Skip navigation

Calcium


What is it?

Calcium is a mineral that is an essential part of bones and teeth. The heart, nerves, and blood-clotting systems also need calcium to work.

Calcium is used for treatment and prevention of low calcium levels and resulting bone conditions including osteoporosis (weak bones due to low bone density), rickets (a condition in children involving softening of the bones), and osteomalacia (a softening of bones involving pain). Calcium is also used for premenstrual syndrome (PMS), leg cramps in pregnancy, high blood pressure in pregnancy (pre-eclampsia), and reducing the risk of colon and rectal cancers.

Some people use calcium for complications after intestinal bypass surgery, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, Lyme disease, to reduce high fluoride levels in children, and to reduce high lead levels.

Calcium carbonate is used as an antacid for “heartburn.” Calcium carbonate and calcium acetate are also used for reducing phosphate levels in people with kidney disease.

Calcium-rich foods include milk and dairy products, kale and broccoli, as well as the calcium-enriched citrus juices, mineral water, canned fish with bones, and soy products processed with calcium.

Calcium can interact with many prescription medications, but sometimes the effects can be minimized by taking calcium at a different time. See the section titled “Are there any interactions with medications?"

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for CALCIUM are as follows:

Effective for...

  • Indigestion. Taking calcium carbonate by mouth as an antacid is effective for treating indigestion.
  • High levels of potassium in the blood (hyperkalemia). Giving calcium gluconate intravenously (by IV) can reverse hyperkalemia, a condition in which there is too much potassium in the blood.
  • Low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia). Taking calcium by mouth is effective for treating and preventing hypocalcemia. Also, giving calcium intravenously (by IV) is effective for treating very low levels of calcium.
  • Kidney failure. Taking calcium carbonate or calcium acetate by mouth is effective for controlling high phosphate levels in the blood in people with kidney failure. Calcium citrate is not effective for treating this condition.

Likely effective for...

  • Osteoporosis caused by corticosteroid drugs. Taking calcium along with vitamin D seems to reduce the loss of bone mineral in people using corticosteroid drugs long-term.
  • Increasing bone strength in fetuses. In pregnant women who eat a low amount of calcium as part of their diet, calcium supplementation increases the bone mineral density of the fetus. However, this does not appear to be beneficial for women with normal calcium levels.
  • Parathyroid gland disorder (hyperparathyroidism). Taking calcium by mouth reduces parathyroid hormone levels in people with kidney failure and parathyroid hormone levels that are too high.
  • Osteoporosis. Taking calcium by mouth is effective for preventing and treating bone loss and osteoporosis. Most bone growth occurs in the teenage years, and then bone strength in women remains about the same until age 30-40. After age 40, bone loss typically occurs at rates of 0.5% to 1% per year. In men, this bone loss occurs several decades later. There is more bone loss if less than the recommended amount of calcium is obtained from the diet. This is very common among Americans. Bone loss in women over 40 can be reduced by taking calcium supplements. Some researchers estimate that taking calcium for 30 years after menopause might result in a 10% improvement in bone strength and a 50% overall reduction in the rate of bone break.
  • Reducing symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). There seems to be a link between low dietary calcium intake and symptoms of PMS. Consuming calcium daily seems to significantly reduce mood swings, bloating, food cravings, and pain. Also, increasing the amount of calcium in one’s diet seems to prevent PMS. Women consuming an average of 1283 mg/day of calcium from foods seem to have about a 30% lower risk of developing PMS than women who consume an average of 529 mg/day of calcium. Taking calcium supplements, however, does not seem to prevent PMS.

Possibly effective for...

  • Colorectal cancer. Research suggests that high intake of dietary or supplemental calcium reduces the risk of colorectal cancer. Research also shows that taking calcium supplements might help to keep colorectal cancer from returning. However, people with low levels of vitamin D do not seem to benefit from calcium supplements.
  • Fluoride poisoning. Taking calcium by mouth, together with vitamin C and vitamin D supplements, seems to reduce fluoride levels in children and improve symptoms of fluoride poisoning.
  • High cholesterol. Taking calcium supplements along with a low-fat or low-calorie diet seems to modestly reduce cholesterol. Taking calcium alone, without the restricted diet, does not seem to lower cholesterol.
  • High blood pressure. taking calcium supplements seems to reduce blood pressure slightly (usually around 1-2 mmhg) in people with or without high blood pressure. calcium seems to be more effective in salt-sensitive people and people who normally get very little calcium. taking calcium by mouth also seems to be helpful for reducing blood pressure in people with serious kidney disease.
  • Stroke. There is some evidence that increasing calcium intake in the diet might decrease the risk of stroke.
  • High blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia). Taking 1-2 grams of calcium by mouth daily seems to reduce pregnancy-related high blood pressure. Calcium appears to reduce the risk of high blood pressure in pregnancy by about 50%. Calcium appears to have the greatest effect in high-risk women and women with low calcium levels.
  • Tooth loss. Taking calcium and vitamin D by mouth appears to help prevent tooth loss in older people.
  • Weight loss. Adults and children with low calcium intake are more likely to gain weight, have a higher body mass index (BMI), and be overweight or obese compared to people with high calcium intake. Researchers have studied whether increasing calcium intake might help with weight loss. Some clinical research shows that increasing calcium consumption from dairy products, such as yogurt, increases weight loss, lean body mass, and body fat loss in people on a low-calorie diet as well as people on a regular unrestricted-calorie diet.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Breast cancer. Some research suggests that women who eat more calcium have a reduced risk for developing breast cancer. However, other research suggests that blood levels of calcium are not linked with breast cancer risk. Overall, most research suggests that taking calcium does not reduce the risk for breast cancer.
  • Heart disease. Evidence suggests that taking calcium supplements does not reduce the risk for heart disease in healthy people.
  • Ovarian cancer. Some evidence suggests that high blood levels of calcium are linked to a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. However, other research suggests that dietary calcium intake is not linked with the risk of ovarian cancer.

Ineffective for...

  • Cardiac arrest. Evidence suggests that administering calcium during cardiac arrest does not increase survival and might actually worsen the chance for resuscitation.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Black widow spider bites. Some evidence suggests that injecting calcium intravenously (by IV) reduces muscle cramps associated with black widow spider bites.
  • Cancer. Research shows that healthy older women who take 1400-1500 mg of calcium daily plus 1100 IU of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) daily have a 60% lower risk for developing cancer of any type. However, taking calcium alone does not seem to reduce the risk of cancer.
  • Diabetes. Some early research suggests that consuming more calcium from the diet or from supplements, either alone or in combination with vitamin D, lowers the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • High levels of lead in the blood. Some research suggests that taking calcium supplements does not lower the levels of lead in the blood. However, other research suggests that taking calcium reduces blood lead levels by 11%.
  • Endometrial cancer. Taking calcium supplements might reduce the risk of developing endometrial cancer. However, dietary calcium does not seem to have any benefit.
  • Preventing falls. Evidence suggests that calcium plus vitamin D might help prevent falls by decreasing body sway and helping to keep blood pressure normal. Calcium alone does not seem to have the effect. Interestingly, calcium plus vitamin D seems to prevent falls in women, but not in men.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Some evidence suggests that consuming more calcium from the diet and supplements, either alone or in combination with vitamin D, lowers the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency caused by the drug metformin. Taking calcium supplements might reduce vitamin B12 deficiency caused by the diabetes drug metformin.
  • Inflammation in the digestive tract (mucositis). Evidence suggests that using a mouth rinse containing calcium phosphate (Caphosol) in combination with fluoride treatments reduces the duration of pain in people with inflammation in the digestive tract.
  • Depression after pregnancy (postpartum depression). Early research suggests that taking calcium daily, beginning 11-21 weeks into pregnancy, reduces depression 12 weeks after delivery.
  • Pregnancy-related leg cramps. Early research shows that calcium can help prevent leg cramps in the second half of pregnancy.
  • Prostate cancer. Research about how calcium affects the risk of prostate cancer has shown conflicting results. Some research suggests that taking calcium supplements daily decreases the risk of prostate cancer. However, other research suggests that there is not a link between calcium intake and the risk for developing prostate cancer.
  • Seizures. Early research suggests that calcium might help control seizures caused by sudden drops in blood levels of calcium.
  • Lyme disease.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of calcium for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
The bones and teeth contain over 99% of the calcium in the human body. Calcium is also found in the blood, muscles, and other tissue. Calcium in the bones can be used as a reserve that can be released into the body as needed. The concentration of calcium in the body tends to decline as we age because it is released from the body through sweat, skin cells, and waste. In addition, as women age, absorption of calcium tends to decline due to reduced estrogen levels. Calcium absorption can vary depending on race, gender, and age.

Bones are always breaking down and rebuilding, and calcium is needed for this process. Taking extra calcium helps the bones rebuild properly and stay strong.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
Calcium is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth or when given intravenously (by IV) and appropriately. Calcium can cause some minor side effects such as belching or gas.

Calcium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for both adults and children when taken by mouth in high doses. Avoid taking too much calcium. The Institute of Medicine sets the daily tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium based on age as follows: Age 0-6 months, 1000 mg; 6-12 months, 1500 mg; 1-3 years, 2500 mg; 9-18 years, 3000 mg; 19-50 years, 2500 mg; 51+ years, 2000 mg. Higher doses increase the chance of having serious side effects. Some recent research also suggests that doses over the recommended daily requirement of 1000-1300 mg daily for most adults might increase the chance of heart attack. This research is concerning, but it is still too soon to say for certain that calcium is truly the cause of heart attack. Until more is known, continue consuming adequate amounts of calcium to meet daily requirements, but not excessive amounts of calcium. Be sure to consider total calcium intake from both dietary and supplemental sources and try not to exceed 1000-1300 mg of calcium per day. To figure out dietary calcium, count 300 mg/day from non-dairy foods plus 300 mg/cup of milk or fortified orange juice.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Calcium is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in recommended amounts during pregnancy and breast-feeding. There is not enough information available on the safety of using calcium intravenously (by IV) during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Low acid levels in the stomach (achlorhydria). People with low levels of gastric acid absorb less calcium if calcium is taken on an empty stomach. However, low acid levels in the stomach do not appear to reduce calcium absorption if calcium is taken with food. Advise people with achlorhydria to take calcium supplements with meals.

