Skip navigation

Yohimbe


What is it?

Yohimbe is the name of an evergreen tree that is found in Zaire, Cameroon, and Gabon. The bark of yohimbe contains a chemical called yohimbine, which is used to make medicine.

Yohimbe is used to arouse sexual excitement, for erectile dysfunction (ED), sexual problems caused by medications for depression called selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and general sexual problems in both men and women. It is also used for athletic performance, weight loss, exhaustion, chest pain, high blood pressure, low blood pressure that occurs when standing up, diabetic nerve pain, and for depression along with certain other medications.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for YOHIMBE are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Erectile dysfunction (ED). There is evidence that the active ingredient, yohimbine, can be helpful for ED. Some herbalists suggest that the yohimbe bark actually works better than the yohimbine ingredient alone. However, so far yohimbe bark has not been evaluated in research studies.
  • Sexual problems caused by selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). There is evidence from many studies that the active ingredient, yohimbine, can improve sexual problems associated with this class of medications used for depression. However, this benefit has not been described specifically for the yohimbe bark.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Sexual excitement.
  • Exhaustion.
  • Chest pain.
  • Diabetic complications.
  • Depression.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate yohimbe for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
Yohimbe contains a chemical called yohimbine which can increase blood flow and nerve impulses to the penis or vagina. It also helps counteract the sexual side effects of certain medications used for depression.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
Yohimbe, taken by mouth, is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Yohimbe has been linked to reports of severe side effects including irregular or rapid heart beat, kidney failure, seizure, heart attack, and others.

The primary active ingredient in yohimbe is a drug called yohimbine. This is considered a prescription drug in North America. This drug can be safely used short-term when monitored by a health professional. However, it is not appropriate for unsupervised use due to potentially serious side effects that it can cause.

Children should not take yohimbe. It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for children because children appear to be extra sensitive to the harmful effects of yohimbe.

When taken by mouth in typical doses, yohimbe and the ingredient yohimbine can cause stomach upset, excitation, tremor, sleep problems, anxiety or agitation, high blood pressure, a racing heartbeat, dizziness, stomach problems, drooling, sinus pain, irritability, headache, frequent urination, bloating, rash, nausea, and vomiting.

Taking high doses can also cause other severe problems, including difficulty breathing, paralysis, very low blood pressure, heart problems, and death. After taking a one-day dose of yohimbine, one person reported an allergic reaction involving fever; chills; listlessness; itchy, scaly skin; progressive kidney failure; and symptoms that looked like the auto-immune disease called lupus.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy or breast-feeding: Yohimbe is LIKELY UNSAFE. Yohimbe might affect the uterus and endanger the pregnancy. It might also poison the unborn child. Don’t take yohimbe if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Schizophrenia: Use yohimbe with caution. The yohimbine in yohimbe might make people with schizophrenia psychotic.

Prostate problems: Use yohimbe with caution. Yohimbe might make the symptoms of BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) worse.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Don’t use yohimbe. There is a report that four individuals with PTSD suffered worse symptoms after using yohimbe.

Liver disease: Don’t use yohimbe. Liver disease might change the way the body processes yohimbe.

Kidney disease: Don’t use yohimbe. There is a concern that yohimbine might slow or stop the flow of urine.

High blood pressure or low blood pressure: Don’t use yohimbe. Small amounts of yohimbine can increase blood pressure. Large amounts can cause dangerously low pressure.

Chest pain or heart disease: Don’t use yohimbe. Yohimbine can seriously harm the heart.

Anxiety: Don’t use yohimbe. Yohimbine might make anxiety worse.

Depression: Don’t use yohimbe. Yohimbine might bring out manic-like symptoms in people with bipolar depression or suicidal tendencies in individuals with depression.

Diabetes: Don’t use yohimbe. Yohimbe might interfere with insulin and other medications used for diabetes and cause low blood sugar.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top

Major

Do not take this combination.

Medications for depression (MAOIs)
Yohimbe contains a chemical that affects the body. This chemical is called yohimbine. Yohimbine might affect the body in some of the same ways as some medications for depression called MAOIs. Taking yohimbe along with MAOIs might increase the effects and side effects of yohimbe and MAOIs.

Some of these medications used for depression include phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and others.

Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Clonidine (Catapres)
Clonidine (Catapres) is used to decrease blood pressure. Yohimbe might increase blood pressure. Taking yohimbe along with clonidine (Catapres) might decrease the effectiveness of clonidine (Catapres).

Guanabenz (Wytensin)
Yohimbe contains a chemical called yohimbine. Yohimbine can decrease the effectiveness of guanabenz (Wytensin).

Medications for depression (Tricyclic antidepressants)
Yohimbe can affect the heart. Some medications used for depression called tricyclic antidepressants can also affect the heart. Taking yohimbe along with these medications used for depression might cause heart problems. Don't take yohimbe if you are taking these medications for depression.

Some of these tricyclic antidepressants medications used for depression include amitriptyline (Elavil), imipramine (Tofranil), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
Yohimbe seems to increase blood pressure. Taking yohimbe along with some medications for high blood pressure might decrease the effectiveness of medications for high blood pressure.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Naloxone (Narcan)
Yohimbe contains a chemical that can affect the brain. This chemical is called yohimbine. Naloxone (Narcan) also affects the brain. Taking naloxone (Narcan) along with yohimbine might increase the chance of side effects such as anxiety, nervousness, trembling, and hot flashes.

