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Horsetail


What is it?

Horsetail is a plant. The above ground parts are used to make medicine.

Horsetail is used for “fluid retention” (edema), kidney and bladder stones, urinary tract infections, the inability to control urination (incontinence), and general disturbances of the kidney and bladder.

It is also used for balding; tuberculosis; jaundice; hepatitis; brittle fingernails; joint diseases; gout; osteoarthritis; weak bones (osteoporosis); frostbite; weight loss; heavy menstrual periods; and uncontrolled bleeding (hemorrhage) of the nose, lung, or stomach.

Horsetail is applied directly to the skin to treat wounds and burns.

There have been reports of horsetail products being contaminated with a related plant called Equisetum palustre. This plant contains chemicals that can poison cattle, but toxicity in people has not been proven.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for HORSETAIL are as follows:

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Kidney and bladder stones.
  • Weight loss.
  • Hair loss.
  • Gout.
  • Frostbite.
  • Heavy periods.
  • Fluid retention.
  • Urinary tract infections.
  • Incontinence.
  • Use on the skin for wound healing.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of horsetail for these uses.

How does it work?

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The chemicals in horsetail may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Plants related to horsetail contain chemicals that work like "water pills" (diuretics) and increase urine output. But it isn't clear whether horsetail has this effect.

Are there safety concerns?

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Horsetail is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth long-term. It contains a chemical called thiaminase that breaks down the vitamin thiamine, possibly leading to thiamine deficiency. Some products are labeled "thiaminase-free," but there's not enough information available to know if these products are safe.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of horsetail during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Diabetes: Horsetail might lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use horsetail.

Low potassium levels (hypokalemia): Horsetail might flush potassium out of the body, possibly leading to potassium levels that are too low. Until more is known, use horsetail with caution if you are at risk for potassium deficiency.

Low thiamine levels (thiamine deficiency): There is a concern that horsetail could make thiamine deficiency worse.

Are there interactions with medications?

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Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Lithium
Horsetail might have an effect like a water pill or "diuretic." Taking horsetail might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

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Areca
Horsetail and areca both reduce the amount of thiamine that the body has to use. Using these herbs together raises the risk that the amount of thiamine will become too low.

Chromium-containing herbs and supplements
Horsetail contains chromium (0.0006%) and could increase the risk of chromium poisoning when taken with chromium supplements or chromium-containing herbs such as bilberry, brewer's yeast, or cascara.

Thiamine
Crude horsetail contains thiaminase, a chemical that breaks down thiamine. Cattle that eat a lot of horsetail have developed thiamine deficiency.

Are there interactions with foods?

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There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

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The appropriate dose of horsetail depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for horsetail. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Other names

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Asprêle, Bottle Brush, Cavalinha, Coda Cavallina, Cola de Caballo, Common Horsetail, Corn Horsetail, Dutch Rushes, Equiseti Herba, Equisetum, Equisetum arvense, Equisetum hyemale, Equisetum telmateia, Field Horsetail, Herbe à Récurer, Horse Herb, Horsetail Grass, Horsetail Rush, Horse Willow, Paddock-Pipes, Pewterwort, Prele, Prêle, Prêle Commune, Prêle des Champs, Queue-de-Chat, Queue-de-Cheval, Queue-de-Rat, Queue-de-Renard, Scouring Rush, Souring Rush, Shave Grass, Shavegrass, Spring Horsetail, Toadpipe.

Methodology

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To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

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To see all references for the Horsetail page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/843.html.

  1. Henderson JA, Evans EV, and McIntosh RA. The antithiamine action of Equisetum. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 1952;120:375-378.
  2. Corletto F. [Female climacteric osteoporosis therapy with titrated horsetail (Equisetum arvense) extract plus calcium (osteosil calcium): randomized double blind study]. Miner Ortoped Traumatol 1999;50:201-206.
  3. Maeda, H., Miyamoto, K., and Sano, T. Occurrence of dermatitis in rats fed a cholesterol diet containing field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.). J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 1997;43:553-563. View abstract.
  4. Tiktinskii, O. L. and Bablumian, I. A. [Therapeutic action of Java tea and field horsetail in uric acid diathesis]. Urol.Nefrol.(Mosk) 1983;3:47-50. View abstract.
  5. D'Agostino, M., Dini, A., Pizza, C., Senatore, F., and Aquino, R. Sterols from Equisetum arvense. Boll.Soc Ital.Biol Sper. 12-30-1984;60:2241-2245. View abstract.
  6. Nitta, A., Yoshida, S., and Tagaeto, T. A comparative study of crude drugs in Southeast Asia. X. Crude drugs derived from Equisetum species. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1977;25:1135-1139. View abstract.
  7. Stajner, D., Popovic, B. M., Canadanovic-Brunet, J., and Boza, P. Free radical scavenging activity of three Equisetum species from Fruska gora mountain. Fitoterapia 2006;77(7-8):601-604. View abstract.
  8. Graefe, E. U. and Veit, M. Urinary metabolites of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in humans after application of a crude extract from Equisetum arvense. Phytomedicine 1999;6:239-246. View abstract.
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  1. Lemus I, Garcia R, Erazo S, et al. Diuretic activity of an Equisetum bogotense tea (Platero herb): evaluation in healthy volunteers. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;54:55-8. View abstract.
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  8. Correia H, Gonzalez-Paramas A, Amaral MT, et al. Characterisation of polyphenols by HPLC-PAD-ESI/MS and antioxidant activity in Equisetum telmateia. Phytochem Anal 2005;16:380-7. View abstract.
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  11. Sakurai N, Iizuka T, Nakayama S, et al. [Vasorelaxant activity of caffeic acid derivatives from Cichorium intybus and Equisetum arvense]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2003;123:593-8. View abstract.
  12. Oh H, Kim DH, Cho JH, Kim YC. Hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging activities of phenolic petrosins and flavonoids isolated from Equisetum arvense. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95:421-4.. View abstract.
  13. Sudan BJ. Seborrhoeic dermatitis induced by nicotine of horsetails (Equisetum arvense L.). Contact Dermatitis 1985;13:201-2. View abstract.
  14. Piekos R, Paslawska S. Studies on the optimum conditions of extraction of silicon species from plants with water. I. Equisetum arvense L. Herb. Planta Med 1975;27:145-50. View abstract.
  15. Health Canada. Labelling Standard: Mineral Supplements. Available at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/applic-demande/guide-ld/label-etiquet-pharm/minsup_e.html (Accessed 14 November 2005).
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Last reviewed - 02/23/2012




Page last updated: 08 September 2014