High levels of phosphate in the blood (hyperphosphatemia) or low levels of phosphate in the blood (hypophosphatemia): Calcium and phosphate have to be in balance in the body. Taking too much calcium can throw this balance off and cause harm. Don’t take extra calcium without your health provider’s supervision.

Under-active thyroid (hypothyroidism): Calcium can interfere with thyroid hormone replacement treatment. Separate calcium and thyroid medications by at least 4 hours.

Too much calcium in the blood (as in parathyroid gland disorders and sarcoidosis): Calcium should be avoided if you have one of these conditions.

Poor kidney function: Calcium supplementation can increase the risk of having too much calcium in the blood in people with poor kidney function.

Smoking: People who smoke absorb less calcium from the stomach.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top

Major

Do not take this combination.

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)
Administering intravenous ceftriaxone (Rocephin) and calcium can result in life-threatening damage to the lungs and kidneys. Calcium should not be administered intravenously within 48 hours of intravenous ceftriaxone (Rocephin).

Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Aluminum salts
Calcium can increase how much aluminum your body absorbs when taken with aluminum hydroxide. The increase in aluminum levels might become toxic in people with kidney disease.

Antibiotics (Quinolone antibiotics)
Calcium might decrease how much antibiotic your body absorbs. Taking calcium along with some antibiotics known as "quinolones" might decrease their effectiveness. To avoid this interaction, take these drugs at least 2 hours before, or 4 to 6 hours after calcium supplements.

Some quinolone antibiotics that might interact with calcium include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), levofloxacin (Levaquin), ofloxacin (Floxin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), gatifloxacin (Tequin), gemifloxacin (Factive), and others.

Antibiotics (Tetracycline antibiotics)
Calcium can attach to some antibiotics called tetracyclines in the stomach. This decreases the amount of tetracyclines that can be absorbed. Taking calcium with tetracyclines might decrease the effectiveness of tetracyclines. To avoid this interaction, take calcium at least 2 hours before or 4 to 6 hours after taking tetracyclines.

Some tetracyclines include demeclocycline (Declomycin), minocycline (Minocin), and tetracycline (Achromycin, and others).

Bisphosphonates
Calcium can decrease how much bisphosphate your body absorbs. Taking calcium along with bisphosphates can decrease the effectiveness of bisphosphate. To avoid this interaction, take bisphosphonate at least 30 minutes before calcium or, preferably, at a different time of day.

Some bisphosphonates include alendronate (Fosamax), etidronate (Didronel), ibandronate (Boniva), risedronate (Actonel), tiludronate (Skelid), and others.

Calcipotriene (Dovonex)
Calcipotriene (Dovonex) is a drug that is similar to vitamin D. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Taking calcium supplements along with calcipotriene (Dovonex) might cause the body to have too much calcium.

Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Calcium can affect your heart. Digoxin (Lanoxin) is used to help your heart beat stronger. Taking calcium along with digoxin (Lanoxin) might increase the effects of digoxin (Lanoxin) and lead to an irregular heartbeat. If you are taking digoxin (Lanoxin), talk to your doctor before taking calcium supplements.

Diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac)
Calcium can affect your heart. Diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac) can also affect your heart. Taking large amounts of calcium along with diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac) might decrease the effectiveness of diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac).

Levothyroxine
Levothyroxine is used for low thyroid function. Calcium can decrease how much levothyroxine your body absorbs. Taking calcium along with levothyroxine might decrease the effectiveness of levothyroxine. Levothyroxine and calcium should be taken at least 4 hours apart.

Some brands that contain levothyroxine include Armour Thyroid, Eltroxin, Estre, Euthyrox, Levo-T, Levothroid, Levoxyl, Synthroid, Unithroid, and others.

Lithium
Long-term lithium use can increase calcium levels in the blood too much. Taking lithium with calcium supplements might increase this risk even more.

Sotalol (Betapace)
Taking calcium with sotalol (Betapace) can decrease how much sotalol (Betapace) your body absorbs. Taking calcium along with sotalol (Betapace) might decrease the effectiveness of sotalol (Betapace). To avoid this interaction, take calcium at least 2 hours before or 4 hours after taking sotalol (Betapace).

Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan)
Calcium can affect your heart. Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can also affect your heart. Do not take large amounts of calcium if you are taking verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan).

Water pills (Thiazide diuretics)
Some "water pills" increase the amount of calcium in your body. Taking large amounts of calcium with some "water pills" might cause there to be too much calcium in the body. This could cause serious side effects, including kidney problems.

Some of these "water pills" include chlorothiazide (Diuril), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL, Esidrix), indapamide (Lozol), metolazone (Zaroxolyn), and chlorthalidone (Hygroton).

Minor

Be watchful with this combination.

Estrogens
Estrogen helps your body absorb calcium. Taking estrogen pills along with large amounts of calcium might increase calcium in the body too much.

Estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Calcium channel blockers)
Some medications for high blood pressure can affect calcium in your body. These medications are called calcium channel blockers. Getting calcium injections might decrease the effectiveness of these medications for high blood pressure.

Some medications for high blood pressure include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipine (Plendil), amlodipine (Norvasc), and others.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Iron
Calcium supplements can decrease the absorption of dietary iron. In people who have enough iron stored in their bodies, taking calcium does not cause a problem over the long term. However, people at high risk for iron deficiency should take calcium supplements at bedtime, instead of with meals, to avoid reducing dietary iron absorption.

Magnesium
Calcium supplements can decrease the absorption of dietary magnesium, but only at very high doses (2600 mg per day). However, in people who have enough magnesium stored in their bodies, taking calcium does not cause a problem over the long term. People at high risk for magnesium deficiency, however, should take calcium supplements at bedtime, instead of with meals, to avoid reducing dietary magnesium absorption.

Prebiotics
Taking prebiotics or probiotics along with calcium might increase the absorption of calcium.

Probiotics
Taking prebiotics or probiotics along with calcium might increase the absorption of calcium.

Vitamin D
Taking vitamin D along with calcium increases absorption of calcium.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
Caffeine
High caffeine intake from foods and beverages causes the body to remove calcium. Taking more than 300 mg of caffeine per day (three to four cups of coffee, or six 12-oz. cola drinks) is linked to increased bone loss and breaks in elderly women, especially when calcium intake is low. Be sure to get the amount of calcium from food and supplements that is recommended for your age and gender.

Fiber
Dietary fiber from certain sources can interfere with calcium absorption. These sources include wheat bran, spinach, rhubarb, and others. It's best not to eat fibrous foods within two hours of taking calcium supplements.

Iron
Calcium supplements may decrease the absorption of dietary iron. However, in people who have enough iron stored in their body, taking calcium does not cause a problem over the long term. People who are at high risk for iron deficiency should take calcium supplements at bedtime, instead of with meals, to avoid reducing the absorption of iron.

Magnesium
Calcium supplements may decrease the absorption of dietary magnesium. However, in people who have enough magnesium stored in their body, taking calcium does not cause a problem over the long term. People who are at high risk for magnesium deficiency should take calcium supplements at bedtime, instead of with meals, to avoid reducing the absorption of magnesium.

Prebiotics
Taking prebiotics or probiotics along with calcium might increase the absorption of calcium.

Probiotics
Taking prebiotics or probiotics along with calcium might increase the absorption of calcium.

Protein
Eating high-protein diets, particularly from animal sources, might increase how much calcium is excreted in the urine. Eating a low-protein diet might reduce how much calcium is absorbed in the stomach.

Sodium
Eating foods that contain a lot of sodium causes the body to remove calcium. A calcium intake of 1000 mg/day is needed to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women ingesting 2000 mg sodium chloride daily. About 1500 mg/day calcium is needed if sodium chloride intake is 3000 mg/day.

Zinc
Calcium supplements may decrease the absorption of dietary zinc. However, in people who have enough zinc stored in their body, taking calcium does not cause a problem over the long term. People who are at high risk for zinc deficiency should take calcium supplements at bedtime, instead of with meals, to avoid reducing the absorption of zinc.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:
  • For preventing low calcium levels: 1 gram elemental calcium daily is typically used.
  • For heartburn: Calcium carbonate as an antacid is usually 0.5-1.5 grams as needed.
  • To reduce phosphates in adults with chronic renal failure: The initial dose of calcium acetate is 1.334 grams (338 mg elemental calcium) with each meal, increasing to 2-2.67 grams (500-680 mg elemental calcium) with each meal if necessary.
  • For prevention of weak bones (osteoporosis): Doses of 1-1.6 grams elemental calcium daily from foods and supplements. Osteoporosis treatment guidelines in North America currently recommend 1200 mg daily of calcium.
  • For prevention of bone loss in premenopausal women over 40: A dose of 1 gram.
  • For pregnant women with low dietary calcium intake: The dose for increasing fetal bone density ranges from 300-1300 mg/day beginning at gestation week 20-22.
  • For premenstrual syndrome (PMS): 1-1.2 grams calcium per day as calcium carbonate.
  • For reducing thyroid hormone levels in people with chronic renal failure: 2-21 grams calcium carbonate.
  • To prevent bone loss in people taking corticosteroid drugs: Divided daily doses of 1 gram of elemental calcium daily.
  • For high blood pressure: 1-1.5 grams calcium daily.
  • For preventing high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia): 1-2 grams elemental calcium daily as calcium carbonate.
  • For preventing colorectal cancer and recurrent colorectal benign tumors (adenomas): Calcium 1200-1600 mg/day.
  • For high cholesterol: 1200 mg daily with or without vitamin D 400 IU daily has been used in conjunction with a low-fat or calorie-restricted diet.
  • For preventing fluoride poisoning in children: Calcium 125 mg twice daily, in combination with ascorbic acid and vitamin D.
  • For weight loss, increasing calcium consumption from dairy products to total intake of 500-2400 mg/day in combination with a calorie-restricted diet has been used.
Calcium carbonate and calcium citrate are the two most commonly used forms of calcium.