Phenothiazines
Yohimbe contains a chemical called yohimbine. Some medications called phenothiazines have some similar effects to yohimbine. Taking yohimbe along with phenothiazines might increase the effects and side effects of yohimbine.

Some phenothiazines include chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), and others.

Stimulant drugs
Stimulant drugs speed up the nervous system. By speeding up the nervous system, stimulant medications can make you feel jittery and speed up your heartbeat. Yohimbe might also speed up the nervous system. Taking yohimbe along with stimulant drugs might cause serious problems including increased heart rate and high blood pressure. Avoid taking stimulant drugs along with yohimbe.

Some stimulant drugs include diethylpropion (Tenuate), epinephrine, phentermine (Ionamin), pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), and many others.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Caffeine-containing herbs and supplements
There is a concern that using yohimbe along with large amounts of herbs or products that contain caffeine might increase the risk of developing dangerously high blood pressure. Caffeine-containing herbs include coffee, cola, guarana, mate, and tea.

Ephedra
There is a concern that using yohimbe along with large amounts of ephedra might increase the risk of dangerously high blood pressure because of the ephedrine in ephedra.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
Foods that can narrow the blood vessels
Don't take yohimbe along with large amounts of foods that can narrow the blood vessels. This combination might increase the risk of developing dangerously high blood pressure. Foods that can narrow the blood vessels include overripe fava beans, coffee, tea, colas, and chocolate.

Foods that contain tyramine
Don't take yohimbe along with foods that contain a lot of the chemical tyramine. It might increase the risk of developing dangerously high blood pressure. Foods that contain tyramine include aged cheeses, fermented meats, red wines, and others.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:
  • For problems with sexual performance: 15-30 mg daily of yohimbine, the active ingredient in yohimbe. Doses of up to 100 mg of yohimbine daily have been used. However, significant side effects, some quite dangerous (including the possibility of death), would be expected with such a high dose.

Other names

Return to top
11-hydroxy Yohimbine, Alpha Yohimbine HCl, Coryanthe Yohimbe, Corynanthe Johimbe, Corynanthe johimbi, Corynanthe yohimbi, Johimbi, Pausinystalia yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe, Yohimbehe, Yohimbehe Cortex, Yohimbine, Yohimbine HCl, Yohimbinum Muriaticum.

Methodology

Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

Return to top
To see all references for the Yohimbe page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/759.html.

