Skip navigation

Aloe


What is it?

Aloe (often called aloe vera) produces two substances, gel and latex, which are used for medicines. Aloe gel is the clear, jelly-like substance found in the inner part of the aloe plant leaf. Aloe latex comes from just under the plant's skin and is yellow in color. Some aloe products are made from the whole crushed leaf, so they contain both gel and latex. The aloe that is mentioned in the Bible is an unrelated fragrant wood used as incense.

Aloe medications can be taken by mouth or applied to the skin. Aloe gel is taken by mouth for osteoarthritis, bowel diseases including ulcerative colitis, fever, itching and inflammation, and as a general tonic. It is also used for stomach ulcers, diabetes, asthma, and for treating some side effects of radiation treatment.

But most people use aloe gel topically, as a remedy for skin conditions including burns, sunburn, frostbite, psoriasis, and cold sores. Some people also use aloe gel to help surgical wounds and bedsores heal faster. There is some science supporting these uses. Some chemicals in aloe gel seem to be able to increase circulation in the tiny blood vessels in the skin, as well as kill bacteria. Together, these effects suggest that aloe gel might be effective in speeding wound healing. But it’s too early to come to that conclusion. Evidence is contradictory. One study suggests that aloe gel may actually delay wound healing.

Some people take aloe latex by mouth, usually for constipation. Less often, aloe latex is used orally for epilepsy, asthma, colds, bleeding, absence of menstrual periods, colitis, depression, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, bursitis, osteoarthritis, and glaucoma and other vision problems.

But taking aloe latex by mouth is likely unsafe, especially at high doses. There is some concern that some of the chemicals found in aloe latex might cause cancer. Additionally, aloe latex is hard on the kidneys and could lead to serious kidney disease and even death.

