What is it?
Creatine is a chemical that is normally found in the body, mostly in muscles. It is made by the body and can also be obtained from certain foods. Fish and meats are good sources of creatine. Creatine can also be made in the laboratory.
Creatine is most commonly used for improving exercise performance and increasing muscle mass in athletes and older adults. There is some science supporting the use of creatine in improving the athletic performance of young, healthy people during brief high-intensity activity such as sprinting. But older adults don’t seem to benefit. Creatine doesn’t seem to improve strength or body composition in people over 60.
Creatine use is widespread among professional and amateur athletes and has been acknowledged by well-known athletes such as Mark McGuire, Sammy Sosa, and John Elway. Following the finding that carbohydrate solution further increases muscle creatine levels more than creatine alone, creatine sports drinks have become popular.
Creatine is allowed by the International Olympic Committee, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and professional sports. However, the NCAA no longer allows colleges and universities to supply creatine to their students with school funds. Students are permitted to buy creatine on their own and the NCAA has no plans to ban creatine unless medical evidence indicates that it is harmful. With current testing methods, detection of supplemental creatine use would not be possible.
In addition to improving athletic performance, creatine is used for congestive heart failure (CHF), depression, bipolar disorder, Parkinson’s disease, diseases of the muscles and nerves, an eye disease called gyrate atrophy, and high cholesterol. It is also used to slow the worsening of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig’s disease), rheumatoid arthritis, McArdle’s disease, and for various muscular dystrophies.
Americans use more than 4 million kilograms of creatine each year.
How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
The effectiveness ratings for CREATINE are as follows:
Possibly effective for...
- Athletic performance. Many factors seem to influence the effectiveness of creatine, including the fitness level and age of the person using it, the type of sport, and the dose. Creatine does not seem to improve performance in aerobic exercises, or benefit older people. Also, creatine does not seem to increase endurance or improve performance in highly trained athletes. There is some evidence that creatine “loading,” using 20 grams daily for 5 days, may be more effective than continuous use. However, there is still some uncertainty about exactly who can benefit from creatine and at what dose. Studies to date have included small numbers of people (all have involved fewer than 72 participants), and it is not possible to draw firm conclusions from such small numbers.
- Parkinson’s disease. Creatine might slow the worsening of some symptoms in people with early Parkinson’s disease.
- Syndromes caused by problems metabolizing creatine. Problems metabolizing creatine cause low levels of creatine in the brain, which results in mental retardation, seizures, autism, and movement disorders. Taking creating by mouth daily for up to 3 years increases creatine levels in the brain and improves movement disorders and seizures, but has little effect on mental ability in children and young adults with the creatine deficiency syndrome called gaunidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency. However, taking creatine for up to 8 years seems to improve attention, language, and academic performance in children with the creatine deficiency syndrome called arginine-glycine amidinotrasferase (AGAT) deficiency. Taking creatine does not seem to improve brain creatine levels, movement disorders, or mental abilities in children with creatine transporter defect.
Possibly ineffective for...
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig’s disease). Taking creatine by mouth does not seem to slow disease progression or improve survival in people with ALS.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
- Skin aging. Early research shows that applying cream containing creatine, guarana, and glycerol to the face daily for 6 weeks reduces wrinkles and skin sagging in men. Other research suggests that a cream containing creatine and folic acid reduces wrinkles and improves sun-damaged skin.
- Lung disease (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Research on the effects of creatine in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is inconsistent. Some research suggests that taking creating daily does not improve lung function. However, other research suggests that taking creatine may improve lung function or exercise capacity.
- Heart failure. Taking creatine by mouth daily for 5-10 days seems to improve muscle strength and endurance but not symptoms of heart failure.
- Depression. Early research suggests that taking creatine daily for 8 weeks enhances the effects of the antidepressant drug escitalopram in women with major depressive disorder.
- Diabetes. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth for 5 days reduces blood sugar after eating in people with newly diagnosed diabetes. However, the effects of taking creatine for longer than 5 days in people with diabetes are not know.
- Vision loss (gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina). Early research shows that creatine deficiency, which has been associated with this form of vision loss, can be corrected with supplements. Taking creatine daily for one year seems to slow eye damage and vision loss.
- Inherited nerve damage (hereditary motor sensory neuropathy). Early research in people with inherited nerve damage diseases such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, suggest that taking creatine by mouth daily for between one and 12 weeks has no effect on muscle strength or endurance.
- Inherited disease called Huntington’s disease. Early research suggests that taking creatine by mouth daily for one year does not improve muscle strength, coordination, or symptoms in people with Huntington’s disease.
- Muscle diseases such as polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Early studies suggest taking creatine might produce small improvements in muscle strength in people with these conditions.
- Muscle disorder called McArdle disease. Some early research suggests that taking creatine by mouth daily improves muscle function in some people with McArdle disease. However, taking higher doses of creatine seem to make muscle pain worse.
- Muscular and neurological diseases called mitochondrial myopathies. Early research suggests that taking creatine by mouth does not improve muscle function or quality of life in people with mitochondrial myopathies. However, creatine might improve some measures of muscle strength.
- Multiple sclerosis. Early research suggests that taking creatine by mouth daily for 5 days does not improve exercise ability in people with multiple sclerosis.
- Loss of muscle tissue. Taking creatine by mouth daily does not seem to increase muscle mass or strength in men with muscle loss due to HIV. However, taking creatine seems to help maintain muscle mass and reduce the loss of muscle strength that is associated with having to wear a cast.
- Muscle cramps. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth before hemodialysis treatments seems to reduce muscle cramps.
- Muscular dystrophy. Early research on the use of creatine in people with muscular dystrophy is not clear. Some evidence shows that muscle strength and fatigue seem to improve after taking creatine daily for 8-16 weeks. However, other research suggests that creatine provides no benefit for people with muscular dystrophy.
- Breathing problems while sleeping in newborns. Early research shows that giving creatine to premature infants does not improve breathing problems while sleeping.