  1. Melman A. The effects of yohimbine upon sexual function: a double-blind study [abstract]. 79th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association, Baltimore :302/A.
  2. Riley AJ, Goodman R, Kellett JM, and et al. Double blind trial of yohimbine hydrochloride in the treatment of erection inadequacy. Sexual Marital Ther 1989;4:17-26.
  3. Yan J and Yang W. A comparative effects of Sildenafil (Viagra
  4. Balon R. The effects of anitdepressants on human sexuality: Diagnosis and management update 1999. Primary Psychology 1999;6:40-54.
  5. Mazo R and Sonda LP. A prospective double blind trial of yohimbine for erectile impotence [abstract]. 79th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association, Baltimore 1984;234/A.
  6. Murray M. Yohimbine vs. Muira puama in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Am J Nat Med 1994;1:8.
  7. Mosqueda-Garcia, R., Fernandez-Violante, R., Tank, J., Snell, M., Cunningham, G., and Furlan, R. Yohimbine in neurally mediated syncope. Pathophysiological implications. J Clin Invest 11-15-1998;102:1824-1830. View abstract.
  8. Jordan, J., Shannon, J. R., Biaggioni, I., Norman, R., Black, B. K., and Robertson, D. Contrasting actions of pressor agents in severe autonomic failure. Am J Med. 1998;105:116-124. View abstract.
  9. Piletz, J. E., Segraves, K. B., Feng, Y. Z., Maguire, E., Dunger, B., and Halaris, A. Plasma MHPG response to yohimbine treatment in women with hypoactive sexual desire. J Sex Marital Ther. 1998;24:43-54. View abstract.
  10. Vogt, H. J., Brandl, P., Kockott, G., Schmitz, J. R., Wiegand, M. H., Schadrack, J., and Gierend, M. Double-blind, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy trial with yohimbine hydrochloride in the treatment of nonorganic erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot.Res 1997;9:155-161. View abstract.
  1. Southwick, S. M., Krystal, J. H., Bremner, J. D., Morgan, C. A., III, Nicolaou, A. L., Nagy, L. M., Johnson, D. R., Heninger, G. R., and Charney, D. S. Noradrenergic and serotonergic function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch.Gen.Psychiatry 1997;54:749-758. View abstract.
  2. Bagheri, H., Schmitt, L., Berlan, M., and Montastruc, J. L. A comparative study of the effects of yohimbine and anetholtrithione on salivary secretion in depressed patients treated with psychotropic drugs. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol. 1997;52:339-342. View abstract.
  3. Gurguis, G. N., Vitton, B. J., and Uhde, T. W. Behavioral, sympathetic and adrenocortical responses to yohimbine in panic disorder patients and normal controls. Psychiatry Res. 6-16-1997;71:27-39. View abstract.
  4. Sturgill, M. G., Grasing, K. W., Rosen, R. C., Thomas, T. J., Kulkarni, G. D., Trout, J. R., Maines, M., and Seibold, J. R. Yohimbine elimination in normal volunteers is characterized by both one- and two-compartment behavior. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 1997;29:697-703. View abstract.
  5. Bremner, J. D., Innis, R. B., Ng, C. K., Staib, L. H., Salomon, R. M., Bronen, R. A., Duncan, J., Southwick, S. M., Krystal, J. H., Rich, D., Zubal, G., Dey, H., Soufer, R., and Charney, D. S. Positron emission tomography measurement of cerebral metabolic correlates of yohimbine administration in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch.Gen.Psychiatry 1997;54:246-254. View abstract.
  6. Rowland, D. L., Kallan, K., and Slob, A. K. Yohimbine, erectile capacity, and sexual response in men. Arch Sex Behav 1997;26:49-62. View abstract.
  7. Montague, D. K., Barada, J. H., Belker, A. M., Levine, L. A., Nadig, P. W., Roehrborn, C. G., Sharlip, I. D., and Bennett, A. H. Clinical guidelines panel on erectile dysfunction: summary report on the treatment of organic erectile dysfunction. The American Urological Association. J Urol. 1996;156:2007-2011. View abstract.
  8. Grasing, K., Sturgill, M. G., Rosen, R. C., Trout, J. R., Thomas, T. J., Kulkarni, G. D., Maines, P., and Seibold, J. R. Effects of yohimbine on autonomic measures are determined by individual values for area under the concentration-time curve. J Clin Pharmacol. 1996;36:814-822. View abstract.
  9. Assalian, P. and Margolese, H. C. Treatment of antidepressant-induced sexual side effects. J Sex Marital Ther. 1996;22:218-224. View abstract.
  10. Mann, K., Klingler, T., Noe, S., Roschke, J., Muller, S., and Benkert, O. Effects of yohimbine on sexual experiences and nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity in erectile dysfunction. Arch.Sex Behav. 1996;25:1-16. View abstract.
  11. Siddiqui, M. A., More-O'Ferrall, D., Hammod, R. S., Baime, R. V., and Staddon, A. P. Agranulocytosis associated with yohimbine use. Arch.Intern.Med 6-10-1996;156:1235-1237. View abstract.
  12. Balon, R. Fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction and yohimbine. J Clin Psychiatry 1993;54:161-162. View abstract.
  13. Bierer, L. M., Aisen, P. S., Davidson, M., Ryan, T. M., Stern, R. G., Schmeidler, J., and Davis, K. L. A pilot study of oral physostigmine plus yohimbine in patients with Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis.Assoc.Disord. 1993;7:98-104. View abstract.
  14. Friesen, K., Palatnick, W., and Tenenbein, M. Benign course after massive ingestion of yohimbine. J Emerg.Med 1993;11:287-288. View abstract.
  15. Shalev, A. Y. Post-traumatic stress disorder: a biopsychological perspective. Isr.J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 1993;30:102-109. View abstract.