A number of years ago, the FDA became concerned about the safety of aloe latex, which was an ingredient in many laxatives. The FDA’s concern was heightened by the fact that people develop a kind of “tolerance” to aloe latex. They have to take more and more of it to get a laxative effect. That means they are likely to increase their dose -- and their risk. The FDA requested safety data from the makers of laxatives that contained aloe latex, but they didn’t comply, possibly because of the expense involved in doing safety studies. In the absence of safety data, the FDA required manufacturers to remove or reformulate all over-the-counter (OTC) laxative products in the U.S. market that contained aloe. The deadline for compliance was November 5, 2002.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for ALOE are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Constipation. Taking aloe latex by mouth can reduce constipation and also cause diarrhea.
  • Cold sores (herpes simplex virus). Some evidence shows that applying an aloe extract 0.5% cream 3 times daily increases healing rates in men with cold sores.
  • Itchy rash on the skin or mouth (Lichen planus). Research shows that using a mouthwash containing aloe 3 times daily for 12 weeks or applying a gel containing aloe twice daily for 8 weeks can reduce pain associated with itchy rashes in the mouth. Other research shows that using a mouthwash containing aloe 4 times daily for one month reduces pain and increases healing similarly to standard treatment in people with itchy rashes in the mouth.
  • Psoriasis. Applying a cream containing 0.5% aloe for 4-8 weeks seems to reduce the skin plaques and decrease the severity of psoriasis. However, using an aloe gel does not seem to improve other symptoms associated with psoriasis, including skin redness.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • HIV. Early research suggests that taking 400 mg of a supplement that comes from aloe 4 times daily does not improve immune function in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Skin damage caused by radiation treatment for cancer. Applying aloe gel to the skin during and after radiation treatment does not seem to reduce skin damage caused by the radiation. However, there is some evidence that aloe gel might delay the appearance of skin damage.
  • Sunburn. Research suggests that applying aloe gel to the skin does not prevent sunburn or reduce skin redness when applied before or after sunlight exposure.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Dry socket (alveolar osteitis). Research shows that applying acemannan, a chemical that comes from aloe, to the tooth socket of people with dry sockets after standard treatment, reduces pain and improves symptoms more than standard treatment alone.
  • Burns. Applying aloe gel to the skin might improve healing of certain types of burns called “partial thickness burns.” Some research shows that applying aloe cream twice daily decreases the size of first or second degree burn wounds and reduces the amount of time needed to heal. However, other research suggests that applying aloe daily is no more effective than standard treatment for reducing healing time.
  • Cancer. Early research suggests that when given with standard chemotherapy, three daily doses of a mixture containing fresh aloe leaves and honey dissolved in alcohol increases the number of patients with lung cancer who are able to heal completely, partially, or maintain control of their disease when compared to just chemotherapy alone. However, other research shows that taking aloe has not benefit in people with lung cancer.
  • Canker sores. Early research suggests that taking acemannan, a chemical that comes from aloe, shortens the amount of time needed for canker sores to heal. However, other research suggests that a gel containing aloe does not consistently shorten the length of time between canker sores.
  • Dental plaque. Some research suggests that using a toothpaste containing aloe daily for 24 weeks reduces plaque. However, other research evaluating another substance containing aloe found it to be comparable to a toothpaste that contains fluoride.
  • Diabetes. There is conflicting information about whether aloe can reduce blood sugar in people with diabetes. Two studies indicate that taking aloe gel by mouth can reduce blood sugar in women with type 2 diabetes. But another study did not show the same benefit.
  • Diaper rash. Early research suggests that applying a cream containing aloe gel and olive oil 3 times daily for 10 days reduces the severity of diaper rash in children younger than 3 years-old.
  • Dry skin. Early research suggests that applying a cream containing aloe to the skin for 2 weeks increases the amount of water in the outermost later of the skin, but not on the inner layers. Other research suggests that wearing gloves coated in aloe improves symptoms of dry skin in women. However, it is not clear if the benefits were from the aloe or the gloves.
  • Frostbite. When applied to the skin, aloe gel seems to help skin survive frostbite injury.
  • Gingivitis. Some research suggests that using a toothpaste containing aloe daily for 24 weeks reduces gingivitis. However, other research evaluating another substance containing aloe found it to be comparable to a toothpaste that contains fluoride.
  • Hepatitis. Early evidence suggests that taking aloe 3 times daily for 12 weeks reduces symptoms of hepatitis in people with liver fibrosis mainly caused by hepatitis B or C.
  • High cholesterol and other blood fats (hyperlipidemia). Preliminary evidence suggests that taking 10 mL or 20 mL of aloe by mouth daily for 12 weeks can reduce total cholesterol by about 15%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by about 18%, and triglycerides by about 25% to 30% in people with hyperlipidemia.
  • Insect repellent. Applying a product containing coconut oil, jojoba oil and aloe to the feet twice daily for one week intervals seems to reduce the number of sandfleas in people with flea infestations.
  • Inflammation in the mouth (oral mucositis). Some evidence suggests that using an aloe solution 3 times daily during radiation therapy lowers the risk of developing painful inflammations in the mouth.
  • Bedsores. Some preliminary evidence suggests that applying aloe gel does not improve the healing rate of bedsores compared to management with gauze moistened with salt water. However, other research suggests that a spray containing aloe does reduce the severity of sores compared to a standard treatment spray.
  • Dandruff (seborrheic dermatitis). Early research suggests that applying aloe twice daily for 4-6 weeks improves dandruff.
  • Ulcerative colitis. Preliminary evidence suggests that some people with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis who take aloe gel by mouth for 4 weeks have significantly reduced symptoms.
  • Wound healing. There is conflicting information about whether aloe works to improve wound healing. Some research shows that applying an aloe gel product (Carrington Dermal Wound Gel) to surgical wounds might actually delay wound healing. But other research using a different form of aloe cream applied to hemorrhoid-related wounds shows that aloe might improve wound healing and provide some pain relief.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate aloe for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
The useful parts of aloe are the gel and latex. The gel is obtained from the cells in the center of the leaf; and the latex is obtained from the cells just beneath the leaf skin.

Aloe gel might cause changes in the skin that might help diseases like psoriasis.

Aloe seems to be able to speed wound healing by improving blood circulation through the area and preventing cell death around a wound.

It also appears that aloe gel has properties that are harmful to certain types of bacteria and fungi.