- Osteoarthritis. Early research suggests that taking creating by mouth daily in combination with strengthening exercises improves physical functioning in postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis.
- Parkinson’s disease. Early research suggests that taking creatine daily reduces how quickly Parkinson’s disease progresses. However, in people who already have advanced Parkinson’s disease, taking creatine does not provide this benefit.
- Nervous system disorder called Rett syndrome. Early research suggests that taking creating daily for 6 months can slightly improve symptoms in females with Rett syndrome.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily increases muscle strength, but does not improve physical functioning in people with rheumatoid arthritis.
- Schizophrenia. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily for two months does not improve symptoms or mental function in people with schizophrenia.
- Spinal cord injury. Early research shows that taking creatine by mouth daily for 7 days increases the ability to exercise by increasing lung function in people with a spinal cord injury. However, other research shows that creatine does not improve wrist muscle or hand function.
- Muscle loss in the spine. Early research suggests that children with muscle loss in the spine do not benefit from taking creatine by mouth.
- Recovery from surgery. Early research shows that taking creatine daily does not speed up recovery of muscle strength after surgery.
- Trauma. Early research suggests that taking creatine by mouth daily reduces amnesia, headache, dizziness, and fatigue in children after a traumatic brain injury.
- High cholesterol.
- Bipolar disorder.
- Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of creatine for these uses.
Creatine is involved in making the energy muscles need to work.
Vegetarians and other people who have lower total creatine levels when they start taking creatine supplements seem to get more benefit than people who start with a higher level of creatine. Skeletal muscle will only hold a certain amount of creatine; adding more won’t raise levels any more. This “saturation point” is usually reached within the first few days of taking a “loading dose.”
Creatine is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately for up to 5 years.
When taken by mouth in high doses, creatine is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. There is some concern that it could harm the kidney, liver, or heart function. However, a connection between high doses and these negative effects has not been proven. Creatine can also cause stomach pain, nausea, diarrhea, and muscle cramping.
Creatine causes muscles to draw water from the rest of your body. Be sure to drink extra water to make up for this. Also, if you are taking creatine, don't exercise in the heat. It might cause you to become dehydrated.
Many people who use creatine gain weight. This is because creatine causes the muscles to hold water, not because it actually builds muscle.
There is some concern that combining creatine with caffeine and the herb ephedra (also called Ma Huang) might increase the chance of having serious side effects such as stroke.
There is concern that creatine might cause irregular heartbeat in some people. But more information is needed to know if creatine can cause this problem.
There is concern that creatine might cause a skin condition called pigmented purpuric dermatosis in some people. But more information is needed to know if creatine can cause this problem.
Special precautions & warnings:
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of creatine during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Kidney disease or diabetes: Do not use creatine if you have kidney disease or a disease such as diabetes that increases your chance of developing kidney disease. There is some concern that creatine might make kidney disease worse.
Be cautious with this combination.
Medications that can harm the kidneys (Nephrotoxic Drugs)
Taking high doses of creatine might harm the kidneys. Some medications can also harm the kidneys. Taking creatine with other medications that can harm the kidneys might increase the chance of kidney damage.
Some of these medications that can harm the kidneys include cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune); aminoglycosides including amikacin (Amikin), gentamicin (Garamycin, Gentak, others), and tobramycin (Nebcin, others); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Nuprin, others), indomethacin (Indocin), naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn), piroxicam (Feldene); and numerous others.
There is some concern that combining caffeine, ephedra, and creatine might increase the risk of serious adverse effects. There is a report of stroke in an athlete who consumed creatine monohydrate 6 grams, caffeine 400-600 mg, ephedra 40-60 mg, and a variety of other supplements daily for 6 weeks. Caffeine might also decrease creatine's beneficial effects on athletic performance.
There is some concern that combining ephedra, caffeine, and creatine might increase the risk of serious adverse effects. There is a report of stroke in an athlete who consumed creatine monohydrate 6 grams, caffeine 400-600 mg, ephedra 40-60 mg, and a variety of other supplements daily for 6 weeks.
Combining carbohydrates with creatine can increase muscle creatine levels more than creatine alone. Supplementing 5 grams of creatine with 93 grams of simple carbohydrates 4 times daily for 5 days can increase muscle creatine levels as much as 60% more than creatine alone.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For improving physical performance, several dosing regimens have been tried:
- Creatine is typically loaded with 20 grams per day (or 0.3 grams per kg) for 5 days followed by a maintenance dose of 2 or more grams (0.03 grams per kg) daily, Although 5 day loading is typical, 2 days of loading has also been used.
- A loading dose of 9 grams per day for 6 days has also been used. Some sources suggest that, instead of acutely loading, similar results can be obtained with 3 grams per day for 28 days.
During creatine supplementation, the water intake should be 64 ounces per day.
- For heart failure: 20 grams per day for 5-10 days.
- For Parkinson's disease:
- 10 grams/day.
- A loading dose of creatine 20 grams/day for 6 days followed by 2 grams/day for 6 months, and then 4 grams daily for 18 months has also been used.
- For improving resistance training in people with Parkinson's disease: a loading dose of 20 grams/day for 5 days, followed by 5 grams/day.
- For gyrate atrophy: 1.5 grams per day.
- For muscular dystrophies: 10 grams per day has been used by adults and 5 grams per day has been used by children.
- For McArdle’s disease: 150 mg / kg daily for 5 days and then continue with 60 mg / kg / day.