  16. Bagheri, H., Picault, P., Schmitt, L., Houin, G., Berlan, M., and Montastruc, J. L. Pharmacokinetic study of yohimbine and its pharmacodynamic effects on salivary secretion in patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1994;37:93-96. View abstract.
  17. Kenney, W. L., Zappe, D. H., Tankersley, C. G., and Derr, J. A. Effect of systemic yohimbine on the control of skin blood flow during local heating and dynamic exercise. Am J Physiol 1994;266(2 Pt 2):H371-H376. View abstract.
  18. Biaggioni, I., Robertson, R. M., and Robertson, D. Manipulation of norepinephrine metabolism with yohimbine in the treatment of autonomic failure. J Clin Pharmacol. 1994;34:418-423. View abstract.
  19. Adler, L. E., Hoffer, L., Nagamoto, H. T., Waldo, M. C., Kisley, M. A., and Giffith, J. M. Yohimbine impairs P50 auditory sensory gating in normal subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 1994;10:249-257. View abstract.
  20. Morgan, C. A., III, Southwick, S. M., Grillon, C., Davis, M., Krystal, J. H., and Charney, D. S. Yohimbine-facilitated acoustic startle reflex in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1993;110:342-346. View abstract.
  21. Musso, N. R., Vergassola, C., Pende, A., and Lotti, G. Yohimbine effects on blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in human hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1995;8:565-571. View abstract.
  22. Kennedy, S. H., Gnam, W., Ralevski, E., and Brown, G. M. Melatonin responses to clonidine and yohimbine challenges. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 1995;20:297-304. View abstract.
  23. McDougle, C. J., Krystal, J. H., Price, L. H., Heninger, G. R., and Charney, D. S. Noradrenergic response to acute ethanol administration in healthy subjects: comparison with intravenous yohimbine. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1995;118:127-135. View abstract.
  24. Morgan, C. A., III, Grillon, C., Southwick, S. M., Nagy, L. M., Davis, M., Krystal, J. H., and Charney, D. S. Yohimbine facilitated acoustic startle in combat veterans with post- traumatic stress disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1995;117:466-471. View abstract.
  25. Bagheri, H., Chale, J. J., Guyen, L. N., Tran, M. A., Berlan, M., and Montastruc, J. L. Evidence for activation of both adrenergic and cholinergic nervous pathways by yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol 1995;9:248-254. View abstract.
  26. Betz, J. M., White, K. D., and der Marderosian, A. H. Gas chromatographic determination of yohimbine in commercial yohimbe products. J AOAC Int 1995;78:1189-1194. View abstract.
  27. Knoll, L. D., Benson, R. C., Jr., Bilhartz, D. L., Minich, P. J., and Furlow, W. L. A randomized crossover study using yohimbine and isoxsuprine versus pentoxifylline in the management of vasculogenic impotence. J Urol. 1996;155:144-146. View abstract.
  28. Bourin, M., Malinge, M., and Guitton, B. Provocative agents in panic disorder. Therapie 1995;50:301-306. View abstract.
  29. Morales, A., Surridge, D. H., and Marshall, P. G. Yohimbine for treatment of impotence in diabetes. N.Engl.J Med 11-12-1981;305:1221. View abstract.
  30. Montastruc, J. L., Puech, A. J., Clanet, M., Guiraud-Chaumeil, B., and Rascol, A. [Yohimbine in treatment of Parkinson's disease. Preliminary results (author's transl)]. Nouv.Presse Med 4-11-1981;10:1331-1332. View abstract.
  31. Charney, D. S., Heninger, G. R., and Redmond, D. E., Jr. Yohimbine induced anxiety and increased noradrenergic function in humans: effects of diazepam and clonidine. Life Sci. 7-4-1983;33:19-29. View abstract.
  32. Brodde, O. E., Anlauf, M., Arroyo, J., Wagner, R., Weber, F., and Buck, K. D. Hypersensitivity of adrenergic receptors and blood-pressure response to oral yohimbine in orthostatic hypotension. N.Engl.J Med 4-28-1983;308:1033-1034. View abstract.
  33. Braddock, L. E., Cowen, P. J., Elliott, J. M., Fraser, S., and Stump, K. Changes in the binding to platelets of [3H]imipramine and [3H]yohimbine in normal subjects taking amitriptyline. Neuropharmacology 1984;23(2B):285-286. View abstract.
  34. Andrejak, M., Ward, M., and Schmitt, H. Cardiovascular effects of yohimbine in anaesthetized dogs. Eur.J Pharmacol 10-28-1983;94(3-4):219-228. View abstract.
  35. Boon, N. A., Elliott, J. M., Grahame-Smith, D. G., John-Green, T., and Stump, K. A comparison of alpha 2-adrenoreceptor binding characteristics of intact human platelets identified by [3H]-yohimbine and [3H]- dihydroergocryptine. J Auton.Pharmacol 1983;3:89-95. View abstract.
  36. Meltzer, H. Y., Simonovic, M., and Gudelsky, G. A. Effect of yohimbine on rat prolactin secretion. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 1983;224:21-27. View abstract.
  37. Anden, N. E., Pauksens, K., and Svensson, K. Selective blockade of brain alpha 2-autoreceptors by yohimbine: effects on motor activity and on turnover of noradrenaline and dopamine. J Neural Transm. 1982;55:111-120. View abstract.
  38. Charney, D. S., Heninger, G. R., and Sternberg, D. E. Assessment of alpha 2 adrenergic autoreceptor function in humans: effects of oral yohimbine. Life Sci 6-7-1982;30:2033-2041. View abstract.
  39. Motulsky, H. J., Shattil, S. J., and Insel, P. A. Characterization of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on human platelets using [ View abstract.
  40. Goldberg, M. R. and Robertson, D. Yohimbine: a pharmacological probe for study of the alpha 2- adrenoreceptor. Pharmacol Rev. 1983;35:143-180. View abstract.