Calcium supplements are usually divided into two doses daily in order to increase absorption. It’s best to take calcium with food in doses of 500 mg or less.

The Institute of Medicine publishes a recommended daily allowance (RDA) for calcium which is an estimate of the intake level necessary to meet the requirements of nearly all healthy individuals in the population. The current RDA was set in 2010. The RDA varies based on age as follows: Age 1-3 years, 700 mg; 4-8 years, 1000 mg; 9-18 years, 1300 mg; 19-50 years, 1000 mg; Men 51-70 years, 1000 mg; Women 51-70 years, 1200 mg; 70+ years, 1200 mg; Pregnant or Lactating (under 19 years), 1300 mg; Pregnant or Lactating (19-50 years), 1000 mg.

The Institute of Medicine also sets the daily tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium based on age as follows: Age 0-6 months, 1000 mg; 6-12 months, 1500 mg; 1-3 years, 2500 mg; 9-18 years, 3000 mg; 19-50 years, 2500 mg; 51+ years, 2000 mg. Doses above these levels should be avoided.

Doses over the recommended daily intake level of 1000-1300 mg/day for most adults have been associated with an increased risk of heart attack. Until more is known, continue consuming adequate amounts of calcium to meet daily requirements, but not excessive amounts of calcium. Be sure to consider total calcium intake from both dietary and supplemental sources and try not to exceed 1000-1300 mg of calcium per day. To figure out dietary calcium, count 300 mg/day from non-dairy foods plus 300 mg/cup of milk or fortified orange juice.

Other names

Return to top
Acétate de Calcium, Aspartate de Calcium, Bone Meal, Calcio, Calcium Acetate, Calcium Aspartate, Calcium Carbonate, Calcium Chelate, Calcium Chloride, Calcium Citrate, Calcium Citrate Malate, Calcium D-Gluconate, Calcium Disuccinate, Calcium Gluconate, Calcium Glycerophosphate, Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate, Calcium Hydroxyapatite, Calcium Lactate, Calcium Lactogluconate, Calcium Orotate, Calcium Phosphate, Calcium Sulfate, Carbonate de Calcium, Chélate de Calcium, Chlorure de Calcium, Citrate de Calcium, Citrate Malate de Calcium, Coquilles d’Huîtres Moulues, Coquilles d’œuf, Dicalcium Phosphate, Di-Calcium Phosphate, Dolomite, Egg Shell Calcium, Gluconate de Calcium, Glycérophosphate de Calcium, Heated Oyster Shell-Seaweed Calcium, Hydroxyapatite, Lactate de Calcium, Lactogluconate de Calcium, MCHA, MCHC, Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite, Orotate de Calcium, Ossein Hydroxyapatite, Oyster Shell, Oyster Shell Calcium, Phosphate de Calcium, Phosphate de Calcium Hydrogène, Phosphate de di-Calcium, Phosphate Tricalcium, Poudre d’os, Sulfate de Calcium, Tricalcium Phosphate.

Methodology

Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

Return to top
To see all references for the Calcium page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/781.html.