Aloe latex contains chemicals that work as a laxative.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
Aloe gel is LIKELY SAFE when applied to the skin and POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in adults. Once in a while aloe gel might cause burning and itching of the skin.

Taking aloe latex is POSSIBLY UNSAFE at any dose, but LIKELY UNSAFE when taken in high doses. Aloe latex can cause some side effects such as stomach pain and cramps. Long-term use of large amounts of aloe latex might cause diarrhea, kidney problems, blood in the urine, low potassium, muscle weakness, weight loss, and heart disturbances. Taking aloe latex 1 gram per day for several days can be fatal.

There have been a few reports of liver problems in some people who have taken an aloe leaf extract; however, this is uncommon. It is thought to only occur in people who are extra sensitive (hypersensitive) to aloe.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy or breast-feeding: Aloe -- either gel or latex -- is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth. There is a report that aloe was associated with miscarriage. It could also be a risk for birth defects. Do not take aloe by mouth if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Children: Aloe is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for children when taken by mouth. Children younger than 12 years old may experience abdominal pain, cramps, and diarrhea.

Diabetes: Some research suggests aloe might lower blood sugar. If you take aloe by mouth and you have diabetes, monitor your blood sugar levels closely.

Intestinal conditions such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, or obstruction: Do not take aloe latex if you have any of these conditions. Aloe latex is a bowel irritant. Remember, products made from whole aloe leaves will contain some aloe latex.

Hemorrhoids: Do not take aloe latex if you have hemorrhoids. It could make the condition worse. Remember, products made from whole aloe leaves will contain some aloe latex.

Kidney problems: High doses of aloe latex have been linked to kidney failure and other serious conditions.

Surgery: Aloe might affect blood sugar levels and could interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking aloe at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top

Major

Do not take this combination.

Digoxin (Lanoxin)
When taken by mouth, aloe latex is a type of laxative called a stimulant laxative. Stimulant laxatives can decrease potassium levels in the body. Low potassium levels can increase the risk of side effects of digoxin (Lanoxin).

Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Aloe gel might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking aloe gel along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Medications taken by mouth (Oral drugs)
When taken by mouth, aloe latex is a laxative. Laxatives can decrease how much medicine your body absorbs. Taking aloe latex along with medications you take by mouth might decrease the effectiveness of your medication.

Sevoflurane (Ultane)
Aloe might decrease clotting of the blood. Sevoflurane is used as anesthesia during surgery. Sevoflurane also decreases clotting of the blood. Taking aloe before surgery might cause increased bleeding during the surgical procedure. Do not take aloe by mouth if you are having surgery within 2 weeks.

Stimulant laxatives
When taken orally, aloe latex is a type of laxative called a stimulant laxative. Stimulant laxatives speed up the bowels. Taking aloe latex along with other stimulant laxatives could speed up the bowels too much and cause dehydration and low minerals in the body.

Some stimulant laxatives include bisacodyl (Correctol, Dulcolax), cascara, castor oil (Purge), senna (Senokot), and others.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
When taken orally, aloe latex is a type of laxative called a stimulant laxative. Stimulant laxatives speed up the bowels and can cause diarrhea in some people. Diarrhea can increase the effects of warfarin and increase the risk of bleeding. If you take warfarin, do not take excessive amounts of aloe latex.

Water pills (Diuretic drugs)
When taken by mouth, aloe latex is a laxative. Some laxatives can decrease potassium in the body. "Water pills" can also decrease potassium in the body. Taking aloe latex along with "water pills" might decrease potassium in the body too much.

Some "water pills" that can decrease potassium include chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Thalitone), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HydroDIURIL, Microzide), and others.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Herbs and supplements that can lower blood sugar
Aloe might lower blood sugar. If it is taken along with other herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar, blood sugar might get too low in some people. Some herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar include alpha-lipoic acid, bitter melon, chromium, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.