Cr, Creatina, Créatine, Créatine Anhydre, Creatine Anhydrous, Creatine Citrate, Créatine Citrate, Creatine Ethyl Ester, Créatine Ethyl Ester, Creatine Ethyl Ester HCl, Créatine Ethyl Ester HCl, Créatine Kré Alkaline, Creatine Malate, Créatine Malate, Creatine Monohydrate, Créatine Monohydrate, Créatine Monohydratée, Creatine Pyroglutamate, Créatine Pyroglutamate, Creatine Pyruvate, Créatine Pyruvate, Dicreatine Malate, Dicréatine Malate, Di-Creatine Malate, Éthyle Ester de Créatine, Glycine, N-(aminoiminométhyl)-N-Méthyl, Kre-Alkalyn Pyruvate, Malate de Tricréatine, N-amidinosarcosine, N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N Methyl Glycine, Phosphocreatine, Phosphocréatine, Tricreatine HCA, Tricréatine HCA, Tricreatine Malate, Tricréatine Malate.
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).
To see all references for the Creatine page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/873.html.
- Lawrence SR, Preen DB, Dawson BT, and et al. The effect of oral creatine supplementation on maximal exercise performance in competitive rowers. Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation. 1997;7:243-253.
- Myburgh KH, Bold A, Bellinger B, and et al. Creatine supplementation and sprint training in cyclists: metabolic and performance effects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28(5 Suppl ):S81.
- Vandebuerie, F., Vanden Eynde, B., Vandenberghe, K., and Hespel, P. Effect of creatine loading on endurance capacity and sprint power in cyclists. Int J Sports Med 1998;19:490-495. View abstract.
- Aaserud, R., Gramvik, P., Olsen, S. R., and Jensen, J. Creatine supplementation delays onset of fatigue during repeated bouts of sprint running. Scand.J Med Sci.Sports 1998;8(5 Pt 1):247-251. View abstract.
- Maganaris, C. N. and Maughan, R. J. Creatine supplementation enhances maximum voluntary isometric force and endurance capacity in resistance trained men. Acta Physiol Scand. 1998;163:279-287. View abstract.
- Javierre, C., Lizarraga, M. A., Ventura, J. L., Garrido, E., and Segura, R. Creatine supplementation does not improve physical performance in a 150 m race. Rev Esp.Fisiol. 1997;53:343-348. View abstract.
- Grindstaff, P. D., Kreider, R., Bishop, R., Wilson, M., Wood, L., Alexander, C., and Almada, A. Effects of creatine supplementation on repetitive sprint performance and body composition in competitive swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr. 1997;7:330-346. View abstract.
- Schulze, A., Hess, T., Wevers, R., Mayatepek, E., Bachert, P., Marescau, B., Knopp, M. V., De Deyn, P. P., Bremer, H. J., and Rating, D. Creatine deficiency syndrome caused by guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: diagnostic tools for a new inborn error of metabolism. J Pediatr. 1997;131:626-631. View abstract.
- Volek, J. S., Kraemer, W. J., Bush, J. A., Boetes, M., Incledon, T., Clark, K. L., and Lynch, J. M. Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. J Am.Diet.Assoc 1997;97:765-770. View abstract.
- Burke, L. M., Pyne, D. B., and Telford, R. D. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on single-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:222-233. View abstract.
Redondo, D. R., Dowling, E. A., Graham, B. L., Almada, A. L., and Williams, M. H. The effect of oral creatine monohydrate supplementation on running velocity. Int J Sport Nutr. 1996;6:213-221. View abstract.
- Stockler, S., Hanefeld, F., and Frahm, J. Creatine replacement therapy in guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, a novel inborn error of metabolism. Lancet 9-21-1996;348:789-790. View abstract.
- Greenhaff, P. L., Casey, A., Short, A. H., Harris, R., Soderlund, K., and Hultman, E. Influence of oral creatine supplementation of muscle torque during repeated bouts of maximal voluntary exercise in man. Clin Sci.(Lond) 1993;84:565-571. View abstract.
- Lyoo, I. K., Yoon, S., Kim, T. S., Hwang, J., Kim, J. E., Won, W., Bae, S., and Renshaw, P. F. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral creatine monohydrate augmentation for enhanced response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in women with major depressive disorder. Am.J.Psychiatry 2012;169:937-945. View abstract.
- Wadman, R. I., Bosboom, W. M., van der Pol, W. L., van den Berg, L. H., Wokke, J. H., Iannaccone, S. T., and Vrancken, A. F. Drug treatment for spinal muscular atrophy types II and III. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;4:CD006282. View abstract.
- Ndika, J. D., Johnston, K., Barkovich, J. A., Wirt, M. D., O'Neill, P., Betsalel, O. T., Jakobs, C., and Salomons, G. S. Developmental progress and creatine restoration upon long-term creatine supplementation of a patient with arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency. Mol.Genet.Metab 2012;106:48-54. View abstract.
- Peirano, R. I., Achterberg, V., Dusing, H. J., Akhiani, M., Koop, U., Jaspers, S., Kruger, A., Schwengler, H., Hamann, T., Wenck, H., Stab, F., Gallinat, S., and Blatt, T. Dermal penetration of creatine from a face-care formulation containing creatine, guarana and glycerol is linked to effective antiwrinkle and antisagging efficacy in male subjects. J.Cosmet.Dermatol. 2011;10:273-281. View abstract.
- Lamontagne-Lacasse, M., Nadon, R., and Goulet E DB. Effect of creatine supplementation on jumping performance in elite volleyball players. Int.J.Sports Physiol Perform. 2011;6:525-533. View abstract.
- Zuniga, J. M., Housh, T. J., Camic, C. L., Hendrix, C. R., Mielke, M., Johnson, G. O., Housh, D. J., and Schmidt, R. J. The effects of creatine monohydrate loading on anaerobic performance and one-repetition maximum strength. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2012;26:1651-1656. View abstract.
- Rocic, B., Znaor, A., Rocic, P., Weber, D., and Vucic, Lovrencic M. Comparison of antihyperglycemic effects of creatine and glibenclamide in type II diabetic patients. Wien.Med.Wochenschr. 2011;161(21-22):519-523. View abstract.
- Freilinger, M., Dunkler, D., Lanator, I., Item, C. B., Muhl, A., Fowler, B., and Bodamer, O. A. Effects of creatine supplementation in Rett syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J.Dev.Behav.Pediatr. 2011;32:454-460. View abstract.