  1. Harrison-Hohner J, Coste S, Donato V, and et al. Prenatal calcium supplementation and postpartum depression: an ancillary study to a randomized trial of calcium for prevention of preeclampsia. Arch Women's Ment Health 2001;3:141-146.
  2. Kulier, R., de, Onis M., Gulmezoglu, A. M., and Villar, J. Nutritional interventions for the prevention of maternal morbidity. Int J Gynaecol.Obstet. 1998;63:231-246. View abstract.
  3. van, Walraven C., Stiell, I. G., Wells, G. A., Hebert, P. C., and Vandemheen, K. Do advanced cardiac life support drugs increase resuscitation rates from in-hospital cardiac arrest? The OTAC Study Group. Ann.Emerg.Med 1998;32:544-553. View abstract.
  4. Kerstetter, J. E., O'Brien, K. O., and Insogna, K. L. Dietary protein affects intestinal calcium absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:859-865. View abstract.
  5. Cumming, R. G. and Nevitt, M. C. Calcium for prevention of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 1997;12:1321-1329. View abstract.
  6. Pannemans, D. L., Schaafsma, G., and Westerterp, K. R. Calcium excretion, apparent calcium absorption and calcium balance in young and elderly subjects: influence of protein intake. Br.J Nutr 1997;77:721-729. View abstract.
  7. Bergsma-Kadijk, J. A., van, 't, V, Kampman, E., and Burema, J. Calcium does not protect against colorectal neoplasia. Epidemiology 1996;7:590-597. View abstract.
  8. Itoh, R. and Suyama, Y. Sodium excretion in relation to calcium and hydroxyproline excretion in a healthy Japanese population. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:735-740. View abstract.
  9. Bucher, H. C., Guyatt, G. H., Cook, R. J., Hatala, R., Cook, D. J., Lang, J. D., and Hunt, D. Effect of calcium supplementation on pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 4-10-1996;275:1113-1117. View abstract.
  10. Cappuccio, F. P., Elliott, P., Allender, P. S., Pryer, J., Follman, D. A., and Cutler, J. A. Epidemiologic association between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of published data. Am J Epidemiol. 11-1-1995;142:935-945. View abstract.
  1. Welten, D. C., Kemper, H. C., Post, G. B., and van Staveren, W. A. A meta-analysis of the effect of calcium intake on bone mass in young and middle aged females and males. J Nutr 1995;125:2802-2813. View abstract.
  2. Harrison, E. E. and Amey, B. D. The use of calcium in cardiac resuscitation. Am.J Emerg.Med 1983;1:267-273. View abstract.
  3. Burnett, J. W., Calton, G. J., and Morgan, R. J. Latrodectism: black widow spider bites. Cutis 1985;36:121. View abstract.
  4. Stueven, H. A., Thompson, B., Aprahamian, C., Tonsfeldt, D. J., and Kastenson, E. H. Lack of effectiveness of calcium chloride in refractory asystole. Ann.Emerg.Med 1985;14:630-632. View abstract.
  5. Cappuccio, F. P., Siani, A., and Strazzullo, P. Oral calcium supplementation and blood pressure: an overview of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens 1989;7:941-946. View abstract.
  6. Cumming, R. G. Calcium intake and bone mass: a quantitative review of the evidence. Calcif Tissue Int 1990;47:194-201. View abstract.
  7. Cutler, J. A. and Brittain, E. Calcium and blood pressure. An epidemiologic perspective. Am J Hypertens 1990;3(8 Pt 2):137S-146S. View abstract.
  8. Neumar, R. W., Otto, C. W., Link, M. S., Kronick, S. L., Shuster, M., Callaway, C. W., Kudenchuk, P. J., Ornato, J. P., McNally, B., Silvers, S. M., Passman, R. S., White, R. D., Hess, E. P., Tang, W., Davis, D., Sinz, E., and Morrison, L. J. Part 8: adult advanced cardiovascular life support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 11-2-2010;122(18 Suppl 3):S729-S767. View abstract.
  9. Cao, J. J. and Nielsen, F. H. Acid diet (high-meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health. Curr Opin.Clin Nutr Metab Care 2010;13:698-702. View abstract.
  10. Hofmeyr, G. J., Lawrie, T. A., Atallah, A. N., and Duley, L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;:CD001059. View abstract.
  11. Carroll, C., Cooper, K., Papaioannou, D., Hind, D., Pilgrim, H., and Tappenden, P. Supplemental calcium in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Ther 2010;32:789-803. View abstract.
  12. Chung, M., Balk, E. M., Brendel, M., Ip, S., Lau, J., Lee, J., Lichtenstein, A., Patel, K., Raman, G., Tatsioni, A., Terasawa, T., and Trikalinos, T. A. Vitamin D and calcium: a systematic review of health outcomes. Evid.Rep Technol.Assess.(Full.Rep) 2009;:1-420. View abstract.
  13. Toriola, A. T., Surcel, H. M., Calypse, A., Grankvist, K., Luostarinen, T., Lukanova, A., Pukkala, E., and Lehtinen, M. Independent and joint effects of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium on ovarian cancer risk: a prospective nested case-control study. Eur.J Cancer 2010;46:2799-2805. View abstract.
  14. Kalyani, R. R., Stein, B., Valiyil, R., Manno, R., Maynard, J. W., and Crews, D. C. Vitamin D treatment for the prevention of falls in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2010;58:1299-1310. View abstract.
  15. Bergman, G. J., Fan, T., McFetridge, J. T., and Sen, S. S. Efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in preventing fractures in elderly women: a meta-analysis. Curr Med.Res Opin. 2010;26:1193-1201. View abstract.
  16. Wang, L., Manson, J. E., Song, Y., and Sesso, H. D. Systematic review: Vitamin D and calcium supplementation in prevention of cardiovascular events. Ann.Intern.Med. 3-2-2010;152:315-323. View abstract.
  17. Sprague, B. L., Skinner, H. G., Trentham-Dietz, A., Lee, K. E., Klein, B. E., and Klein, R. Serum calcium and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Ann.Epidemiol. 2010;20:82-85. View abstract.
  18. Whelan, A. M., Jurgens, T. M., and Naylor, H. Herbs, vitamins and minerals in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review. Can.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2009;16:e407-e429. View abstract.
  19. Reid, I. R., Ames, R., Mason, B., Bolland, M. J., Bacon, C. J., Reid, H. E., Kyle, C., Gamble, G. D., Grey, A., and Horne, A. Effects of calcium supplementation on lipids, blood pressure, and body composition in healthy older men: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:131-139. View abstract.
  20. Navaneethan, S. D., Palmer, S. C., Craig, J. C., Elder, G. J., and Strippoli, G. F. Benefits and harms of phosphate binders in CKD: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54:619-637. View abstract.
  21. Yanovski, J. A., Parikh, S. J., Yanoff, L. B., Denkinger, B. I., Calis, K. A., Reynolds, J. C., Sebring, N. G., and McHugh, T. Effects of calcium supplementation on body weight and adiposity in overweight and obese adults: a randomized trial. Ann.Intern.Med. 6-16-2009;150:821-826. View abstract.
  22. Christensen, R., Lorenzen, J. K., Svith, C. R., Bartels, E. M., Melanson, E. L., Saris, W. H., Tremblay, A., and Astrup, A. Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes.Rev. 2009;10:475-486. View abstract.
  23. Nordin, B. E. The effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in 32 controlled trials in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos.Int 2009;20:2135-2143. View abstract.
  24. Castelo-Branco, C., Ciria-Recasens, M., Cancelo-Hidalgo, M. J., Palacios, S., Haya-Palazuelos, J., Carbonell-Abello, J., Blanch-Rubio, J., Martinez-Zapata, M. J., Manasanch, J., and Perez-Edo, L. Efficacy of ossein-hydroxyapatite complex compared with calcium carbonate to prevent bone loss: a meta-analysis. Menopause. 2009;16:984-991. View abstract.
  25. Pentti, K., Tuppurainen, M. T., Honkanen, R., Sandini, L., Kroger, H., Alhava, E., and Saarikoski, S. Use of calcium supplements and the risk of coronary heart disease in 52-62-year-old women: The Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study. Maturitas 5-20-2009;63:73-78. View abstract.
  26. Avenell, A., Gillespie, W. J., Gillespie, L. D., and O'Connell, D. Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures associated with involutional and post-menopausal osteoporosis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;:CD000227. View abstract.
  27. Hunt, J. R., Johnson, L. K., and Fariba Roughead, Z. K. Dietary protein and calcium interact to influence calcium retention: a controlled feeding study. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1357-1365. View abstract.
  28. Levine, M., Nikkanen, H., and Pallin, D. J. The effects of intravenous calcium in patients with digoxin toxicity. J Emerg.Med. 2011;40:41-46. View abstract.
  29. Ettinger, A. S., Lamadrid-Figueroa, H., Tellez-Rojo, M. M., Mercado-Garcia, A., Peterson, K. E., Schwartz, J., Hu, H., and Hernandez-Avila, M. Effect of calcium supplementation on blood lead levels in pregnancy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Environ.Health Perspect. 2009;117:26-31. View abstract.
  30. Jones, B. J. and Twomey, P. J. Requesting patterns for serum calcium concentration in patients on long-term lithium therapy. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63:170-172. View abstract.
  31. Huncharek, M., Muscat, J., and Kupelnick, B. Colorectal cancer risk and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy products: a meta-analysis of 26,335 cases from 60 observational studies. Nutr Cancer 2009;61:47-69. View abstract.
  32. McCullough, M. L., Bandera, E. V., Moore, D. F., and Kushi, L. H. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Prev.Med. 2008;46:298-302. View abstract.
  33. Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A., Dawson-Hughes, B., Baron, J. A., Burckhardt, P., Li, R., Spiegelman, D., Specker, B., Orav, J. E., Wong, J. B., Staehelin, H. B., O'Reilly, E., Kiel, D. P., and Willett, W. C. Calcium intake and hip fracture risk in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1780-1790. View abstract.
  34. Tang, B. M., Eslick, G. D., Nowson, C., Smith, C., and Bensoussan, A. Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta-analysis. Lancet 8-25-2007;370:657-666. View abstract.
  35. Palmer, S. C., McGregor, D. O., and Strippoli, G. F. Interventions for preventing bone disease in kidney transplant recipients. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;:CD005015. View abstract.
  36. Bergel, E. and Barros, A. J. Effect of maternal calcium intake during pregnancy on children's blood pressure: a systematic review of the literature. BMC.Pediatr. 2007;7:15. View abstract.
  37. Izaks, G. J. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: considering the inconsistent results. BMC.Musculoskelet.Disord. 2007;8:26. View abstract.
  38. Bucur, I. J. and Obasi, O. E. Spider bite envenomation in Al Baha Region, Saudi Arabia. Ann.Saudi.Med 1999;19:15-19. View abstract.
  39. Holloway, L., Moynihan, S., Abrams, S. A., Kent, K., Hsu, A. R., and Friedlander, A. L. Effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. Br.J Nutr 2007;97:365-372. View abstract.
  40. Dickinson, H. O., Nicolson, D. J., Cook, J. V., Campbell, F., Beyer, F. R., Ford, G. A., and Mason, J. Calcium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;:CD004639. View abstract.
  41. Murakami, K., Okubo, H., and Sasaki, S. No relation between intakes of calcium and dairy products and body mass index in Japanese women aged 18 to 20 y. Nutrition 2006;22:490-495. View abstract.
  42. Genkinger, J. M., Hunter, D. J., Spiegelman, D., Anderson, K. E., Arslan, A., Beeson, W. L., Buring, J. E., Fraser, G. E., Freudenheim, J. L., Goldbohm, R. A., Hankinson, S. E., Jacobs, D. R., Jr., Koushik, A., Lacey, J. V., Jr., Larsson, S. C., Leitzmann, M., McCullough, M. L., Miller, A. B., Rodriguez, C., Rohan, T. E., Schouten, L. J., Shore, R., Smit, E., Wolk, A., Zhang, S. M., and Smith-Warner, S. A. Dairy products and ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:364-372. View abstract.
  43. Frederick, I. O., Williams, M. A., Dashow, E., Kestin, M., Zhang, C., and Leisenring, W. M. Dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium and calcium in relation to the risk of preeclampsia. J Reprod.Med. 2005;50:332-344. View abstract.