Herbs containing cardiac glycosides
Aloe can decrease the amount of potassium in the body. This can be a special problem for the heart if aloe is taken along with other herbs that contain chemicals (cardiac glycosides) that affect the electrical system of the heart. Herbs that contain cardiac glycosides include black hellebore, Canadian hemp roots, digitalis leaf, hedge mustard, figwort, lily of the valley roots, motherwort, oleander leaf, pheasant's eye plant, pleurisy root, squill bulb leaf scales, and strophanthus seeds.

Horsetail
Using aloe along with horsetail increases the risk of lowering potassium levels too much.

Licorice
Using aloe along with licorice rhizome increases the risk of lowering potassium levels too much.

Stimulant laxative herbs
Using aloe along with other stimulant laxative herbs may increase the risk of lowering potassium levels too much. Stimulant laxative herbs include blue flag rhizome, alder buckthorn, European buckthorn, butternut bark, cascara bark, castor oil, colocynth fruit pulp, gamboge bark exudate, jalap root, black root, manna bark exudate, podophyllum root, rhubarb root, senna leaves and pods, and yellow dock root.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:
  • For constipation: 100-200 mg aloe or 50 mg aloe latex taken in the evening; however, it might not be safe to take aloe latex for this use.
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
  • For psoriasis: Aloe extract 0.5% cream applied 3 times daily.

Other names

Return to top
Aloe africana, Aloe arborescens, Aloe barbadensis, Aloe Capensis, Aloe ferox, Aloe frutescens, Aloe Gel, Aloe indica, Aloe Latex, Aloe Leaf Gel, Aloe natalenis, Aloe Perfoliata, Aloe perryi, Aloe spicata, Aloe supralaevis, Aloe ucriae, Aloe Vera Barbenoids, Aloe Vera Gel, Aloe vera, Aloes, Aloès, Aloès de Curaçao, Aloès des Barbades, Aloès du Cap, Aloès Vrai, Aloès Vulgaire, Arborescens natalenis, Barbados Aloe, Burn Plant, Cape Aloe, Chritkumari, Curacao Aloe, Elephant's Gall, Gel de la Feuille d’Aloès, Ghee-Kunwar, Ghi-Kuvar, Ghrita-Kumari, Gvar Patha, Hsiang-Dan, Indian Aloe, Jafarabad Aloe, Kanya, Kumari, Latex d’Aloès, Lily of the Desert, Lu-Hui, Miracle Plant, Plant of Immortality, Plante de l’Immortalité, Plante de la Peau, Plante de Premiers Secours, Plante Miracle, Plantes des Brûlures, Sábila.

Methodology

Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

Return to top
To see all references for the Aloe page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/607.html.

