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Noni


What is it?

Noni is a small evergreen tree in the Pacific Islands, Southeast Asia, Australia, and India that often grows among lava flows. Historically, noni was used to make a red or yellow dye for clothing. It was also used as medicine, usually applied to the skin.

Today, noni fruit, leaves, flowers, stems, bark, and roots are still used to make medicine for a long list of ailments. However, the effectiveness of noni for these uses has not been proven. A study of noni freeze-dried fruit extract is underway at The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, but the results are not yet in. In the meantime, the FDA has issued multiple warnings to noni manufacturers about health claims that aren’t backed up by fact.

People take noni by mouth for colic, convulsions, cough, diabetes, painful urination, stimulating menstrual flow, fever, liver disease, constipation, vaginal discharge during pregnancy, malarial fever, and nausea. It is also used for smallpox, enlarged spleen, swelling, asthma, arthritis and other bone and joint problems, cancer, cataracts, colds, depression, digestive problems, and gastric ulcers. Other uses include high blood pressure, infections, kidney disorders, migraine headache, premenstrual syndrome, stroke, pain, and sedation.

The fruit juice is used for arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, muscle aches and pains, menstrual difficulties, headaches, heart disease, AIDS, cancers, gastric ulcers, sprains, depression, senility, poor digestion, atherosclerosis, circulation problems, and drug addiction.

The leaves have been used in medicines for rheumatic aches and swelling of the joints, stomachache, dysentery, and swelling caused by a parasitic infection called filariasis. The bark has been used in a preparation to aid childbirth.

Noni is sometimes applied to the skin. It is used as a moisturizer and to reduce signs of aging. The leaves are used for arthritis by wrapping around the affected joint; for headache by applying to the forehead; and for burns, sores, and wounds by direct application. A mixture of leaves and fruit is applied to pockets of infection (abscesses), and preparations of the root are used on stonefish and sting-ray wounds, and as a smallpox salve.

In foods, the fruits, leaves, roots, seeds, and bark are eaten.

The smell and taste of some Noni fruit and juice are unpleasant.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for NONI are as follows:

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Colic.
  • Seizures.
  • Cough.
  • Diabetes.
  • Urinary problems.
  • Menstrual problems.
  • Fever.
  • Liver problems.
  • Constipation.
  • Vaginal discharge.
  • Nausea.
  • Smallpox.
  • Enlarged spleen.
  • Kidney disorders.
  • Swelling.
  • Asthma.
  • Bone and joint problems.
  • Cancer.
  • Eye cataracts.
  • Colds.
  • Depression.
  • Digestion problems.
  • Stomach ulcers.
  • Heart trouble.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Infections.
  • Migraine.
  • Stroke.
  • Pain.
  • Reducing signs of aging.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate noni for these uses.

How does it work?

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Noni contains many substances, including potassium. Some of these substances might help repair damaged cells in the body, activate the immune system, and have other activities.

Are there safety concerns?

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Noni is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken in food amounts. But there is concern that taking noni in medicinal amounts is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Noni tea or juice might cause liver damage in some people. There are several reports of liver damage in people who drank noni tea or juice for several weeks. But it is not known for certain if noni was the cause.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Don’t take noni if you are pregnant. Historically, noni has been used to cause abortions. It’s also best to avoid noni if you are breast-feeding. Not enough is known about the safety of taking noni during breast-feeding.

Kidney problems: Noni contains large amounts of potassium. This can be a problem, especially for people with kidney disease. There is one report of a person with kidney disease developing high levels of potassium in the blood after drinking noni juice. Don’t use noni if you have kidney problems.

Liver disease: Noni has been linked to several cases of liver damage. Avoid using noni if you have liver disease.

Are there interactions with medications?

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Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Medications for high blood pressure (ACE inhibitors)
Some medications for high blood pressure can increase potassium levels in the blood. Consuming noni juice along with these medications for high blood pressure might cause too much potassium in the blood.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), ramipril (Altace), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs))
Some medications for high blood pressure can increase potassium levels in the blood. Consuming noni juice along with these medications for high blood pressure might cause too much potassium to be in the blood.

Some medications for high blood pressure include losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), irbesartan (Avapro), candesartan (Atacand), telmisartan (Micardis), eprosartan (Teveten), and others.