  44. Wigertz, K., Palacios, C., Jackman, L. A., Martin, B. R., McCabe, L. D., McCabe, G. P., Peacock, M., Pratt, J. H., and Weaver, C. M. Racial differences in calcium retention in response to dietary salt in adolescent girls. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:845-850. View abstract.
  45. Palmer, S. C., Strippoli, G. F., and McGregor, D. O. Interventions for preventing bone disease in kidney transplant recipients: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45:638-649. View abstract.
  46. Shaukat, A., Scouras, N., and Schunemann, H. J. Role of supplemental calcium in the recurrence of colorectal adenomas: a metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:390-394. View abstract.
  47. Kanis, J. A., Johansson, H., Oden, A., De, Laet C., Johnell, O., Eisman, J. A., Mc, Closkey E., Mellstrom, D., Pols, H., Reeve, J., Silman, A., and Tenenhouse, A. A meta-analysis of milk intake and fracture risk: low utility for case finding. Osteoporos.Int 2005;16:799-804. View abstract.
  48. Gando, S., Tedo, I., Tujinaga, H., and Kubota, M. Variation in serum ionized calcium on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Anesth. 9-1-1988;2:154-160. View abstract.
  49. Elwood, P. C., Pickering, J. E., Hughes, J., Fehily, A. M., and Ness, A. R. Milk drinking, ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke II. Evidence from cohort studies. Eur.J Clin Nutr 2004;58:718-724. View abstract.
  50. Narva, M., Nevala, R., Poussa, T., and Korpela, R. The effect of Lactobacillus helveticus fermented milk on acute changes in calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women. Eur.J Nutr 2004;43:61-68. View abstract.
  51. Papas, A. S., Clark, R. E., Martuscelli, G., O'Loughlin, K. T., Johansen, E., and Miller, K. B. A prospective, randomized trial for the prevention of mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow.Transplant. 2003;31:705-712. View abstract.
  52. Shea, B., Wells, G., Cranney, A., Zytaruk, N., Robinson, V., Griffith, L., Ortiz, Z., Peterson, J., Adachi, J., Tugwell, P., and Guyatt, G. Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VII. Meta-analysis of calcium supplementation for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr.Rev. 2002;23:552-559. View abstract.
  53. Reddy, S. T., Wang, C. Y., Sakhaee, K., Brinkley, L., and Pak, C. Y. Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone-forming propensity, and calcium metabolism. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;40:265-274. View abstract.
  54. Neuhofel, A. L., Wilton, J. H., Victory, J. M., Hejmanowsk, L. G., and Amsden, G. W. Lack of bioequivalence of ciprofloxacin when administered with calcium-fortified orange juice: a new twist on an old interaction. J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;42:461-466. View abstract.
  55. Stiell, I. G., Wells, G. A., Hebert, P. C., Laupacis, A., and Weitzman, B. N. Association of drug therapy with survival in cardiac arrest: limited role of advanced cardiac life support drugs. Acad.Emerg.Med 1995;2:264-273. View abstract.
  56. DerSimonian, R. and Levine, R. J. Resolving discrepancies between a meta-analysis and a subsequent large controlled trial. JAMA 8-18-1999;282:664-670. View abstract.
  57. Amin, S., LaValley, M. P., Simms, R. W., and Felson, D. T. The role of vitamin D in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis: a meta-analytic approach. Arthritis Rheum 1999;42:1740-1751. View abstract.
  58. Bleyer, A. J., Burke, S. K., Dillon, M., Garrett, B., Kant, K. S., Lynch, D., Rahman, S. N., Schoenfeld, P., Teitelbaum, I., Zeig, S., and Slatopolsky, E. A comparison of the calcium-free phosphate binder sevelamer hydrochloride with calcium acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 1999;33:694-701. View abstract.
  59. Cooper, K., Squires, H., Carroll, C., Papaioannou, D., Booth, A., Logan, R. F., Maguire, C., Hind, D., and Tappenden, P. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol.Assess. 2010;14:1-206. View abstract.
  60. Itoh R, Nishiyama N, Suyama Y. Dietary protein intake and urinary excretion of calcium: a cross-sectional study in a healthy Japanese population. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67:438-44. View abstract.
  61. Haack VS, Chesters JG, Vollendorf NW, et al. Increasing amounts of dietary fiber provided by foods normalizes physiologic response of the large bowel without altering calcium balance or fecal steroid excretion. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:615-22. View abstract.
  62. Shah M, Chandalia M, Adams-Huet B, et al. Effect of a high-fiber diet compared with a moderate-fiber diet on calcium and other mineral balances in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:990-5. View abstract.
  63. Adolphi B, Scholz-Ahrens KE, de Vrese M, et al. Short-term effect of bedtime consumption of fermented milk supplemented with calcium, inulin-type fructans and caseinphosphopeptides on bone metabolism in healthy, postmenopausal women. Eur J Nutr. 2009;48:45-53. View abstract.
  64. Kays MB, Overholser BR, Mueller BA, et al. Effects of sevelamer hydrochloride and calcium acetate on the oral bioavailability of ciprofloxacin. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:1253-9. View abstract.
  65. Andon MB, Ilich JZ, Tzagournis MA, et al. Magnesium balance in adolescent females consuming a low- or high-calcium diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:950-3. View abstract.
  66. Gleerup A, Rossander-Hulthén L, Gramatkovski E, et al. Iron absorption from the whole diet: comparison of the effect of two different distributions of daily calcium intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61:97-104. View abstract.
  67. Benkhedda K, L'abbé MR, Cockell KA. Effect of calcium on iron absorption in women with marginal iron status. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:742-8. View abstract.
  68. Bradley JS, Wassel RT, Lee L, et al. Intravenous ceftriaxone and calcium in the neonate: assessing the risk for cardiopulmonary adverse events. Pediatrics. 2009;123:e609-13. View abstract.
  69. Coburn JW, Mischel MG, Goodman WG, et al. Calcium citrate markedly enhances aluminum absorption from aluminum hydroxide. Am J Kidney Dis. 1991;17:708-11. View abstract.
  70. National Osteoporosis Foundation. 2010 Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. www.nof.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/NOF_ClinicianGuide2009_v7.pdf.
  71. Warensjo E, Byberg L, Melhus H, et al. Dietary calcium intake and risk of fracture and osteoporosis: prospective longitudinal cohort study. BMJ 2011;342:d1473. View abstract.
  72. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Institute of Medicine, November 30, 2010. Available at: http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2010/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-for-Calcium-and-Vitamin-D/Vitamin%20D%20and%20Calcium%202010%20Report%20Brief.pdf.
  73. Manson JE, Allison MA, Carr JJ, et al. Calcium/vitamin D supplementation and coronary artery calcification. Menopause 2010;17:683-91. View abstract.
  74. Calcium supplementation and vascular events. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 2008;24:240306.
  75. Bolland MJ, Avenell A, Baron JA, et al. Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;341:c3691. View abstract.
  76. Chlebowski RT, Johnson KC, Kooperberg C, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;100:1581-91. View abstract.
  77. Margolis KL, Ray RM, Van Horn L, et al. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Trial. Hypertension 2008;52:847-55. View abstract.
  78. Pittas AG, Lau J, Hu FB, Dawson-Hughes B. The role of vitamin d and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92:2017-29. View abstract.
  79. Bolland MJ, Barber PA, Doughty RN, et al. Vascular events in healthy older women receiving calcium supplementation: randomised control trial. BMJ 2008;336:262-6. View abstract.
  80. Rocephin (ceftriaxone) and calcium interaction. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 2007;23:231005.
  81. Lin J, Manson JE, Lee IM, et al. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1050-9. View abstract.
  82. Lappe JM, Travers-Gustafson D, Davies KM, et al. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:1586-91. View abstract.
  83. Trowman R, Dumville JC, Hahn S, Torgerson DJ. A systematic review of the effects of calcium supplementation on body weight. Br J Nutr. 2006;95:1033-8. View abstract.
  84. Caan B, Neuhouser M, Aragaki A, et al. Calcium plus vitamin d supplementation and the risk of postmenopausal weight gain. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:893-902. View abstract.
  85. Rajpathak SN, Rimm EB, Rosner B, et al. Calcium and dairy intakes in relation to long-term weight gain in US men. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:559-66. View abstract.
  86. Gonzalez AJ, White E, Kristal A, Littman AJ. Calcium intake and 10-year weight change in middle-aged adults. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006l;106:1066-73. View abstract.
  87. Major GC, Alarie F, Dore J, et al. Supplementation with calcium + vitamin D enhances the beneficial effect of weight loss on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:54-9. View abstract.
  88. Thompson WG, Rostad Holdman N, Janzow DJ, et al. Effect of energy-reduced diets high in dairy products and fiber on weight loss in obese adults. Obes Res 2005;13:1344-53. View abstract.
  89. Gunther CW, Legowski PA, Lyle RM, et al. Dairy products do not lead to alterations in body weight or fat mass in young women in a 1-y intervention. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:751-6. View abstract.
  90. Zemel MB, Richards J, Mathis S, et al. Dairy augmentation of total and central fat loss in obese subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2005;29:391-7. View abstract.
  91. Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM. Effect of calcium and dairy foods in high protein, energy-restricted diets on weight loss and metabolic parameters in overweight adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2005;29:957-65. View abstract.
  92. Heaney RP, Dowell MS, Bierman J, et al. Absorbability and cost effectiveness in calcium supplementation. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:239-46. View abstract.
  93. Bo-Linn GW, Davis GR, Buddrus DJ, et al. An evaluation of the importance of gastric acid secretion in the absorption of dietary calcium. J Clin Invest 1984;73:640-7. View abstract.
  94. Recker RR. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria. N Engl J Med 1985;313:70-3. View abstract.
  95. Grau MV, Baron JA, Sandler RS, et al. Prolonged effect of calcium supplementation on risk of colorectal adenomas in a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:129-36. View abstract.
  96. Hofmeyr GJ, Atallah AN, Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD001059. View abstract.
  97. Zemel MB, Richards J, Milstead A, Campbell P. Effects of calcium and dairy on body composition and weight loss in African-American adults. Obes Res 2005;13:1218-25. View abstract.
  98. van Mierlo LA, Arends LR, Streppel MT, et al. Blood pressure response to calcium supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hum Hypertens 2006;20:571-80. View abstract.
  99. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Orav EJ, Dawson-Hughes B. Effect of Cholecalciferol plus calcium on falling in ambulatory older men and women: a 3-year randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:424-30. View abstract.
  100. Wactawski-Wende J, Kotchen JM, Anderson GL. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2006;354:684-96. View abstract.