  1. Puataweepong P, Dhanachai M, Dangprasert S, et al. The efficacy of oral Aloe vera for radiation induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients: a double-blind placebo controlled study. Asian Biomedicine 2009;3:375-382.
  2. Su CK, Mehta V, Ravikumar L, et al. Phase II double-blind randomized study comparing oral aloe vera versus placebo to prevent radiation-related mucositis in patients with head-and-neck neoplasms. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Sep 1;60:171-7. View abstract.
  3. Phillips T, Ongenae K, Kanj L, et al. A randomised study of an Aloe vera derivative gel dressing versus conventional treatment after shave biopsy excisions. Wounds 1995;7:200-202.
  4. Merchant TE, Bosley C, Smith J, et al. A phase III trial comparing an anionic phospholipid-based cream and aloe vera-based gel in the prevention of radiation dermatitis in pediatric patients. Radiat Oncol. 2007;2:45. View abstract.
  5. Moore Z, Cowman S. A systematic review of wound cleansing for pressure ulcers. J Clin Nurs. 2008;17:1963-72. View abstract.
  6. Thomas DR, Goode PS, LaMaster K, et al. Acemannan hydrogel dressing versus saline dressing for pressure ulcers. A randomized, controlled trial. Adv Wound Care. 1998;11:273-6. View abstract.
  7. Olatunya OS, Olatunya AM, Anyabolu HC, et al. Preliminary trial of aloe vera gruel on HIV infection. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18:850-3. View abstract.
  8. Montaner JS, Gill J, Singer J, et al. Double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of acemannan in advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996;12:153-7. View abstract.
  9. Hegazy SK, El-Bedewy M, Yagi A. Antifibrotic effect of aloe vera in viral infection-induced hepatic periportal fibrosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18:2026-34. View abstract.
  10. Panahi Y, Sharif MR, Sharif A, et al. A randomized comparative trial on the therapeutic efficacy of topical aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on diaper dermatitis in children. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:810234. View abstract.
  1. Buckendahl J, Heukelbach J, Ariza L, et al. Control of tungiasis through intermittent application of a plant-based repellent: an intervention study in a resource-poor community in Brazil. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Nov 9;4:e879. View abstract.
  2. Heck E and Head M. Aloe vera gel cream as a topical treatment for outpatient burns. Burns 1981;7:291-294.
  3. Akhtar M, Hatwar S. Efficacy of Aloe vera extract cream in management of burn wound. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1996;49(Suppl 1):24.
  4. Thamlikitkul V, Bunyapraphatsara N Riewpaiboon W Theerapong S Chantrakul C et al. Clinical trial of Aloe vera linn. for treatment of minor burns. Siriraj Hospital Gazette 1991;43:31-36.
  5. Visuthikosol V, Chowchuen B, Sukwanarat Y, et al. Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and histologic study. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995;78:403-9. View abstract.
  6. Khorasani G, Hosseinimehr SJ, Azadbakht M, et al. Aloe versus silver sulfadiazine creams for second-degree burns: a randomized controlled study. Surg Today. 2009;39:587-91. View abstract.
  7. Oyelami OA, Onayemi A, Oyedeji OA, et al. Preliminary study of effectiveness of aloe vera in scabies treatment. Phytother Res. 2009;23:1482-4. View abstract.
  8. Panahi Y, Davoudi SM, Sahebkar A, et al. Efficacy of Aloe vera/olive oil cream versus betamethasone cream for chronic skin lesions following sulfur mustard exposure: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2012;31:95-103. View abstract.
  9. Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Bryan G, et al. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;:CD000978. View abstract.
  10. Rajar UD, Majeed R, Parveen N, et al. Efficacy of aloe vera gel in the treatment of vulval lichen planus. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2008;18:612-4. View abstract.
  11. Mansourian A, Momen-Heravi F, Saheb-Jamee M, et al. Comparison of aloe vera mouthwash with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% on oral lichen planus: a randomized double-blinded clinical trial. Am J Med Sci. 2011;342:447-51. View abstract.
  12. Thongprasom K, Carrozzo M, Furness S, et al. Interventions for treating oral lichen planus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;:CD001168. View abstract.
  13. Cheng S, Kirtschig G, Cooper S, et al. Interventions for erosive lichen planus affecting mucosal sites. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;2:CD008092. View abstract.
  14. Lodi G, Carrozzo M, Furness S, et al. Interventions for treating oral lichen planus: a systematic review. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:938-47. View abstract.
  15. Nassiff HA, Fajardo F Velez F. Efecto del aloe sobre la hyperlipidemia en pacientes refractarios a la dieta. Rev Cuba Med Gen Integr 1993;9:43-51.