- van de Kamp, J. M., Pouwels, P. J., Aarsen, F. K., ten Hoopen, L. W., Knol, D. L., de Klerk, J. B., de Coo, I. F., Huijmans, J. G., Jakobs, C., van der Knaap, M. S., Salomons, G. S., and Mancini, G. M. Long-term follow-up and treatment in nine boys with X-linked creatine transporter defect. J.Inherit.Metab Dis. 2012;35:141-149. View abstract.
- Neves, M., Jr., Gualano, B., Roschel, H., Fuller, R., Benatti, F. B., Pinto, A. L., Lima, F. R., Pereira, R. M., Lancha, A. H., Jr., and Bonfa, E. Beneficial effect of creatine supplementation in knee osteoarthritis. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1538-1543. View abstract.
- Banerjee, B., Sharma, U., Balasubramanian, K., Kalaivani, M., Kalra, V., and Jagannathan, N. R. Effect of creatine monohydrate in improving cellular energetics and muscle strength in ambulatory Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled 31P MRS study. Magn Reson.Imaging 2010;28:698-707. View abstract.
- Rocic, B., Bajuk, N. B., Rocic, P., Weber, D. S., Boras, J., and Lovrencic, M. V. Comparison of antihyperglycemic effects of creatine and metformin in type II diabetic patients. Clin.Invest Med. 2009;32:E322. View abstract.
- Juhasz, I., Gyore, I., Csende, Z., Racz, L., and Tihanyi, J. Creatine supplementation improves the anaerobic performance of elite junior fin swimmers. Acta Physiol Hung. 2009;96:325-336. View abstract.
- O'Rourke, D. J., Ryan, S., Salomons, G., Jakobs, C., Monavari, A., and King, M. D. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency: late onset of movement disorder and preserved expressive language. Dev.Med.Child Neurol. 2009;51:404-407. View abstract.
- Law, Y. L., Ong, W. S., GillianYap, T. L., Lim, S. C., and Von, Chia E. Effects of two and five days of creatine loading on muscular strength and anaerobic power in trained athletes. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2009;23:906-914. View abstract.
- Sakkas, G. K., Mulligan, K., Dasilva, M., Doyle, J. W., Khatami, H., Schleich, T., Kent-Braun, J. A., and Schambelan, M. Creatine fails to augment the benefits from resistance training in patients with HIV infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. PLoS.One. 2009;4:e4605. View abstract.
- Johnston, A. P., Burke, D. G., MacNeil, L. G., and Candow, D. G. Effect of creatine supplementation during cast-induced immobilization on the preservation of muscle mass, strength, and endurance. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2009;23:116-120. View abstract.
- Candow, D. G., Little, J. P., Chilibeck, P. D., Abeysekara, S., Zello, G. A., Kazachkov, M., Cornish, S. M., and Yu, P. H. Low-dose creatine combined with protein during resistance training in older men. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2008;40:1645-1652. View abstract.
- Rosenfeld, J., King, R. M., Jackson, C. E., Bedlack, R. S., Barohn, R. J., Dick, A., Phillips, L. H., Chapin, J., Gelinas, D. F., and Lou, J. S. Creatine monohydrate in ALS: effects on strength, fatigue, respiratory status and ALSFRS. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler. 2008;9:266-272. View abstract.
- Koenig CA, Benardot D Cody M Thompson WR. Comparison of creatine monohydrate and carbohydrate supplementation on repeated jump height performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22:1081-1086. View abstract.
- NINDS NET-PD Investigators. A pilot clinical trial of creatine and minocycline in early Parkinson disease: 18-month results. Clin.Neuropharmacol. 2008;31:141-150. View abstract.
- Deacon, S. J., Vincent, E. E., Greenhaff, P. L., Fox, J., Steiner, M. C., Singh, S. J., and Morgan, M. D. Randomized controlled trial of dietary creatine as an adjunct therapy to physical training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am.J.Respir.Crit Care Med. 8-1-2008;178:233-239. View abstract.
- Knott, A., Koop, U., Mielke, H., Reuschlein, K., Peters, N., Muhr, G. M., Lenz, H., Wensorra, U., Jaspers, S., Kolbe, L., Raschke, T., Stab, F., Wenck, H., and Gallinat, S. A novel treatment option for photoaged skin. J.Cosmet.Dermatol. 2008;7:15-22. View abstract.
- Young, P., De, Jonghe P., Stogbauer, F., and Butterfass-Bahloul, T. Treatment for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;:CD006052. View abstract.
- Sakellaris, G., Nasis, G., Kotsiou, M., Tamiolaki, M., Charissis, G., and Evangeliou, A. Prevention of traumatic headache, dizziness and fatigue with creatine administration. A pilot study. Acta Paediatr. 2008;97:31-34. View abstract.
- Faager, G., Soderlund, K., Skold, C. M., Rundgren, S., Tollback, A., and Jakobsson, P. Creatine supplementation and physical training in patients with COPD: a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Int J Chron.Obstruct.Pulmon.Dis 2006;1:445-453. View abstract.
- Gualano, B., Novaes, R. B., Artioli, G. G., Freire, T. O., Coelho, D. F., Scagliusi, F. B., Rogeri, P. S., Roschel, H., Ugrinowitsch, C., and Lancha, A. H., Jr. Effects of creatine supplementation on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in sedentary healthy males undergoing aerobic training. Amino.Acids 2008;34:245-250. View abstract.
- Smith, C. A., Chetlin, R. D., Gutmann, L., Yeater, R. A., and Alway, S. E. Effects of exercise and creatine on myosin heavy chain isoform composition in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Muscle Nerve 2006;34:586-594. View abstract.
- Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, S., Stoeckler-Ipsiroglu, S., Adami, A., Appleton, R., Araujo, H. C., Duran, M., Ensenauer, R., Fernandez-Alvarez, E., Garcia, P., Grolik, C., Item, C. B., Leuzzi, V., Marquardt, I., Muhl, A., Saelke-Kellermann, R. A., Salomons, G. S., Schulze, A., Surtees, R., van der Knaap, M. S., Vasconcelos, R., Verhoeven, N. M., Vilarinho, L., Wilichowski, E., and Jakobs, C. GAMT deficiency: features, treatment, and outcome in an inborn error of creatine synthesis. Neurology 8-8-2006;67:480-484. View abstract.
- Pluim, B. M., Ferrauti, A., Broekhof, F., Deutekom, M., Gotzmann, A., Kuipers, H., and Weber, K. The effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific training. Br J Sports Med 2006;40:507-511. View abstract.
- Eckerson, J. M., Stout, J. R., Moore, G. A., Stone, N. J., Iwan, K. A., Gebauer, A. N., and Ginsberg, R. Effect of creatine phosphate supplementation on anaerobic working capacity and body weight after two and six days of loading in men and women. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19:756-763. View abstract.
- Carter, J. M., Bemben, D. A., Knehans, A. W., Bemben, M. G., and Witten, M. S. Does nutritional supplementation influence adaptability of muscle to resistance training in men aged 48 to 72 years. J Geriatr.Phys.Ther 2005;28:40-47. View abstract.
- Kendall, R. W., Jacquemin, G., Frost, R., and Burns, S. P. Creatine supplementation for weak muscles in persons with chronic tetraplegia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. J Spinal Cord.Med 2005;28:208-213. View abstract.
- Roy, B. D., de Beer, J., Harvey, D., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not improve functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1293-1298. View abstract.
- Fuld, J. P., Kilduff, L. P., Neder, J. A., Pitsiladis, Y., Lean, M. E., Ward, S. A., and Cotton, M. M. Creatine supplementation during pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2005;60:531-537. View abstract.
- Escolar, D. M., Buyse, G., Henricson, E., Leshner, R., Florence, J., Mayhew, J., Tesi-Rocha, C., Gorni, K., Pasquali, L., Patel, K. M., McCarter, R., Huang, J., Mayhew, T., Bertorini, T., Carlo, J., Connolly, A. M., Clemens, P. R., Goemans, N., Iannaccone, S. T., Igarashi, M., Nevo, Y., Pestronk, A., Subramony, S. H., Vedanarayanan, V. V., and Wessel, H. CINRG randomized controlled trial of creatine and glutamine in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Ann Neurol 2005;58:151-155. View abstract.
- Javierre, C., Barbany, J. R., Bonjorn, V. M., Lizarraga, M. A., Ventura, J. L., and Segura, R. Creatine supplementation and performance in 6 consecutive 60 meter sprints. J Physiol Biochem 2004;60:265-271. View abstract.
- Theodorou, A. S., Havenetidis, K., Zanker, C. L., O'Hara, J. P., King, R. F., Hood, C., Paradisis, G., and Cooke, C. B. Effects of acute creatine loading with or without carbohydrate on repeated bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19:265-269. View abstract.
- Kornblum, C., Schroder, R., Muller, K., Vorgerd, M., Eggers, J., Bogdanow, M., Papassotiropoulos, A., Fabian, K., Klockgether, T., and Zange, J. Creatine has no beneficial effect on skeletal muscle energy metabolism in patients with single mitochondrial DNA deletions: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 31P-MRS crossover study. Eur J Neurol 2005;12:300-309. View abstract.
- Ahmun, R. P., Tong, R. J., and Grimshaw, P. N. The effects of acute creatine supplementation on multiple sprint cycling and running performance in rugby players. J Strength.Cond.Res 2005;19:92-97. View abstract.
- Matsumura, T., Yokoe, M., Nakamori, M., Hattori, N., Saito, T., Nozaki, S., Fujimura, H., and Shinno, S. [A clinical trial of creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophy patients]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2004;44:661-666. View abstract.
- Chetlin, R. D., Gutmann, L., Tarnopolsky, M. A., Ullrich, I. H., and Yeater, R. A. Resistance training exercise and creatine in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Muscle Nerve 2004;30:69-76. View abstract.
- Tarnopolsky, M. A., Mahoney, D. J., Vajsar, J., Rodriguez, C., Doherty, T. J., Roy, B. D., and Biggar, D. Creatine monohydrate enhances strength and body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neurology 5-25-2004;62:1771-1777. View abstract.
- Selsby, J. T., DiSilvestro, R. A., and Devor, S. T. Mg2+-creatine chelate and a low-dose creatine supplementation regimen improve exercise performance. J Strength.Cond.Res 2004;18:311-315. View abstract.
- Ostojic, S. M. Creatine supplementation in young soccer players. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2004;14:95-103. View abstract.
- Bohnhorst, B., Geuting, T., Peter, C. S., Dordelmann, M., Wilken, B., and Poets, C. F. Randomized, controlled trial of oral creatine supplementation (not effective) for apnea of prematurity. Pediatrics 2004;113:e303-e307. View abstract.
- Tyler, T. F., Nicholas, S. J., Hershman, E. B., Glace, B. W., Mullaney, M. J., and McHugh, M. P. The effect of creatine supplementation on strength recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am.J.Sports Med. 2004;32:383-388. View abstract.
- Kocak, S. and Karli, U. Effects of high dose oral creatine supplementation on anaerobic capacity of elite wrestlers. J.Sports Med.Phys.Fitness 2003;43:488-492. View abstract.
- Tarnopolsky, M., Mahoney, D., Thompson, T., Naylor, H., and Doherty, T. J. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not increase muscle strength, lean body mass, or muscle phosphocreatine in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Muscle Nerve 2004;29:51-58. View abstract.
- Volek, J. S., Ratamess, N. A., Rubin, M. R., Gomez, A. L., French, D. N., McGuigan, M. M., Scheett, T. P., Sharman, M. J., Hakkinen, K., and Kraemer, W. J. The effects of creatine supplementation on muscular performance and body composition responses to short-term resistance training overreaching. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol 2004;91(5-6):628-637. View abstract.