  41. Morales, A., Surridge, D. H., Marshall, P. G., and Fenemore, J. Nonhormonal pharmacological treatment of organic impotence. J Urol. 1982;128:45-47. View abstract.
  42. Price, L. H., Charney, D. S., and Heninger, G. R. Three cases of manic symptoms following yohimbine administration. Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:1267-1268. View abstract.
  43. Ho, A. K., Hoffman, D. B., Gershon, S., and Loh, H. H. Distribution and metabolism of tritiated yohimbine in mice. Arch.Int.Pharmacodyn.Ther 1971;194:304-315. View abstract.
  44. Miller, W. W., Jr. Afrodex in the treatment of male impotence: a double-blind cross-over study. Curr.Ther.Res.Clin Exp. 1968;10:354-359. View abstract.
  45. Bolme, P., Corrodi, H., Fuxe, K., Hokfelt, T., Lidbrink, P., and Goldstein, M. Possible involvement of central adrenaline neurons in vasomotor and respiratory control. Studies with clonidine and its interactions with piperoxane and yohimbine. Eur J Pharmacol 1974;28:89-94. View abstract.
  46. Buffum, J. Pharmacosexology update: yohimbine and sexual function. J Psychoactive Drugs 1985;17:131-132. View abstract.
  47. Kehne, J. H. and Davis, M. Central noradrenergic involvement in yohimbine excitation of acoustic startle: effects of DSP4 and 6-OHDA. Brain Res 3-18-1985;330:31-41. View abstract.
  48. Mack, R. B. Taljaribu kila dawa isifal: yohimbine intoxication. N.C.Med J 1985;46:229-230. View abstract.
  49. Berlin, I., Stalla-Bourdillon, A., Thuillier, Y., Turpin, G., and Puech, A. J. [Lack of efficacy of yohimbine in the treatment of obesity]. J Pharmacol 1986;17:343-347. View abstract.
  50. Shear, M. K. Pathophysiology of panic: a review of pharmacologic provocative tests and naturalistic monitoring data. J Clin Psychiatry 1986;47 (6 Suppl):18-26. View abstract.
  51. Morales, A., Condra, M., Owen, J. A., Surridge, D. H., Fenemore, J., and Harris, C. Is yohimbine effective in the treatment of organic impotence? Results of a controlled trial. J Urol. 1987;137:1168-1172. View abstract.
  52. Dwoskin, L. P., Neal, B. S., and Sparber, S. B. Evidence for antiserotonergic properties of yohimbine. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 1988;31:321-326. View abstract.
  53. Braddock, L., Cowen, P. J., Elliott, J. M., Fraser, S., and Stump, K. Binding of yohimbine and imipramine to platelets in depressive illness. Psychol.Med 1986;16:765-773. View abstract.
  54. Charney, D. S., Price, L. H., and Heninger, G. R. Desipramine-yohimbine combination treatment of refractory depression. Implications for the beta-adrenergic receptor hypothesis of antidepressant action. Arch.Gen.Psychiatry 1986;43:1155-1161. View abstract.
  55. Galitzky, J., Taouis, M., Berlan, M., Riviere, D., Garrigues, M., and Lafontan, M. Alpha 2-antagonist compounds and lipid mobilization: evidence for a lipid mobilizing effect of oral yohimbine in healthy male volunteers. Eur.J Clin Invest 1988;18:587-594. View abstract.
  56. Bourin, M., Malinge, M., Colombel, M. C., and Larousse, C. Influence of alpha stimulants and beta blockers on yohimbine toxicity. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol.Psychiatry 1988;12:569-574. View abstract.
  57. Reid, K., Surridge, D. H., Morales, A., Condra, M., Harris, C., Owen, J., and Fenemore, J. Double-blind trial of yohimbine in treatment of psychogenic impotence. Lancet 8-22-1987;2:421-423. View abstract.
  58. Anonymous. Yohimbine: time for resurrection? Lancet 11-22-1986;2:1194-1195. View abstract.
  59. Montastruc, P., Berlan, M., and Montastruc, J. L. Effects of yohimbine on submaxillary salivation in dogs. Br J Pharmacol 1989;98:101-104. View abstract.
  60. Chatelut, E., Rispail, Y., Berlan, M., and Montastruc, J. L. Yohimbine increases human salivary secretion. Br.J Clin Pharmacol. 1989;28:366-368. View abstract.
  61. Susset, J. G., Tessier, C. D., Wincze, J., Bansal, S., Malhotra, C., and Schwacha, M. G. Effect of yohimbine hydrochloride on erectile impotence: a double-blind study. J Urol. 1989;141:1360-1363. View abstract.
  62. Berlin, I., Crespo-Laumonnier, B., Turpin, G., and Puech, A. J. The alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine does not facilitate weight loss but blocks adrenaline induced platelet aggregation in obese subjects. Therapie 1989;44:301. View abstract.
  63. Landis, E. and Shore, E. Yohimbine-induced bronchospasm. Chest 1989;96:1424. View abstract.
  64. Bagheri, H., Berlan, M., Montastruc, J. L., and Montastruc, P. Yohimbine and lacrimal secretion. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;30:151-152. View abstract.
  65. Sonda, L. P., Mazo, R., and Chancellor, M. B. The role of yohimbine for the treatment of erectile impotence. J Sex Marital Ther. 1990;16:15-21. View abstract.
  66. Cimolai, N. and Cimolai, T. Yohimbine use for physical enhancement and its potential toxicity. J Diet.Suppl 2011;8:346-354. View abstract.
  67. Okamoto, L. E., Shibao, C., Gamboa, A., Choi, L., Diedrich, A., Raj, S. R., Black, B. K., Robertson, D., and Biaggioni, I. Synergistic effect of norepinephrine transporter blockade and alpha-2 antagonism on blood pressure in autonomic failure. Hypertension 2012;59:650-656. View abstract.
  68. Soeter, M. and Kindt, M. Stimulation of the noradrenergic system during memory formation impairs extinction learning but not the disruption of reconsolidation. Neuropsychopharmacology 2012;37:1204-1215. View abstract.