  16. Pradeep AR, Agarwal E, Naik SB. Clinical and microbiologic effects of commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2012;83:797-804. View abstract.
  17. West DP, Zhu YF. Evaluation of aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry skin associated with occupational exposure. Am J Infect Control. 2003;31:40-2. View abstract.
  18. Dal'Belo SE, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PM. Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques. Skin Res Technol. 2006;12:241-6. View abstract.
  19. Huseini HF, Kianbakht S, Hajiaghaee R, et al. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic effects of Aloe vera leaf gel in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Planta Med. 2012;78:311-6. View abstract.
  20. de Oliveira SM, Torres TC, Pereira SL, et al. Effect of a dentifrice containing Aloe vera on plaque and gingivitis control. A double-blind clinical study in humans. J Appl Oral Sci. 2008;16:293-6. View abstract.
  21. Kaya GS, Yapici G, Savas Z, et al. Comparison of alvogyl, SaliCept patch, and low-level laser therapy in the management of alveolar osteitis.J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;69:1571-7. View abstract.
  22. Sakai R. Epidemiologic survey on lung cancer with respect to cigarette smoking and plant diet. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1989;80:513-20. View abstract.
  23. Lissoni P, Rovelli F, Brivio F, et al. A randomized study of chemotherapy versus biochemotherapy with chemotherapy plus Aloe arborescens in patients with metastatic cancer. In Vivo. 2009;23:171-5. View abstract.
  24. Garnick JJ, Singh B, Winkley G. Effectiveness of a medicament containing silicon dioxide, aloe, and allantoin on aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1998;86:550-6. View abstract.
  25. Plemons J, Rees TD Binnie WH, et al. Evaluation of acemannan in providing pain relief in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Wounds 1994;6:4.
  26. Vardy AD, Cohen AD, and Tchetov T. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) emulsion in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. J Derm Treatment 1999;10:7-11.
  27. Paulsen E, Korsholm L, Brandrup F. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a commercial Aloe vera gel in the treatment of slight to moderate psoriasis vulgaris. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005;19:326-31. View abstract.
  28. Odes HS, Madar Z. A double-blind trial of a celandin, aloevera and psyllium laxative preparation in adult patients with constipation. Digestion. 1991;49:65-71. View abstract.
  29. Syed TA, Cheema KM, and Ahmad SA et al. Aloe vera extract 0.5% in hydrophilic cream versus aloe vera gel for the measurement of genital herpes in males. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, comparative study. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venerology 1996;7:294-95.
  30. Syed TA, Afzal M, and Ashfaq AS. Management of genital herpes in men with 0.5% Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream. A placebo-controlled double-blind study. J Derm Treatment 1997;8:99-102.
  31. Nelemans FA. Clinical and toxicological aspects of anthraquinone laxatives. Pharmacology. 1976;14 Suppl 1:73-7. View abstract.
  32. Ishii Y, Tanizawa H, Takino Y. Studies of aloe. V. Mechanism of cathartic effect. . Biol Pharm Bull. 1994;17:651-3. View abstract.
  33. Ishii Y, Tanizawa H, Takino Y. Studies of aloe. IV. Mechanism of cathartic effect. . Biol Pharm Bull. 1994;17:495-7. View abstract.
  34. Choonhakarn C, Busaracome P, Sripanidkulchai B, et al. A prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing topical aloe vera with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide in mild to moderate plaque psoriasis. J.Eur.Acad.Dermatol.Venereol. 2010;24:168-72. View abstract.
  35. Bunyapraphatsara N, Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, Chokechaijaroenporn O. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L juice. II. Clinical trial in diabetes mellitus patients in combination with glibenclamide. Phytomedicine 1996;3:245-8.
  36. Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, Bunyapraphatsara N, Chokechaijaroenporn O. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L juice. I. Clinical trial in new cases of diabetes mellitus. Phytomedicine 1996;3:241-3.
  37. Chalaprawat M. The hypoglycemic effects of aloe vera in Thai diabetic patients. J Clin Epidemiol 1997;50(Suppl 1):3S.
  38. Yang HN, Kim DJ, Kim YM, et al. Aloe-induced toxic hepatitis. J Korean Med Sci 2010;25:492-5. View abstract.
  39. Eshghi F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Rahmani N, et al. Effects of Aloe vera cream on posthemorrhoidectomy pain and wound healing: results of a randomized, blind, placebo-control study. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16:647-50. View abstract.
  40. Schorkhuber M, Richter M, Dutter A, et al. Effect of anthraquinone laxatives on the proliferation and urokinase secretion of normal, premalignant and malignant colonic epithelial cells. Eur J Cancer 1998;34:1091-8. View abstract.