- Havenetidis, K. and Bourdas, D. Creatine supplementation: effects on urinary excretion and anaerobic performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2003;43:347-355. View abstract.
- Burke, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Parise, G., Candow, D. G., Mahoney, D., and Tarnopolsky, M. Effect of creatine and weight training on muscle creatine and performance in vegetarians. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2003;35:1946-1955. View abstract.
- Verbessem, P., Lemiere, J., Eijnde, B. O., Swinnen, S., Vanhees, L., Van Leemputte, M., Hespel, P., and Dom, R. Creatine supplementation in Huntington's disease: a placebo-controlled pilot trial. Neurology 10-14-2003;61:925-930. View abstract.
- Chwalbinska-Moneta, J. Effect of creatine supplementation on aerobic performance and anaerobic capacity in elite rowers in the course of endurance training. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2003;13:173-183. View abstract.
- Delecluse, C., Diels, R., and Goris, M. Effect of creatine supplementation on intermittent sprint running performance in highly trained athletes. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17:446-454. View abstract.
- Lehmkuhl, M., Malone, M., Justice, B., Trone, G., Pistilli, E., Vinci, D., Haff, E. E., Kilgore, J. L., and Haff, G. G. The effects of 8 weeks of creatine monohydrate and glutamine supplementation on body composition and performance measures. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17:425-438. View abstract.
- Selsby, J. T., Beckett, K. D., Kern, M., and Devor, S. T. Swim performance following creatine supplementation in Division III athletes. J Strength.Cond.Res 2003;17:421-424. View abstract.
- Lambert, C. P., Archer, R. L., Carrithers, J. A., Fink, W. J., Evans, W. J., and Trappe, T. A. Influence of creatine monohydrate ingestion on muscle metabolites and intense exercise capacity in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84:1206-1210. View abstract.
- Tabrizi, S. J., Blamire, A. M., Manners, D. N., Rajagopalan, B., Styles, P., Schapira, A. H., and Warner, T. T. Creatine therapy for Huntington's disease: Clinical and MRS findings in a 1-year pilot study. Neurology 7-8-2003;61:141-142. View abstract.
- Louis, M., Lebacq, J., Poortmans, J. R., Belpaire-Dethiou, M. C., Devogelaer, J. P., Van Hecke, P., Goubel, F., and Francaux, M. Beneficial effects of creatine supplementation in dystrophic patients. Muscle Nerve 2003;27:604-610. View abstract.
- Eijnde, B. O., Van Leemputte, M., Goris, M., Labarque, V., Taes, Y., Verbessem, P., Vanhees, L., Ramaekers, M., Vanden Eynde, B., Van Schuylenbergh, R., Dom, R., Richter, E. A., and Hespel, P. Effects of creatine supplementation and exercise training on fitness in men 55-75 yr old. J Appl.Physiol 2003;95:818-828. View abstract.
- Brose, A., Parise, G., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol.Sci.Med Sci. 2003;58:11-19. View abstract.
- Walter, M. C., Reilich, P., Lochmuller, H., Kohnen, R., Schlotter, B., Hautmann, H., Dunkl, E., Pongratz, D., and Muller-Felber, W. Creatine monohydrate in myotonic dystrophy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. J Neurol. 2002;249:1717-1722. View abstract.
- Battini, R., Leuzzi, V., Carducci, C., Tosetti, M., Bianchi, M. C., Item, C. B., Stockler-Ipsiroglu, S., and Cioni, G. Creatine depletion in a new case with AGAT deficiency: clinical and genetic study in a large pedigree. Mol.Genet.Metab 2002;77:326-331. View abstract.
- Chang, C. T., Wu, C. H., Yang, C. W., Huang, J. Y., and Wu, M. S. Creatine monohydrate treatment alleviates muscle cramps associated with haemodialysis. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2002;17:1978-1981. View abstract.
- Huso, M. E., Hampl, J. S., Johnston, C. S., and Swan, P. D. Creatine supplementation influences substrate utilization at rest. J Appl.Physiol 2002;93:2018-2022. View abstract.
- Wilder, N., Gilders, R., Hagerman, F., and Deivert, R. G. The effects of a 10-week, periodized, off-season resistance-training program and creatine supplementation among collegiate football players. J Strength.Cond.Res 2002;16:343-352. View abstract.
- Drory, V. E. and Gross, D. No effect of creatine on respiratory distress in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Amyotroph.Lateral.Scler.Other Motor Neuron Disord. 2002;3:43-46. View abstract.
- Gotshalk, L. A., Volek, J. S., Staron, R. S., Denegar, C. R., Hagerman, F. C., and Kraemer, W. J. Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2002;34:537-543. View abstract.
- Syrotuik, D. G., Game, A. B., Gillies, E. M., and Bell, G. J. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation during combined strength and high intensity rowing training on performance. Can J Appl.Physiol 2001;26:527-542. View abstract.
- Cottrell, G. T., Coast, J. R., and Herb, R. A. Effect of recovery interval on multiple-bout sprint cycling performance after acute creatine supplementation. J Strength.Cond.Res 2002;16:109-116. View abstract.
- Izquierdo, M., Ibanez, J., Gonzalez-Badillo, J. J., and Gorostiaga, E. M. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, endurance, and sprint performance. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2002;34:332-343. View abstract.
- Vorgerd, M., Zange, J., Kley, R., Grehl, T., Husing, A., Jager, M., Muller, K., Schroder, R., Mortier, W., Fabian, K., Malin, J. P., and Luttmann, A. Effect of high-dose creatine therapy on symptoms of exercise intolerance in McArdle disease: Double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Arch Neurol 2002;59:97-101. View abstract.
- Jacobs, P. L., Mahoney, E. T., Cohn, K. A., Sheradsky, L. F., and Green, B. A. Oral creatine supplementation enhances upper extremity work capacity in persons with cervical-level spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83:19-23. View abstract.