  69. Meyerbroeker, K., Powers, M. B., van, Stegeren A., and Emmelkamp, P. M. Does yohimbine hydrochloride facilitate fear extinction in virtual reality treatment of fear of flying? A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Psychother.Psychosom. 2012;81:29-37. View abstract.
  70. Ho, C. C. and Tan, H. M. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management. Curr Urol.Rep. 2011;12:470-478. View abstract.
  71. Kaplan, J. S., Arnkoff, D. B., Glass, C. R., Tinsley, R., Geraci, M., Hernandez, E., Luckenbaugh, D., Drevets, W. C., and Carlson, P. J. Avoidant coping in panic disorder: a yohimbine biological challenge study. Anxiety.Stress.Coping. 2012;25:425-442. View abstract.
  72. Ernst, E., Posadzki, P., and Lee, M. S. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for sexual dysfunction and erectile dysfunction in older men and women: an overview of systematic reviews. Maturitas 2011;70:37-41. View abstract.
  73. Sommer, M., Braumann, M., Althoff, T., Backhaus, J., Kordon, A., Junghanns, K., Ehrenthal, D., Bartmann, U., Hohagen, F., and Broocks, A. Psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social stress and to the administration of the alpha-2-receptor antagonist, yohimbine, in highly trained endurance athletes in comparison to untrained healthy controls. Pharmacopsychiatry 2011;44:129-134. View abstract.
  74. Simmons, G. H., Barrett-O'Keefe, Z., Minson, C. T., and Halliwill, J. R. Cutaneous vascular and core temperature responses to sustained cold exposure in hypoxia. Exp.Physiol 2011;96:1062-1071. View abstract.
  75. Umhau, J. C., Schwandt, M. L., Usala, J., Geyer, C., Singley, E., George, D. T., and Heilig, M. Pharmacologically induced alcohol craving in treatment seeking alcoholics correlates with alcoholism severity, but is insensitive to acamprosate. Neuropsychopharmacology 2011;36:1178-1186. View abstract.
  76. Kaplan, G. B. and Moore, K. A. The use of cognitive enhancers in animal models of fear extinction. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 2011;99:217-228. View abstract.
  77. Shibao, C., Okamoto, L. E., Gamboa, A., Yu, C., Diedrich, A., Raj, S. R., Robertson, D., and Biaggioni, I. Comparative efficacy of yohimbine against pyridostigmine for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension in autonomic failure. Hypertension 2010;56:847-851. View abstract.
  78. Swann, A. C. Mechanisms of impulsivity in bipolar disorder and related illness. Epidemiol.Psichiatr.Soc. 2010;19:120-130. View abstract.
  79. Guthrie, S. K., Hariharan, M., and Grunhaus, L. J. Yohimbine bioavailability in humans. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 1990;39:409-411. View abstract.
  80. Rouget, C., Quinton, L., Maiga, A., Gales, C., Masuyer, G., Malosse, C., Chamot-Rooke, J., Thai, R., Mourier, G., De, Pauw E., Gilles, N., and Servent, D. Identification of a novel snake peptide toxin displaying high affinity and antagonist behaviour for the alpha2-adrenoceptors. Br J Pharmacol 2010;161:1361-1374. View abstract.
  81. Garcia de, Miguel B., Nutt, D. J., Hood, S. D., and Davies, S. J. Elucidation of neurobiology of anxiety disorders in children through pharmacological challenge tests and cortisol measurements: a systematic review. J Psychopharmacol. 2012;26:431-442. View abstract.
  82. Berlin, I., Crespo-Laumonnier, B., Cournot, A., Landault, C., Aubin, F., Legrand, J. C., and Puech, A. J. The alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine inhibits epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol.Ther. 1991;49:362-369. View abstract.
  83. Holmes, A. and Quirk, G. J. Pharmacological facilitation of fear extinction and the search for adjunct treatments for anxiety disorders--the case of yohimbine. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2010;31:2-7. View abstract.
  84. Myers, A. and Barrueto, F., Jr. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract. J Med Toxicol. 2009;5:223-225. View abstract.
  85. Fleurence, R., Williamson, R., Jing, Y., Kim, E., Tran, Q. V., Pikalov, A. S., and Thase, M. E. A systematic review of augmentation strategies for patients with major depressive disorder. Psychopharmacol.Bull. 2009;42:57-90. View abstract.
  86. Bloomer, R. J., Canale, R. E., Blankenship, M. M., Hammond, K. G., Fisher-Wellman, K. H., and Schilling, B. K. Effect of the dietary supplement Meltdown on catecholamine secretion, markers of lipolysis, and metabolic rate in men and women: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study. Lipids Health Dis 2009;8:32. View abstract.
  87. Giampreti, A., Lonati, D., Locatelli, C., Rocchi, L., and Campailla, M. T. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder. Clin Toxicol.(Phila) 2009;47:827-829. View abstract.
  88. Shalev, U., Erb, S., and Shaham, Y. Role of CRF and other neuropeptides in stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Brain Res 2-16-2010;1314:15-28. View abstract.
  89. Arnsten, A. F. Toward a new understanding of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder pathophysiology: an important role for prefrontal cortex dysfunction. CNS.Drugs 2009;23 Suppl 1:33-41. View abstract.
  90. Nair, S. G., Adams-Deutsch, T., Epstein, D. H., and Shaham, Y. The neuropharmacology of relapse to food seeking: methodology, main findings, and comparison with relapse to drug seeking. Prog Neurobiol. 2009;89:18-45. View abstract.
  91. Lang, J. A., Holowatz, L. A., and Kenney, W. L. Local tetrahydrobiopterin administration augments cutaneous vasoconstriction in aged humans. J Physiol 8-1-2009;587(Pt 15):3967-3974. View abstract.