  101. Lorenzen JK, Molgaard C, Michaelsen KF, Astrup A. Calcium supplementation for 1 y does not reduce body weight or fat mass in young girls. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:18-23. View abstract.
  102. Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med 2006;354:669-83. View abstract.
  103. Liu S, Song Y, Ford ES, et al. Dietary calcium, vitamin D, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older US women. Diabetes Care 2005;28:2926-32. View abstract.
  104. Dagnelie PC, Schuurman AG, Goldbohm RA, Van den Brandt PA. Diet, anthropometric measures and prostate cancer risk: a review of prospective cohort and intervention studies. BJU Int 2004;93:1139-50. View abstract.
  105. Baron JA, Beach M, Wallace K, et al. Risk of prostate cancer in a randomized clinical trial of calcium supplementation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14:586-9. View abstract.
  106. Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of calcium intake and incident and fatal prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15:203-10. View abstract.
  107. Tavani A, Bertuccio P, Bosetti C, et al. Dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus and the risk of prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2005;48:27-33. View abstract.
  108. Reid IR, Horne A, Mason B, Ames R, Bava U, Gamble GD. Effects of calcium supplementation on body weight and blood pressure in normal older women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:3824-9. View abstract.
  109. Bertone-Johnson ER, Hankinson SE, Bendich A, et al. Calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of incident premenstrual syndrome. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1246-52. View abstract.
  110. The RECORD Trial Group. Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2005;365:1621-8. View abstract.
  111. Papadimitropoulos E, Wells G, Shea B, et al. Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VIII: Meta-analysis of the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Endocr Rev 2002;23:560-9. View abstract.
  112. Rizzato G. Clinical impact of bone and calcium metabolism changes in sarcoidosis. Thorax 1998;53:425-9. View abstract.
  113. Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J. Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;:CD003548. View abstract.
  114. Tseng M, Breslow RA, Graubard BI, Ziegler RG. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:1147-54. View abstract.
  115. Akerstrom G, Hellman P, Hessman O, et al. Parathyroid glands in calcium regulation and human disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2005;1040:53-8. View abstract.
  116. Bania TC, Blaufeux B, Hughes S, et al. Calcium and digoxin vs. calcium alone for severe verapamil toxicity. Acad Emerg Med 2000;7:1089-96. View abstract.
  117. Ahee P, Crowe AV. The management of hyperkalaemia in the emergency department. J Accid Emerg Med 2000;17:188-91. View abstract.
  118. Homik J, Suarez-Almazor ME, Shea B, et al. Calcium and vitamin D for corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;:CD000952. View abstract.
  119. Emmett M. A comparison of clinically useful phosphorus binders for patients with chronic kidney failure. Kidney Int Suppl 2004;90:S25-32. View abstract.
  120. Qunibi WY, Hootkins RE, McDowell LL, et al. Treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients: The Calcium Acetate Renagel Evaluation (CARE Study). Kidney Int 2004;65:1914-26. View abstract.
  121. James WP, Branch WJ, Southgate DA. Calcium binding by dietary fibre. Lancet 1978;1:638-9. View abstract.
  122. Vella A, Gerber TC, Hayes DL, Reeder GS. Digoxin, hypercalcaemia, and cardiac conduction. Postgrad Med J 1999;75:554-6. View abstract.
  123. Gueguen L, Pointillart A. The bioavailability of dietary calcium. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:119s-136s. View abstract.
  124. Bourke JF, Mumford R, Whittaker P, et al. The effects of topical calcipotriol on systemic calcium homeostasis in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997;37:929-34. View abstract.
  125. Peters ML, Leonard M, Licata AA. Role of alendronate and risedronate in preventing and treating osteoporosis. Cleve Clin J Med 2001;68:945-51. View abstract.
  126. Simoneau G. Absence of rebound effect with calcium carbonate. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1996;21:351-7. View abstract.
  127. Decktor DL, Robinson M, Maton PN, et al. Effects of aluminum/magnesium hydroxide and calcium carbonate on esophageal and gastric pH in subjects with heartburn. Am J Ther 1995;2:546-52. View abstract.
  128. Boonen S, Body JJ, Boutsen Y, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a consensus document of the Belgian Bone Club. Osteoporos Int 2005;16:239-54. View abstract.
  129. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, et al. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2005;293:2257-64. View abstract.
  130. Shea B, Wells G, Cranney A, et al. Calcium supplementation on bone loss in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;:CD004526. View abstract.
  131. Sambrook P. Vitamin D and fractures: quo vadis? Lancet 2005;365:1599-600. View abstract.
  132. Larsen ER, Mosekilde L, Foldspang A. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation prevents osteoporotic fractures in elderly community dwelling residents: a pragmatic population-based 3-year intervention study. J Bone Miner Res 2004;19:370-8. View abstract.
  133. Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, et al. Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ 2005;330:1003. View abstract.
  134. Ariyan CE, Sosa JA. Assessment and management of patients with abnormal calcium. Crit Care Med 2004;32:S146-54. View abstract.
  135. National Osteoporosis Foundation. Physician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Universal Recommendations for All Patients. Available at: http://www.nof.org/physguide/univeral_recommendations.htm#adequate. (Accessed 14 May 2005).
  136. Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, et al. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res 2004;12:582–90. View abstract.
  137. Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, et al. Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:4635-8. View abstract.
  138. Jacqmain M, Doucet E, Després JP, et al. Calcium intake, body composition, and lipoprotein-lipid concentrations in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:1448–52. View abstract.
  139. Tanasescu M, Ferris AM, Himmelgreen DA, et al. Biobehavioral factors are associated with obesity in Puerto Rican children. J Nutr 2000;130:1734–42. View abstract.
  140. Buchowski MS, Semenya J, Johnson AO. Dietary calcium intake in lactose maldigesting intolerant and tolerant African-American women. J Am Coll Nutr 2002;21:47-54. View abstract.
  141. McCarron DA. Calcium and magnesium nutrition in human hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:800-5. View abstract.
  142. Zemel MB, Shi H, Greer B, et al. Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. FASEB J 2000;14:1132-8. View abstract.
  143. Cho E, Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, et al. Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004;96:1015-22. View abstract.
  144. Zemel MB, Miller SL. Dietary calcium and dairy modulation of adiposity and obesity risk. Nutr Rev 2004;62:125-31. View abstract.
  145. Grau MV, Baron JA, Sandler RS, et al. Vitamin D, calcium supplementation, and colorectal adenomas: results of a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1765-71. View abstract.
  146. Cifuentes M, Riedt CS, Brolin RE, et al. Weight loss and calcium intake influence calcium absorption in overweight postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:123–30. View abstract.
  147. Shapses SA, Heshka S, Heymsfield SB. Effect of calcium supplementation on weight and fat loss in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:632-7. View abstract.
  148. Zemel MB. Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:907S-12S. View abstract.
  149. L'Abbe MR, Whiting SJ, Hanley DA. The Canadian health claim for calcium, vitamin D and osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:303-8. . View abstract.
  150. Bischoff HA, Stahelin HB, Dick W, et al. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 2003;18:343-51.. View abstract.
  151. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Willett WC, et al. Effect of Vitamin D on falls: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2004;291:1999-2006.. View abstract.
  152. Frier BM, Scott RD. Osteomalacia and arthropathy associated with prolonged abuse of purgatives. Br J Clin Pract 1977;31:17-9. View abstract.
  153. Sojka J, Wastney M, Abrams S, et al. Magnesium kinetics in adolescent girls determined using stable isotopes: effects of high and low calcium intake. Am J Physiol 1997;273:R710-5.. View abstract.
  154. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy. Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA 2001;285:785-95. View abstract.
  155. Bar-Or D, Yoel G. Calcium and calciferol antagonize effect of verapamil in atrial fibrillation. Br Med J 1981;282:1585-6. View abstract.
  156. Pletz MW, Petzold P, Allen A, et al. Effect of calcium carbonate on bioavailability of orally administered gemifloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003;47:2158-60.. View abstract.
  157. Eastwood GL. Pharmacologic prevention of colonic neoplasms. Effects of calcium, vitamins, omega fatty acids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dig Dis 1996;14:119-28.. View abstract.
  158. Kahela P, Anttila M, Tikkanen R, Sundquist H. Effect of food, food constituents and fluid volume on the bioavailability of sotalol. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 1979;44:7-12.. View abstract.
  159. Heaney RP, Weaver CM. Effect of psyllium on absorption of co-ingested calcium. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995;43:261-3.. View abstract.
  160. Ebeling PR, Wark JD, Yeung S, et al. Effects of calcium and calcitriol on bone mass over three years in men with primary osteoporosis- A prospective cross-over study. Bone 2000;27:54S.
  161. Scopacasa F, Wishart JM, Need AG, et al. The effects of divided dose calcium on bone resorption in early postmenopausal women. Bone 2000;27:45S.
  162. Miller GD, Jarvis JK, McBean LD. The importance of meeting calcium needs with foods. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:168S-85S. View abstract.
  163. Anderson JJ. Calcium requirements during adolescence to maximize bone health. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:186S-91S. View abstract.
  164. Heaney RP. Calcium needs of the elderly to reduce fracture risk. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:192S-197S.. View abstract.
  165. Jackson KA, Savaiano DA. Lactose maldigestion, calcium intake and osteoporosis in African-, Asian-, and Hispanic-Americans. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:198S-207S.. View abstract.
  166. Bohmer H, Muller H, Resch KL. Calcium supplementation with calcium-rich mineral waters: a systematic review and meta-analysis of its bioavailability. Osteoporos Int 2000;11:938-43.. View abstract.
  167. Fujita T, Ohgitani S, Nomura M. Fall of blood ionized calcium on watching a provocative TV program and its prevention by active absorbable algal calcium (AAA Ca). J Bone Miner Metab 1999;17:131-6.. View abstract.
  168. Bauman WA, Shaw S, Jayatilleke E, et al. Increased intake of calcium reverses vitamin B12 malabsorption induced by metformin. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1227-31. View abstract.
  169. Pattanaungkul S, Riggs BL, Yergey AL, et al. Relationship of intestinal calcium absorption to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels in young versus elderly women: evidence for age-related intestinal resistance to 1,25(OH)2D action. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:4023-7.. View abstract.