- Chrusch, M. J., Chilibeck, P. D., Chad, K. E., Davison, K. S., and Burke, D. G. Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33:2111-2117. View abstract.
- Arciero, P. J., Hannibal, N. S., III, Nindl, B. C., Gentile, C. L., Hamed, J., and Vukovich, M. D. Comparison of creatine ingestion and resistance training on energy expenditure and limb blood flow. Metabolism 2001;50:1429-1434. View abstract.
- Romer, L. M., Barrington, J. P., and Jeukendrup, A. E. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on high intensity, intermittent exercise performance in competitive squash players. Int J Sports Med 2001;22:546-552. View abstract.
- Bemben, M. G., Tuttle, T. D., Bemben, D. A., and Knehans, A. W. Effects of creatine supplementation on isometric force-time curve characteristics. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1876-1881. View abstract.
- Mazzini, L., Balzarini, C., Colombo, R., Mora, G., Pastore, I., De Ambrogio, R., and Caligari, M. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and muscular strength in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: preliminary results. J Neurol.Sci. 10-15-2001;191(1-2):139-144. View abstract.
- Willoughby, D. S. and Rosene, J. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myosin heavy chain expression. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1674-1681. View abstract.
- Bemben, M. G., Bemben, D. A., Loftiss, D. D., and Knehans, A. W. Creatine supplementation during resistance training in college football athletes. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1667-1673. View abstract.
- Doherty, T. J., Lougheed, K., Markez, J., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Creatine monohydrate does not increase strength in patients with hereditary neuropathy. Neurology 8-14-2001;57:559-560. View abstract.
- Wiroth, J. B., Bermon, S., Andrei, S., Dalloz, E., Hebuterne, X., and Dolisi, C. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on maximal pedalling performance in older adults. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2001;84:533-539. View abstract.
- Jakobi, J. M., Rice, C. L., Curtin, S. V., and Marsh, G. D. Neuromuscular properties and fatigue in older men following acute creatine supplementation. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2001;84:321-328. View abstract.
- Finn, J. P., Ebert, T. R., Withers, R. T., Carey, M. F., Mackay, M., Phillips, J. W., and Febbraio, M. A. Effect of creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance in humans during intermittent sprint cycling. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2001;84:238-243. View abstract.
- Op 't, Eijnde B., Vergauwen, L., and Hespel, P. Creatine loading does not impact on stroke performance in tennis. Int J Sports Med 2001;22:76-80. View abstract.
- Bellinger, B. M., Bold, A., Wilson, G. R., Noakes, T. D., and Myburgh, K. H. Oral creatine supplementation decreases plasma markers of adenine nucleotide degradation during a 1-h cycle test. Acta Physiol Scand. 2000;170:217-224. View abstract.
- Klopstock, T., Querner, V., Schmidt, F., Gekeler, F., Walter, M., Hartard, M., Henning, M., Gasser, T., Pongratz, D., Straube, A., Dieterich, M., and Muller-Felber, W. A placebo-controlled crossover trial of creatine in mitochondrial diseases. Neurology 12-12-2000;55:1748-1751. View abstract.
- Tarnopolsky, M. A. and MacLennan, D. P. Creatine monohydrate supplementation enhances high-intensity exercise performance in males and females. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10:452-463. View abstract.
- Burke, D. G., Silver, S., Holt, L. E., Smith, Palmer T., Culligan, C. J., and Chilibeck, P. D. The effect of continuous low dose creatine supplementation on force, power, and total work. Int J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10:235-244. View abstract.
- Shomrat, A., Weinstein, Y., and Katz, A. Effect of creatine feeding on maximal exercise performance in vegetarians. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2000;82:321-325. View abstract.
- Deutekom, M., Beltman, J. G., de Ruiter, C. J., de Koning, J. J., and de Haan, A. No acute effects of short-term creatine supplementation on muscle properties and sprint performance. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2000;82:223-229. View abstract.
- Volek, J. S., Duncan, N. D., Mazzetti, S. A., Staron, R. S., Putukian, M., Gomez, A. L., Pearson, D. R., Fink, W. J., and Kraemer, W. J. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 1999;31:1147-1156. View abstract.
- Nanto-Salonen, K., Komu, M., Lundbom, N., Heinanen, K., Alanen, A., Sipila, I., and Simell, O. Reduced brain creatine in gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyperornithinemia. Neurology 7-22-1999;53:303-307. View abstract.
- Urbanski, R. L., Vincent, W. J., and Yaspelkis, B. B., III. Creatine supplementation differentially affects maximal isometric strength and time to fatigue in large and small muscle groups. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9:136-145. View abstract.
- Gualano B, Ugrinowitsch C, Novaes RB, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Appl Physiol 2008;103:33-40. View abstract.
- Kaptsan A, Odessky A, Osher Y, Levine J. Lack of efficacy of 5 grams daily of creatine in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68:881-4. View abstract.
- Shefner JM, Cudkowicz ME, Schoenfeld D, et al. A clinical trial of creatine in ALS. Neurology 2004;63:1656-61. View abstract.
- Chung Y, Alexanderson H, Pipitone N, et al. Creatine supplements in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies who are clinically weak after conventional pharmacologic treatment: six-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2007;57:694-702. View abstract.
- Chorney JA, Cohen J. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis associated with creatine supplementation (letter). Arch Dermatol 2006;142:1662-3. View abstract.
- Hass CJ, Collins MA, Juncos JL. Resistance training with creatine monohydrate improves upper-body strength in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2007;21:107-15. View abstract.
- Bender A, Koch W, Elstner M, et al. Creatine supplementation in Parkinson disease: a placebo-controlled randomized pilot trial. Neurology 2006;67:1262-4. View abstract.
- NINDS NET-PD Investigators. A randomized, double-blind, futility clinical trial of creatine and minocycline in early Parkinson disease. Neurology 2006;66:664-71. View abstract.