  92. Kurko, D., Bekes, Z., Gere, A., Baki, A., Boros, A., Kolok, S., Bugovics, G., Nagy, J., Szombathelyi, Z., and Ignacz-Szendrei, G. Comparative pharmacology of adrenergic alpha(2C) receptors coupled to Ca signaling through different Galpha proteins. Neurochem.Int 2009;55:467-475. View abstract.
  93. Vasa, R. A., Pine, D. S., Masten, C. L., Vythilingam, M., Collin, C., Charney, D. S., Neumeister, A., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Bruck, M., and Monk, C. S. Effects of yohimbine and hydrocortisone on panic symptoms, autonomic responses, and attention to threat in healthy adults. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2009;204:445-455. View abstract.
  94. Powers, M. B., Smits, J. A., Otto, M. W., Sanders, C., and Emmelkamp, P. M. Facilitation of fear extinction in phobic participants with a novel cognitive enhancer: a randomized placebo controlled trial of yohimbine augmentation. J Anxiety.Disord. 2009;23:350-356. View abstract.
  95. Murburg, M. M., Villacres, E. C., Ko, G. N., and Veith, R. C. Effects of yohimbine on human sympathetic nervous system function. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 1991;73:861-865. View abstract.
  96. Berlan, M., Galitzky, J., Riviere, D., Foureau, M., Tran, M. A., Flores, R., Louvet, J. P., Houin, G., and Lafontan, M. Plasma catecholamine levels and lipid mobilization induced by yohimbine in obese and non-obese women. Int.J Obes. 1991;15:305-315. View abstract.
  97. Chung, O. Y., Bruehl, S., Diedrich, L., and Diedrich, A. The impact of blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity on wind-up. Anesth.Analg. 2008;107:1018-1025. View abstract.
  98. Bharucha, A. E., Charkoudian, N., Andrews, C. N., Camilleri, M., Sletten, D., Zinsmeister, A. R., and Low, P. A. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1, yohimbine, and nitrergic modulation on sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in humans. Am J Physiol Regul.Integr.Comp Physiol 2008;295:R874-R880. View abstract.
  99. Grossman, E., Rea, R. F., Hoffman, A., and Goldstein, D. S. Yohimbine increases sympathetic nerve activity and norepinephrine spillover in normal volunteers. Am J Physiol 1991;260(1 Pt 2):R142-R147. View abstract.
  100. Chung, O. Y., Bruehl, S., Diedrich, L., Diedrich, A., Chont, M., and Robertson, D. Baroreflex sensitivity associated hypoalgesia in healthy states is altered by chronic pain. Pain 8-15-2008;138:87-97. View abstract.
  101. Bruehl, S., Chung, O. Y., Diedrich, L., Diedrich, A., and Robertson, D. The relationship between resting blood pressure and acute pain sensitivity: effects of chronic pain and alpha-2 adrenergic blockade. J Behav.Med 2008;31:71-80. View abstract.
  102. Adeniyi, A. A., Brindley, G. S., Pryor, J. P., and Ralph, D. J. Yohimbine in the treatment of orgasmic dysfunction. Asian J Androl 2007;9:403-407. View abstract.
  103. Ostojic, S. M. Yohimbine: the effects on body composition and exercise performance in soccer players. Res Sports Med 2006;14:289-299. View abstract.
  104. Swann, A. C., Birnbaum, D., Jagar, A. A., Dougherty, D. M., and Moeller, F. G. Acute yohimbine increases laboratory-measured impulsivity in normal subjects. Biol.Psychiatry 5-15-2005;57:1209-1211. View abstract.
  105. Albus, M., Zahn, T. P., and Breier, A. Anxiogenic properties of yohimbine. II. Influence of experimental set and setting. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1992;241:345-351. View abstract.
  106. Albus, M., Zahn, T. P., and Breier, A. Anxiogenic properties of yohimbine. I. Behavioral, physiological and biochemical measures. Eur.Arch.Psychiatry Clin.Neurosci. 1992;241:337-344. View abstract.
  107. Bagheri, H., Bompart, G., Girolami, J. P., Montastruc, J. L., and Montastruc, P. Is yohimbine-induced increase in salivary secretion a kinin-dependent mechanism? Fundam.Clin Pharmacol 1992;6:17-20. View abstract.
  108. Bagheri, H., Schmitt, L., Berlan, M., and Montastruc, J. L. Effect of 3 weeks treatment with yohimbine on salivary secretion in healthy volunteers and in depressed patients treated with tricyclic antidepressants. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1992;34:555-558. View abstract.
  109. Bowes, M. P., Peters, R. H., Kernan, W. J., Jr., and Hopper, D. L. Effects of yohimbine and idazoxan on motor behaviors in male rats. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1992;41:707-713. View abstract.
  110. Dunn, R. W. and Corbett, R. Yohimbine-induced seizures involve NMDA and GABAergic transmission. Neuropharmacology 1992;31:389-395. View abstract.
  111. Lebret, T., Herve, J. M., Gorny, P., Worcel, M., and Botto, H. Efficacy and safety of a novel combination of L-arginine glutamate and yohimbine hydrochloride: a new oral therapy for erectile dysfunction. Eur Urol. 2002;41:608-613. View abstract.
  112. Papeschi, R. and Theiss, P. The effect of yohimbine on the turnover of brain catecholamines and serotonin. Eur J Pharmacol 1975;33:1-12. View abstract.
  113. Abdel-Zaher, A. O., Ahmed, I. T., and El Koussi, A. D. The potential antidiabetic activity of some alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonists. Pharmacol Res 2001;44:397-409. View abstract.
  114. Cameron, O. G., Zubieta, J. K., Grunhaus, L., and Minoshima, S. Effects of yohimbine on cerebral blood flow, symptoms, and physiological functions in humans. Psychosom.Med 2000;62:549-559. View abstract.