  170. Heller HJ, Greer LG, Haynes SD, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic comparison of two calcium supplements in postmenopausal women. J Clin Pharmacol 2000;40:1237-44.. View abstract.
  171. Bendich A. Calcium supplementation and iron status of females. Nutrition 2001;17:46-51.. View abstract.
  172. Lin YC, Lyle RM, McCabe LD, et al. Dairy calcium is related to changes in body composition during a two-year exercise intervention in young women. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:754-60.. View abstract.
  173. Niromanesh S, Laghaii S, Mosavi-Jarrahi A. Supplementary calcium in prevention of pre-eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2001;74:17-21.. View abstract.
  174. Ebeling PR, Wark JD, Yeung S, et al. Effects of calcitriol or calcium on bone mineral density, bone turnover, and fractures in men with primary osteoporosis: a two-year randomized, double blind, double placebo study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:4098-103.. View abstract.
  175. Zemel MB. Regulation of adiposity and obesity risk by dietary calcium: mechanisms and implications. J Am Coll Nutr 2002;21:146S-51S. View abstract.
  176. Heaney RP, Davies KM, Barger-Lux MJ. Calcium and weight: clinical studies. J Am Coll Nutr 2002;21:152S-5S. View abstract.
  177. Roughead ZK, Zito CA, Hunt JR. Initial uptake and absorption of nonheme iron and absorption of heme iron in humans are unaffected by the addition of calcium as cheese to a meal with high iron bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:419-25.. View abstract.
  178. Heaney RP, Nordin BE. Calcium effects on phosphorus absorption: implications for the prevention and co-therapy of osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr 2002;21:239-44.. View abstract.
  179. Terry P, Baron JA, Bergkvist L, et al. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a prospective cohort study in women. Nutr Cancer 2002;43:39-46.. View abstract.
  180. Chapuy MC, Pamphile R, Paris E, et al. Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: the Decalyos II study. Osteoporos Int 2002;13:257-64.. View abstract.
  181. McCarron DA, Reusser ME. Are low intakes of calcium and potassium important causes of cardiovascular disease? Am J Hypertens 2001;14:206S-12S.. View abstract.
  182. Krall EA, Wehler C, Garcia RI, et al. Calcium and vitamin D supplements reduce tooth loss in the elderly. Am J Med 2001;111:452-6.. View abstract.
  183. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309063507/html/index.html.
  184. Hallberg L. Does calcium interfere with iron absorption? Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:3-4. View abstract.
  185. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html/.
  186. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effect of withdrawal of calcium and vitamin D supplements on bone mass in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:745-50. View abstract.
  187. Jorde R, Bonaa KH. Calcium from dairy products, vitamin D intake, and blood pressure: the Tromso study. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1530-5. View abstract.
  188. Wolf RL, Cauley JA, Baker CE, et al. Factors associated with calcium absorption efficiency in pre- and perimenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:466-71. View abstract.
  189. Castelo-Branco C, Pons F, Vicente JJ, et al. Preventing postmenopausal bone loss with ossein-hydroxyapatite compounds. Results of a two-year, prospective trial. J Reprod Med 1999;44:601-5. View abstract.
  190. Vanpee D, Delgrange E, Gillet JB, Donckier J. Ingestion of antacid tablets (Rennie) and acute confusion. J Emerg Med 2000;19:169-71. View abstract.
  191. Bendich A. The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. J Am Coll Nutrition 2000;19:3-12. View abstract.
  192. Carey CF, Lee HH, Woeltje KF (eds). Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics. 29th ed. New York, NY: Lippincott-Raven, 1998.
  193. Heaney RP. Lead in calcium supplements. Cause for alarm or celebration? JAMA 2000;284:1432-3. View abstract.
  194. Ross EA, Szabo NJ, Tebbett IR. Lead content of calcium supplements. JAMA 2000;284:1425-29. View abstract.
  195. Minne HW, Pfeifer M, Begerow B, et al. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces falls in elderly women via improvement of body sway and normalization of blood pressure: a prospective, randomized, and double-blind study. Abstracts World Congress on Osteoporosis 2000.
  196. Guillemant J, Le HT, Accarie C, et al. Mineral water as a source of dietary calcium: acute effects on parathyroid function and bone resorption in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:999-1002. View abstract.
  197. Singh N, Singh PN, Hershman JM. Effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of levothyroxine. JAMA 2000;283:2822-5. View abstract.
  198. Moser LR, Smythe MA, Tisdale JE. The use of calcium salts in the prevention and management of verapamil-induced hypotension. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:622-9. View abstract.
  199. Spencer H, Kramer L, Norris C, Osis D. Effect of small doses of aluminum-containing antacids on calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:32-40. View abstract.
  200. Heaton KW, Lever JV, Barnard RE. Osteomalacia associated with cholestyramine therapy for post-ileectomy diarrhea. Gastroenterology 1972;62:642-6. View abstract.
  201. Compston JE, Thompson RP. Intestinal absorption of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and osteomalacia in primary biliary cirrhosis. Lancet 1977;1:721-4. View abstract.
  202. Compston JE, Horton LW. Oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in treatment of osteomalacia associated with ileal resection and cholestyramine therapy. Gastroenterology 1978;74:900-2. View abstract.
  203. Schneyer CR. Calcium carbonate and reduction of levothyroxine efficacy. JAMA 1998;279:750. View abstract.
  204. Butner LE, Fulco PP, Feldman G, et al. Calcium carbonate-induced hypothyroidism. Ann Intern Med 2000:132:595. View abstract.
  205. Chan JM, Giovannucci E, Andersson SO, et al. Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1998;9:559-66. View abstract.
  206. Zittermann A, Bock P, Drummer C, et al. Lactose does not enhance calcium bioavailability in lactose-tolerant, healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:931-6. View abstract.
  207. Cueto-Manzano AM, Konel S, Freemont AJ, et al. Effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and calcium carbonate on bone loss associated with long-term renal transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 2000;35:227-36. View abstract.
  208. Iso H, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Prospective study of calcium, potassium, and magnesium intake and risk of stroke in women. Stroke 1999;30:1772-9. View abstract.
  209. Spencer H, Fuller H, Norris C, Williams D. Effect of magnesium on the intestinal absorption of calcium in man. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;15:485-92. View abstract.
  210. Becker GL. The case against mineral oil. Am J Digestive Dis 1952;19:344-8. View abstract.
  211. Reid IR, Ibbertson HK. Calcium supplements in the prevention of steroid-induced osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;44:287-90. View abstract.
  212. Need AG, Philcox JC, Hartley TF, et al. Calcium metabolism and osteoporosis in corticosteroid-treated postmenopausal women. Aust N Z J Med 1986;16:341-6. View abstract.
  213. Gennari C. Differential effect of glucocorticoids on calcium absorption and bone mass. Br J Rheumatol 1993;32:11-4. View abstract.
  214. Lems WF, Jacobs JW, Netelenbos JC, et al. [Pharmacological prevention of osteoporosis in patients on corticosteroid medication]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1998;142:1904-8. View abstract.
  215. Reid DM, Kennedy NS, Smith MA, et al. Total body calcium in rheumatoid arthritis: Effects of disease activity and corticosteroid treatment. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982;285:330-2. View abstract.
  216. Lems WF, Van Veen GJ, Gerrits MI, et al. Effect of low-dose prednisolone (with calcium and calcitriol supplementation) on calcium and bone metabolism in healthy volunteers. Br J Rheumatol 1998;37:27-33. View abstract.
  217. Knodel LC, Talbert RL. Adverse effects of hypolipidaemic drugs. Med Toxicol 1987;2:10-32. View abstract.
  218. Murry JJ, Healy MD. Drug-mineral interactions: a new responsibility for the hospital dietician. J Am Diet Assoc 1991;91:66-73. View abstract.
  219. Spencer H, Menaham L. Adverse effects of aluminum-containing antacids on mineral metabolism. Gastroenterology 1979;76:603-6. View abstract.
  220. Roberts DH, Knox FG. Renal phosphate handling and calcium nephrolithiasis: role of dietary phosphate and phosphate leak. Semin Nephrol 1990;10:24-30. View abstract.
  221. Raman L, Rajalakshmi K, Krishnamachari KAVR, et al. Effect of calcium supplementation to undernourished mothers during pregnancy on the bone density of the neonates. Am J Clin Nutr 1978; 31:466-9. View abstract.
  222. Koo WK, Walters JC, Esterlitz J, et al. Maternal calcium supplementation and fetal bone mineralization. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94:577-82. View abstract.
  223. Cholst IN, Steinberg SF, Tropper PJ, et al. The influence of hypermagnesemia on serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels in human subjects. New Engl J Med 1984;310:1221-5. View abstract.
  224. Rasmussen HS, Cintin C, Aurup P, et al. The effect of intravenous magnesium therapy on serum and urine levels of potassium, calcium and sodium in patients with ischemic heart disease, with and without acute myocardial infarction. Arch Int Med 1988;148:1801-5. View abstract.
  225. Gough H, Goggin T, Bissessar A, et al. A comparative study of the relative influence of different anticonvulsant drugs, UV exposure and diet on vitamin D and calcium metabolism in out-patients with epilepsy. Quart J Med 1986;59:569-77. View abstract.
  226. Hoogwerf BJ, Hibbard DM, Hunninghake DB. Effects of long-term cholestyramine administration on vitamin D and parathormone levels in middle-aged men with hypercholesterolaemia. J Lab Clin Med 1992;119:407-11. View abstract.
  227. Heaney RP, Rafferty K. Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:343-7. View abstract.
  228. Rapuri PB, Gallagher JC, Kinyamu HK, Ryschon KL. Caffeine intake increases the rate of bone loss in elderly women and interacts with vitamin D receptor genotypes. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:694-700. View abstract.
  229. Thys-Jacobs S. Micronutrients and the premenstrual syndrome: The case for calcium. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:220-7. View abstract.
  230. Bryant RJ, Cadogan J, Weaver CM. The new dietary reference intakes for calcium: implications for osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:406S-412S. View abstract.
  231. Mackerras D, Lumley T. First- and second-year effects in trials of calcium supplementation on the loss of bone density in postmenopausal women. Bone 1997;21:527-33. View abstract.
  232. Kanis JA. The use of calcium in the management of osteoporosis. Bone 1999;24:279-90. View abstract.
  233. Deal C. Can calcium and vitamin D supplementation adequately treat most patients with osteoporosis? Cleve Clin J Med 2000;67:696-8. View abstract.
  234. Nieves JW, Komar L, Cosman F, Lindsay R. Calcium potentiates the effect of estrogen and calcitonin on bone mass: review and analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:18-24. View abstract.
  235. McGarry KA, Kiel DP. Postmenopausal osteoporosis. Strategies for preventing bone loss, avoiding fracture. Postgrad Med 2000;108:79-82,85-88, 91. View abstract.
  236. Chiu KM. Efficacy of calcium supplements on bone mass in postmenopausal women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999;54:M275-80. View abstract.