Medications that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic drugs)
Noni might harm the liver. Taking noni along with medication that might also harm the liver can increase the risk of liver damage. Do not take noni if you are taking a medication that can harm the liver.

Some medications that can harm the liver include acetaminophen (Tylenol and others), amiodarone (Cordarone), carbamazepine (Tegretol), isoniazid (INH), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), methyldopa (Aldomet), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), erythromycin (Erythrocin, Ilosone, others), phenytoin (Dilantin), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (Zocor), and many others.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Taking noni juice might decrease how well warfarin (Coumadin) works to slow blood clotting. This could increase the chance of blood clotting.

Water pills (Potassium-sparing diuretics)
Noni contains large amounts of potassium. Some "water pills" can also increase potassium levels in the body. Taking some "water pills" along with noni might cause too much potassium to be in the body.

Some "water pills" that increase potassium in the body include amiloride (Midamor), spironolactone (Aldactone), and triamterene (Dyrenium).

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

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Herbs and supplements that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic herbs)
There is concern that noni might cause liver damage in some people. Using noni with other herbs or supplements that might harm the liver could increase this risk. Some of these products include androstenedione, chaparral, comfrey, DHEA, fo-ti, germander, kava, niacin, pennyroyal oil, red yeast, and others.

Are there interactions with foods?

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There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

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The appropriate dose of noni depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for noni. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Other names

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Ba Ji Tian, Bois Douleur, Canarywood, Cheese Fruit, Hai Ba Ji, Hawaiian Noni, Hog Apple, Indian Mulberry, Jus de Noni, Luoling, Mengkudu, Menkoedoe, Mora de la India, Morinda, Morinda citrifolia, Mulberry, Mûre Indienne, Nhau, Noni Juice, Nono, Nonu, Pau-Azeitona, Rotten Cheese Fruit, Ruibarbo Caribe, Tahitian Noni Juice, Ura, Wild Pine, Wu Ning, Yor.

Methodology

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To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

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To see all references for the Noni page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/758.html.

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  2. Potterat O, Felten R, Dalsgaard PW, Hamburger M. Identification of TLC markers and quantification by HPLC-MS of various constituents in noni fruit powder and commercial noni-derived products. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:7489-94.
  3. Mahattanadul S, Ridtitid W, Nima S, et al. Effects of Morinda citrifolia aqueous fruit extract and its biomarker scopoletin on reflux esophagitis and gastric ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;134:243-50.
  4. López-Cepero Andrada JM, Lerma Castilla S, Fernández Olvera MD, Amaya Vidal A. [Hepatotoxicity caused by a noni (Morinda citrifolia) preparation]. [Article in Spanish] Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2007;99:179-81.
  5. Stadlbauer V, Weiss S, Payer F, Stauber RE. Herbal does not at all mean innocuous: the sixth case of hepatotoxicity associated with morinda citrifolia (noni). Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103:2406-7.
  6. Yu EL, Sivagnanam M, Ellis L, Huang JS. Acute hepatotoxicity after ingestion of Morinda citrifolia (noni berry) juice in a 14-year-old boy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2011;52:222-4.
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  8. Koch E, Biber A. Treatment of rats with the Pelargonium sidoides extract EPs 7630 has no effect on blood coagulation parameters or on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin. Phytomedicine 2007;14 Suppl 6:40-5.
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  3. Stadlbauer V, Fickert P, Lackner C, et al. Hepatotoxicity of NONI juice: report of two cases. World J Gastroenterol 2005;11:4758-60.
  4. McKoy ML, Thomas EA, Simon OR. Preliminary investigation of the anti-inflammatory properties of an aqueous extract from Morinda citrifolia (noni). Proc West Pharmacol Soc 2002;45:76-8.
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  6. Clinicaltrials.gov. Phase I Study of Noni in Cancer Patients. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00033878?order=1 (Accessed 17 September 2004).
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  11. Mueller BA, Scott MK, Sowinski KM, Prag KA. Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia): hidden potential for hyperkalemia? Am J Kidney Dis 2000;35:310-2.
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  14. Hiwasa T, Arase Y, Chen Z, et al. Stimulation of ultraviolet-induced apoptosis of human fibroblast UVr-1 cells by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. FEBS Lett 1999;444:173-6.
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Last reviewed - 12/27/2011




Page last updated: 01 July 2014