current drug therapy for dementia. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2000;14:S103-S108.
- Le Bars PL, Kieser M, Itil KZ. A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2000;11:230-7.
- Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Arnason JT. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine 2000;7:273-82.
- Galluzzi S, Zanetti O, Binetti G, et al. Coma in a patient with Alzheimer's disease taking low dose trazodone and Ginkgo biloba. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68:679-80.
- White HL, Scates PW, Cooper BR. Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves inhibit monoamine oxidase. Life Sci 1996;58:1315-21.
- Porsolt RD, Roux S, Drieu K. Evaluation of a ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in functional tests for monoamine oxidase inhibition. Arzneimittelforschung 2000;50:232-5.
- Fowler JS, Wang GJ, Volkow ND et al. Evidence that gingko biloba extract does not inhibit MAO A and B in living human brain. Life Sci 2000;66:141-6.
- Roncin JP, Schwartz F, D'Arbigny P. Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in control of acute mountain sickness and vascular reactivity to cold exposure. Aviat Space Environ Med 1996;67:445-52.
- Tamborini A, Taurelle R. [Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome]. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 1993;88:447-57.
- Evans JR. Ginkgo biloba extract for age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;:CD001775.
- Lebuisson DA, Leroy L, Rigal G. [Treatment of senile macular degeneration with Ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary double-blind drug vs. placebo study]. (Abstract). Presse Med 1986;15:1556-8.
- National Institutes of Health. Clinical trials. Available at: www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/gui/c/r (Accessed 15 June 2000).
- Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, et al. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract (EGb 761) in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry 1996;29:47-56.
- Wettstein A. Cholinesterase inhibitors and Gingko extracts- are they comparable in the treatment of dementia? Comparison of published, placebo-controlled efficacy studies of at least six months duration (abstract). Phytomedicine 2000;6:393-401.
- Kleijnen J, Knipschild P. Ginkgo biloba for cerebral insufficiency. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1992;34:352-8.
- Hopfenmuller W. [Evidence for a therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba special extract. Meta-analysis of 11 clinical studies in patients with cerebrovascular insufficiency in old age]. Arzneimittelforschung 1994;44:1005-13.
- Haguenauer JP, Cantenot F, Koskas H, Pierart H. [Treatment of equilibrium disorders with Ginkgo biloba extract. A multicenter, double-blind drug vs. placebo study]. Presse Med 1986;15:1569-72.
- Cesarani A, Meloni F, Alpini D, et al. Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in the treatment of equilibrium disorders. Adv Ther 1998;15:291-304.
- Meyer B. [Multicenter, randomized, double-blind drug vs. placebo study of the treatment of tinnitus with Ginkgo biloba extract]. Presse Med 1986;15:1562-4.
- Holgers KM, Axelsson A, Pringle I. Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of tinnitus. Audiol 1994;33:85-92.
- Rai GS, Shovlin C, Wesnes KA. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Ginkgo biloba extract ('tanakan') in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate memory impairment. Curr Med Res Opin 1991;12:350-5.
- Subhan Z, Hindmarch I. The psychopharmacological effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in normal healthy volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1984;4:89-93.
- Rigney U, Kimber S, Hindmarch I. The effects of acute doses of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract on memory and psychomotor performance in volunteers. Phytother Res 1999;13:408-15.
- Peters H, Kieser M, Holscher U. Demonstration of the efficacy of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on intermittent claudication - a placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter trial. Vasa 1998;27:106-10.
- Li AL, Shi YD, Landsmann B, et al. Hemorheology and walking of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases patients during treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract. Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao 1998;19:417-21.
- Pittler MH, Ernst E. Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of intermittent claudication: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Med 2000;108:276-81.
- Lanthony P, Cosson JP. [The course of color vision in early diabetic retinopathy treated with ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary, double-blind versus placebo study]. J Fr Ophtalmol 1988;11:671-4.
- Mazzanti G, Mascellino MT, Battinelli L, Coluccia D, et al. Antimicrobial investigation of semipurified fractions of Ginkgo biloba leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;71:83-8.
- Itil TM, Eralp E, Ahmed I, Kunitz A, et al. The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrine. Psychopharmacol Bull 1998;34:391-7.
- Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57:1221-7.
- Amri H, Ogwuegbu SO, Boujrad N, et al. In vivo regulation of peripheral-type benzodiazepine and glucocorticoid synthesis by Gingko biloba extract EGb 761 and isolated ginkgolides. Endocrinology 1996;137:5707-18.
- Marcilhac A, Dakine N, Bourhim N, et al. Effect of chronic administration of Gingko biloba extract or Ginkgolide on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat. Life Sci 1998;62:2329-40.
- Diamond BJ, Shiflett SC, Reiwel N, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract: mechanisms and clinical indications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:668-78.