  41. Mueller SO, Stopper H. Characterization of the genotoxicity of anthraquinones in mammalian cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999;1428:406-14. View abstract.
  42. Kanat O, Ozet A, Ataergin S. Aloe vera-induced acute toxic hepatitis in a healthy young man. Eur J Int Med 2006;17:589. View abstract.
  43. Rabe C, Musch A, Schirmacher P, et al. Acute hepatitis induced by an Aloe vera preparation: a case report. World J Gastroenterol 2005;11:303-4. View abstract.
  44. Bottenberg MM, Wall GC, Harvey RL, Habib S. Oral aloe vera-induced hepatitis. Ann Pharmacother 2007;41:1740-3. View abstract.
  45. Lee A, Chui PT, Aun CST, et al. Possible interaction between sevoflurane and Aloe vera. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:1651-4. View abstract.
  46. Vogler BK, Ernst E. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. Br J Gen Pract 1999;49:823-8. View abstract.
  47. Williams MS, Burk M, Loprinzi CL, et al. Phase III double-blind evaluation of an aloe vera gel as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced skin toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996;36:345-9. View abstract.
  48. Miller MB, Koltai PJ. Treatment of experimental frostbite with pentoxifylline and aloe vera cream. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995;121:678-80. View abstract.
  49. Kaufman T, Kalderon N, Ullmann Y, Berger J. Aloe vera gel hindered wound healing of experimental second-degree burns: a quantitative controlled study. J Burn Care Rehabil 1988;9:156-9. View abstract.
  50. Gallagher J, Gray M. Is aloe vera effective for healing chronic wounds? J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2003;30:68-71. View abstract.
  51. Olsen DL, Raub W, Bradley C, et al. The effect of aloe gel/mild soap versus mild soap alone in preventing skin reactions in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Oncol Nurs Forum 2001;28:543-7. View abstract.
  52. Langmead L, Makins RJ, Rampton DS. Anti-inflammatory effects of aloe vera gel in human colorectal mucosa in vitro. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;19:521-7. View abstract.
  53. Heggie S, Bryant GP, Tripcony L, et al. A phase III study on the efficacy of topical aloe vera gel on irradiated breast tissue. Cancer Nurs 2002;25:442-51.. View abstract.
  54. Muller MJ, Hollyoak MA, Moaveni Z, et al. Retardation of wound healing by silver sulfadiazine is reversed by Aloe vera and nystatin. Burns 2003;28:834-6.. View abstract.
  55. Syed TA, Ahmad SA, Holt AH, et al. Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Trop Med Int Health 1996;1:505–9.. View abstract.
  56. Langmead L, Feakins RM, Goldthorpe S, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;19:739-47. View abstract.
  57. Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Ravi K, Subramanian S. Hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats. J Med Food 2004;7:61-6. View abstract.
  58. Schmidt JM, Greenspoon JS. Aloe vera dermal wound gel is associated with a delay in wound healing. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:115-7. View abstract.
  59. Luyckx VA, Ballantine R, Claeys M, et al. Herbal remedy-associated acute renal failure secondary to Cape aloes. Am J Kidney Dis 2002;39:E13. View abstract.
  60. Cascara sagrada, aloe laxatives, O-9 contraceptives are category II-FDA. The Tan Sheet May 13, 2002.
  61. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Status of certain additional over-the counter drug category II and III active ingredients. Final rule. Fed Regist 2002;67:31125-7. View abstract.
  62. Reynolds T, Dweck AC. Aloe vera leaf gel: a review update. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;68:3-37. View abstract.
  63. Hutter JA, Salman M, Stavinoha WB, et al. Antiinflammatory C-glucosyl chromone from Aloe barbadensis. J Nat Prod 1996;59:541-3. View abstract.
  64. Nusko G, Schneider B, Schneider I, et al. Anthranoid laxative use is not a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia: results of a prospective case control study. Gut 2000;46:651-5. View abstract.
  65. Klein AD, Penneys NS. Aloe vera. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;18:714-20. View abstract.
  66. Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 2nd ed. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications, 1998.
  67. Gennaro A. Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy. 19th ed. Lippincott: Williams & Wilkins, 1996.
  68. Wichtl MW. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Ed. N.M. Bisset. Stuttgart: Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, 1994.
  69. Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 3rd ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1993.
  70. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Philpson JD. Herbal Medicine: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London, UK: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 10/27/2014




Page last updated: 10 December 2014