  237. Heaney RP. Calcium, dairy products and osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:83S-99S. View abstract.
  238. Hammar M, Larsson L, Tegler L. Calcium treatment of leg cramps in pregnancy. Effect on clinical symptoms and total serum and ionized serum calcium concentrations. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1981;60:345-7. View abstract.
  239. Bell L, Halstenson CE, Halstenson CJ, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of calcium carbonate in patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Arch Intern Med 1992;152:2441-4. View abstract.
  240. Penland JG, Johnson PE. Dietary calcium and manganese effects on menstrual cycle symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;168:1417-23. View abstract.
  241. Friedman PA, Bushinsky DA. Diuretic effects on calcium metabolism. Semin Nephrol 1999;19:551-6. View abstract.
  242. Kalkwarf HJ, Harrast SD. Effects of calcium supplementation and lactation on iron status. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:1244-9. View abstract.
  243. Sokoll LJ, Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium supplementation and plasma ferritin concentrations in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56:1045-8. View abstract.
  244. Minihane AM, Fairweather-Tait SJ. Effect of calcium supplementation on daily nonheme-iron absorption and long-term iron status. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:96-102. View abstract.
  245. Krall EA, Dawson-Hughes B. Smoking increases bone loss and decreases intestinal calcium absorption. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:215-20. View abstract.
  246. Saunders D, Sillery J, Chapman R. Effect of calcium carbonate and aluminum hydroxide on human intestinal function. Dig Dis Sci 1988;33:409-13. View abstract.
  247. Clemens JD, Feinstein AR. Calcium carbonate and constipation: a historical review of medical mythopoeia. Gastroenterology 1977;72:957-61. View abstract.
  248. Maton PN, Burton ME. Antacids revisited: a review of their clinical pharmacology and recommended therapeutic use. Drugs 1999;57:855-70. View abstract.
  249. Heaney RP, Dowell MS, Barger-Lux MJ. Absorption of calcium as the carbonate and citrate salts, with some observations on method. Osteoporos Int 1999;9:19-23. View abstract.
  250. Talbot JR, Guardo P, Seccia S, etal. Calcium bioavailability and parathyroid hormone acute changes after oral intake of dairy and nondairy products in healthy volunteers. Osteoporos Int 1999;10:137-42. View abstract.
  251. Fujita T, Ohue T, Fujii Y, et al. Effect of calcium supplementation on bone density and parathyroid function in elderly subjects. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1995;21:229-31. View abstract.
  252. Fujita T, Ohue T, Fujii Y, et al. Heated oyster shell-seaweed calcium (AAA Ca) on osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 1996;58:226-30. View abstract.
  253. Heller HJ, Stewart A, Haynes S, Pak CY. Pharmacokinetics of calcium absorption from two commercial calcium supplements. J Clin Pharmacol 1999;39:1151-4. View abstract.
  254. Celotti F, Bignamini A. Dietary calcium and mineral/vitamin supplementation: a controversial problem. J Int Med Res 1999;27:1-14. View abstract.
  255. Chapuy MC, Arlot ME, Duboeuf F, et al. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1637-42. View abstract.
  256. Power ML, Heaney RP, Kalkwarf HJ, et al. The role of calcium in health and disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181:1560-9. View abstract.
  257. Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Pridmore B, et al. Calcium supplementation in nulliparous women for the prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm birth: an Australian randomized trial. FRACOG and the ACT Study Group. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1999;39:12-8. View abstract.
  258. Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. American College of Rheumatology Task Force on Osteoporosis Guidelines. Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:1791-801. View abstract.
  259. Adachi JD, Bensen WG, Bianchi F, et al. Vitamin D and calcium in the prevention of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis: a 3 year followup. J Rheumatol 1996;23:995-1000. View abstract.
  260. Adachi JD, Ioannidis G. Calcium and vitamin D therapy in corticosteroid-induced bone loss: what is the evidence? Calcif Tissue Int 1999;65:332-6. View abstract.
  261. Rudnicki M, Hojsted J, Petersen LJ, et al. Oral calcium effectively reduces parathyroid hormone levels in hemodialysis patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Nephron 1993;65:369-74. View abstract.
  262. Tsukamoto Y, Moriya R, Nagaba Y, et al. Effect of administering calcium carbonate to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 1995;25:879-86. View abstract.
  263. Barsotti G, Cupisti A, Morelli E, et al. Secondary hyperparathyroidism in severe chronic renal failure is corrected by very-low dietary phosphate intake and calcium carbonate supplementation. Nephron 1998;79:137-41. View abstract.
  264. Steinbach G, Lupton J, Reddy BS, et al. Effect of calcium supplementation on rectal epithelial hyperproliferation in intestinal bypass subjects. Gastroenterology 1994;106:1162-7. View abstract.
  265. Thys-Jacobs S, Ceccarelli S, Bierman A, et al. Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial. J Gen Intern Med 1989;4:183-9. View abstract.
  266. Alvir JM, Thys-Jacobs S. Premenstrual and menstrual symptom clusters and response to calcium treatment. Psychopharmacol Bull 1991;27:145-8. View abstract.
  267. Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, Bernstein D, Tian J. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179:444-52. View abstract.
  268. Griffith LE, Guyatt GH, Cook RJ, et al. The influence of dietary and nondietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Hypertens 1999;12:84-92. View abstract.
  269. Kawano Y, Yoshimi H, Matsuoka H, et al. Calcium supplementation in patients with essential hypertension: assessment by office, home and ambulatory blood pressure. J Hypertens 1998;16:1693-9. View abstract.
  270. Bucher HC, Cook RJ, Guyatt GH, et al. Effects of dietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 1996;275:1016-22. View abstract.
  271. Allender PS, Cutler JA, Follmann D, et al. Dietary calcium and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:825-31. View abstract.
  272. Valimaki MJ, Kinnunen K, Volin L, et al. A prospective study of bone loss and turnover after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: effect of calcium supplementation with or without calcitonin. Bone Marrow Transplant 1999;23:355-61. View abstract.
  273. Hernandez-Avila M, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Hernandez-Avila JE, et al. Dietary calcium supplements to lower blood lead levels in lactating women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Epidemiology 2003;14:206-12.. View abstract.
  274. White E, Shannon JS, Patterson RE. Relationship between vitamin and calcium supplement use and colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997;6:769-74. View abstract.
  275. Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, et al. Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation prevents bone loss in the spine secondary to low-dose corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:961-8. View abstract.
  276. Roberts HJ. Potential toxicity due to dolomite and bonemeal. South Med J 1983;76:556-9. View abstract.
  277. Whiting SJ. Safety of some calcium supplements questioned. Nutr Rev 1994;52:95-7. View abstract.
  278. Gallagher JC, Riggs BL, DeLuca. Effect of estrogen on calcium absorption and serum vitamin D metabolites in postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980;51:1359-64. View abstract.
  279. Baron JA, Tosteson TD, Wargovich MJ, et al. Calcium supplementation and rectal mucosal proliferation: a randomized controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:1303-7. View abstract.
  280. Gupta SK, Gupta RC, Seth AK, Gupta A. Reversal of fluorosis in children. Acta Paediatr Jpn 1996;38:513-9. View abstract.
  281. Kalkwarf HJ, Specker BL, Bianchi DC, et al. The effect of calcium supplementation on bone density during lactation and after weaning. N Engl J Med 1997;337:523-8. View abstract.
  282. Ricci TA, Chowdhury HA, Heymsfield SB, et al. Calcium supplementation suppresses bone turnover during weight reduction in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:1045-50. View abstract.
  283. Dwyer JH, Dwyer KM, Scribner RA, et al. Dietary calcium, calcium supplementation, and blood pressure in African American adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:648-55. View abstract.
  284. Bernstein CN, Seeger LL, Anton PA, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium supplementation for decreased bone density in corticosteroid-using patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1996;10:777-86. View abstract.
  285. Devine A, Dick IM, Heal SJ, et al. A 4-year follow-up study of the effects of calcium supplementation on bone density in elderly postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 1997;7:23-8. View abstract.
  286. Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 1997;337:670-6. View abstract.
  287. Riggs BL, O'Fallon WM, Muhs J, et al. Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on serum parathyroid hormone level, bone turnover, and bone loss in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:168-74. View abstract.
  288. Baeksgaard L, Andersen KP, Hyldstrup L. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 1998;8:255-60. View abstract.
  289. Storm D, Eslin R, Porter ES, et al. Calcium supplementation prevents seasonal bone loss and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly New England women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:3817-25. View abstract.
  290. Weinberger MH, Wagner UL, Fineberg NS. The blood pressure effects of calcium supplementation in humans of known sodium responsiveness. Am J Hypertens 1993;6:799-805. View abstract.
  291. Petersen LJ, Rudnicki M, Hojsted J. Long-term oral calcium supplementation reduces diastolic blood pressure in end stage renal disease. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Int J Artif Organs 1994;17:37-40. View abstract.
  292. Yamamoto ME, Applegate WB. Klag MJ, et al. Lack of blood pressure effect with calcium and magnesium supplementation in adults with high-normal blood pressure. Results from phase I of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). Trials of Hypertension Prev (TOHP) Collab Res Group. Ann Epidemiol 1995;5:96-107. View abstract.
  293. Purwar M, Kulkarni H, Motghare V, Dhole S. Calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 1996;22:425-30. View abstract.
  294. Whelton PK, Kumanyika SK, Cook NR, et al. Efficacy of nonpharmacologic interventions in adults with high-normal blood pressure: results from phase 1 of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). Trials of Hypertension Prev (TOHP) Collab Res Group. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:652S-60S. View abstract.
  295. Levine RJ, Hauth JC, Curet LB, et al. Trial of calcium to prevent preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 1997;337:69-76. View abstract.
  296. Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS, et al. Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. Calcium Polyp Prev Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999;340:101-7. View abstract.
  297. Shils M, Olson A, Shike M. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger, 1994.
  298. Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.
  299. McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 10/22/2014




Page last updated: 10 December 2014