  115. Mustonen, P., Savola, J., and Lassila, R. Atipamezole, an imidazoline-type alpha-adrenoceptor inhibitor, binds to human platelets and inhibits their adrenaline-induced aggregation more effectively than yohimbine. Thromb.Res 8-1-2000;99:231-237. View abstract.
  116. Morales, A. Yohimbine in erectile dysfunction: the facts. Int.J.Impot.Res. 2000;12 Suppl 1:S70-S74. View abstract.
  117. Rasmusson, A. M., Hauger, R. L., Morgan, C. A., Bremner, J. D., Charney, D. S., and Southwick, S. M. Low baseline and yohimbine-stimulated plasma neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in combat-related PTSD. Biol.Psychiatry 3-15-2000;47:526-539. View abstract.
  118. Le Corre, P., Dollo, G., Chevanne, F., and Le Verge, R. Biopharmaceutics and metabolism of yohimbine in humans. Eur J Pharm Sci 1999;9:79-84. View abstract.
  119. Becker, C., Hamon, M., and Benoliel, J. J. Prevention by 5-HT1A receptor agonists of restraint stress- and yohimbine-induced release of cholecystokinin in the frontal cortex of the freely moving rat. Neuropharmacology 1999;38:525-532. View abstract.
  120. Gyllenhaal, C., Merritt, S. L., Peterson, S. D., Block, K. I., and Gochenour, T. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4:229-251. View abstract.
  121. Abebe, W. An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations. J Dent.Hyg. 2003;77:37-46. View abstract.
  122. Kearney T, Tu N, Haller C. Adverse drug events associated with yohimbine-containing products: a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System reported cases. Ann Pharmacother 2010;44:1022-9. View abstract.
  123. Ernst E, Pittler MH. Yohimbine for erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Urol 1998;159:433-6.. View abstract.
  124. Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:624S-36S.. View abstract.
  125. Varnell MA. Enhanced herb may help female sexual dysfunction. Reuters Health 2000;Jun 27. www.reutershealth.com/frame/eline.html (Accessed 28 June 2000).
  126. Sandler B, Aronson P. Yohimbine-induced cutaneous drug eruption, progressive renal failure, and lupus-like syndrome. Urol 1993;41:343-5. View abstract.
  127. Chevallier A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. London, UK: Dorling Kindersley, Ltd., 1996.
  128. Balon R. The effects of anitdepressants on human sexuality: diagnosis and management update 1999. Primary Psychiatry 1999;6:40-54.
  129. Harvey KV, Balon R. Clinical implications of antidepressant drug effects on sexual function. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1995;7:189-201. View abstract.
  130. Hollander E, McCarley A. Yohimbine treatment of sexual side effects induced by serotonin reuptake blockers. J Clin Psychiatry 1992;53:207-9. View abstract.
  131. Jacobsen FM. Fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction and an open trial of yohimbine. J Clin Psychiatry 1992;53:119-22. View abstract.
  132. Ashton AK. Yohimbine in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. Am J Psychiatr 1994;151:1397. View abstract.
  133. Teloken C, Rhoden EL, Sogari P, et al. Therapeutic effects of high dose yohimbine hydrochloride on organic erectile dysfunction. J Urol 1998;159:122-4. View abstract.
  134. Witt DK. Yohimbine for erectile dysfuntion. J Fam Pract 1998;46:282-3. View abstract.
  135. Wagner G, Saenz de Tejada IS. Update on male erectile dysfunction. BMJ 1998;316:678-82. View abstract.
  136. Kunellius P, Hakkinen J, Lukkarinen O. Is high-dose yohimbine hydrochloride effective in the treatment of mixed-type impotence? A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study. Urol 1997;49:441-4. View abstract.
  137. Carey MP, Johnson BT. Effectiveness of yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder: four meta-analytic integrations. Arch Sex Behav 1996;25:341-60. View abstract.
  138. Balon R. Fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction and yohimbine. J Clin Psychiatry 1993;54:161-2. View abstract.
  139. Montorsi F, Strambi LF, Guazzoni G, et al. Effect of yohimbine-trazodone on psychogenic impotence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Urology 1994;44:732-6. View abstract.
  140. Cappiello A, McDougle CJ, Malison RT, et al. Yohimbine augmentation of Fluvoxamine in refactory depression: a single blind study. Biol Psychiatry 1995;38:765-7. View abstract.
  141. Owen JA, Nakatsu SL, Fenemore J, et al. The pharmacokinetics of yohimbine in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1987;3:877-82. View abstract.
  142. Southwick SM, Morgan CA III, Charney DS, High JR. Yohimbine use in a natural setting: effects on post-traumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatr 1999;46:442-4. View abstract.
  143. Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal, 4th ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.
  144. Burnham TH, ed. Drug Facts and Comparisons, Updated Monthly. Facts and Comparisons, St. Louis, MO.
  145. Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 2nd ed. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications, 1998.
  146. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C. PDR for Herbal Medicines. 1st ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 1998.
  147. McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.
  148. McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, eds. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC 1997.
  149. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 03/04/2014




Page last updated: 08 September 2014