- van Dongen MC, van Rossum E, Kessels AG, et al. The efficacy of ginkgo for elderly people with dementia and age-associated memory impairment: new results of a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000;48:1183-94.
- Kudolo GB. The effect of 3-month ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on pancreatic beta-cell function in response to glucose loading in normal glucose tolerant individuals. J Clin Pharmacol 2000;40:647-54.
- Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6:219-29.
- Brautigam MR, Blommaert FA, Verleye G, et al. Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Gingko biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine 1998;5:425-34.
- Gardiner P, Wornham W. Recent review of complementary and alternative medicine used by adolescents. Curr Opin Pediatr 2000;12:298-302.
- Ranchon I, Gorrand JM, Cluzel J, et al. Functional protection of photoreceptors from light-induced damage by dimethylurea and Ginkgo biloba extract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999;40:1191-9.
- Siegers CP. Cytotoxicity of alkylphenols from Ginkgo biloba. Phytomedicine 1999;6:281-3.
- Lininger S. The Natural Pharmacy. Prima Health. Rocklin, CA: 1998.
- Ondrizek RR, Chan PJ, Patton WC, King A. An alternative medicine study of herbal effects on the penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes and the integrity of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid. Fertil Steril 1999;71:517-22.
- Ondrizek RR, Chan PJ, Patton WC, King A. Inhibition of human sperm motility by specific herbs used in alternative medicine. J Assist Reprod Genet 1999;16:87-91.
- Levine SB. Caution recommended. J Sex Marital Ther 1999;25:2-5.
- Ellison JM, DeLuca P. Fluoxetine-induced genital anesthesia relieved by Ginkgo biloba extract. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59:199-200.
- Balon R. Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction? J Sex Marital Ther 1999;25:1-2.
- Cohen AJ, Bartlik B. Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. J Sex Marital Ther 1998;24:139-43.
- Schweizer J, Hautmann C. Comparison of two dosages of Ginkgo biloba extract Egb 761 in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease Fontain's stage llb / a randomised, double-blind, multicentric clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49:900-4.
- Hofferberth B. The efficacy of Egb 761 in patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type, A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on different levels of investigation. Human Psychopharmacol 1994;9:215-22.
- Wesnes K, Simmons D, Rook M, Simpson P. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of Tanakan in the treatment of idiopathic cognitive impairment in the elderly. Human Psychopharmacol 1987;2:159-69.
- Logani S, Chen MC, Tran T, et al. Actions of Ginkgo Biloba related to potential utility for the treatment of conditions involving cerebral hypoxia. Life Sci 2000;67:1389-96.
- Oken BS, Storzbach DM, Kaye JA. The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 1998;55:1409-15.
- Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group. JAMA 1997;278:1327-32.
- Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA. Clinical assessment of potential cytochrome P450-mediated herb-drug interactions. AAPS Ann Mtg & Expo Indianapolis, IN: 2000; Oct 29 - Nov 2:presentation #3460.
- Vorberg G. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE): A long-term study of chronic cerebral insufficiency in geriatric patients. Clin Trials J 1985;22:149-57.
- Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, Clarke L. Gingko biloba: a case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 2001;67:33-5.
- Rosenblatt M, Mindel T. Spontaneous hyphema associated with ingestion of Gingko biloba extract. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1108.
- Rowin J, Lewis SL. Spontaneous bilateral subdural hemotomas with chronic Gingko biloba ingestion. Neurology 1996;46:1775-6.
- Matthews, MK. Association of Ginkgo biloba with intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 1998;50:1934.
- Dupuis C. Poison ivy. Pharmacy Practice 1995;11:51-2,54-5.
- Benjamin J, Muir T, Briggs K, Pentland B. A case of cerebral haemorrhage-can Ginkgo biloba be implicated? Postgrad Med J 2001;77:112-3.
- Drew S, Davies E. Effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba in treating tinnitus: double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2001;322:73.
- Paick J, Lee J. An experimental study of the effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the human and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue. J Urol 1996;156:1876-80.
- Ginkgo biloba for SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 1997;13:130916.
- Davydov L, Stirling AL. Stevens-Johnson syndrome with Ginkgo biloba. J Herb Pharmacother 2001;1:65-9.
- Ashton AK, Ahrens K, Gupta S, Masand PS. Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction and Ginkgo biloba. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:836-7.
- Show more references
- Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 08/13/2013
This copyrighted, evidence-based medicine resource is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database disclaims any responsibility related to consequences of using any product. This monograph should not replace advice from a healthcare professional and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
Copyright © 1995 - 2013 Therapeutic Research Faculty
, publishers of Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
, Prescriber’s Letter
, Pharmacist’s Letter
. All rights reserved. For scientific data on natural medicines, professionals may consult the Professional Version of Natural Medicines Comprehensive DatabaseNatural Medicines Comprehensive Database (http://www.naturaldatabase.com/)