- Abou-Zeid LA, El-Mowafy AM. Differential recognition of resveratrol isomers by the human estrogen receptor-alpha: molecular dynamics evidence for stereoselective ligand binding. Chirality 2004;16:190-5. View abstract.
- Hill JO. Understanding and addressing the epidemic of obesity: An energy balance perspective. End Rev 2006;27:750-61. View abstract.
- Vierck JL, Icenoggle DL, Bucci L, Dodson MV. The effects of ergogenic compounds on myogenic satellite cells. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:769-76. View abstract.
- Van Schuylenbergh R, Van Leemputte M, Hespel P. Effects of oral creatine-pyruvate supplementation in cycling performance. Int J Sports Med 2003;24:144-50. View abstract.
- Stone MH, Sanborn K, Smith LL, et al. Effects of in-season (5 weeks) creatine and pyruvate supplementation on anaerobic performance and body composition in American football players. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:146-65. . View abstract.
- Kammer RT. Lone atrial fibrillation associated with creatine monohydrate supplementation. Pharmacotherapy 2005;25:762-4. View abstract.
- Kuklo TR, Tis JE, Moores LK, Schaefer RA. Fatal rhabdomyolysis with bilateral gluteal, thigh, and leg compartment syndrome after the Army Physical Fitness Test. A case report. Am J Sports Med 2000;28:112-6. View abstract.
- Robinson SJ. Acute quadriceps compartment syndrome and rhabdomyolysis in a weight lifter using high-dose creatine supplementation. J Am Board Fam Pract 2000;13:134-7. View abstract.
- Sandhu RS, Como JJ, Scalea TS, Betts JM. Renal failure and exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis in patients taking performance-enhancing compounds. J Trauma 2002;53:761-3. View abstract.
- Groeneveld GJ, Veldink JH, van der Tweel I, et al. A randomized sequential trial of creatine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2003;53:437-45. . View abstract.
- Bosco C, Tihanyi J, Pucspk J, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on jumping and running performance. Int J Sports Med 1997;18:369-72.. View abstract.
- Benzi G. Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as nutritional supplementation or drug administration in humans participating in a sport? Pharmacol Res 2000;41:255-64. View abstract.
- Schneider-Gold C, Beck M, Wessig C, et al. Creatine monohydrate in DM2/PROMM. A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study. Neurology 2003;60:500-2.. View abstract.
- Persky AM, Muller M, Derendorf H, et al. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of oral creatine. J Clin Pharmacol 2003;43:29-37. . View abstract.
- Preen D, Dawson B, Goodman C, et al. Effect of creatine loading on long-term sprint exercise performance and metabolism. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:814-21. . View abstract.
- Green AL, Simpson EJ, Littlewood JJ, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1996;158:195-202. . View abstract.
- Jowko E, Ostaszewski P, Jank M, et al. Creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition 2001;17:558-66.. View abstract.
- Anabolic Steroid Act, Public Law No. 108-358, 2004.
- Willer B, Stucki G, Hoppeler H, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle weakness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000;39:293-8. View abstract.
- Becque MD, Lochmann JD, Melrose DR. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:654-8. View abstract.
- Rico-Sanz J. Creatine reduces human muscle PCr and pH decrements and P(i) accumulation during low-intensity exercise. J Appl Physiol 2000;88:1181-91. View abstract.
- Francaux M, Demeure R, Goudemant JF, Poortmans JR. Effect of exogenous creatine supplementation on muscle PCr metabolism. Int J Sports Med 2000;21:139-45. View abstract.
- Mujika I, Padilla S, Ibanez J, et al. Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:518-25. View abstract.
- Gilliam JD, Hohzorn C, Martin D, Trimble MH. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on isokinetic torque production. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:993-6. View abstract.
- Walter MC, Lochmuller H, Reilich P, et al. Creatine monohydrate in muscular dystrophies: A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. Neurology 2000;54:1848-50. View abstract.
- NCAA prohibits schools from supplying creatine to students. Reuters Health 2000;Jun 13. Available at: www.medscape.com/reuters/prof/ 2000/06/06.13/20000613publ004.html (Accessed 13 June 2000).
- Stricker PR. Other ergogenic agents. Clin Sports Med 1998;17:283-97. View abstract.
- Terjung RL, Clarkson P, Eichner ER, et al. The American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on the physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:706-17. View abstract.
- Rossouw F, Kruger PE, Rossouw J. The effect of creatine monohydrate loading on maximal intermittent exercise and sport-specific strength in well trained power-lifters. Nutr Res 2000;20:505-14.
- Rossiter HB, Cannell ER, Jakeman PM. The effect of oral creatine supplementation on the 1000-m performance of competitive rowers. J Sports Sci 1996;14:175-9. View abstract.
- McKenna MJ, Morton J, Selig SE, Snow RJ. Creatine supplementation increases muscle total creatine but not maximal intermittent exercise performance. J Appl Physiol 1999;87:2244-52. View abstract.
- McNaughton LR, Dalton B, Tarr J. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity exercise performance in elite performers. (abstract) Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998;78:236-40. View abstract.
- Kamber M, Koster M, Kreis R, et al. Creatine supplementation - part I: performance, clinical chemistry, and muscle volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1763-9. View abstract.
- Theodorou AS, Cooke CB, King RF, et al. The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading. J Sports Sci 1999;17:853-9. View abstract.
- Jones AM, Atter T, Georg KP. Oral creatine supplementation improves multiple sprint performance in elite ice-hockey players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1999;39:189-96. View abstract.
- Leenders NM, Lamb DR, Nelson TE. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance. Int J Sport Nutr 1999;9:251-62. View abstract.
- Snow RJ, McKenna MJ, Selig SE, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on sprint exercise performance and muscle metabolism. (abstract) J Appl Physiol 1998;84:1667-73. View abstract.
- Odland LM, MacDougall JD, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle [PCr] and short-term maximum power output. (abstract) Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29:216-9. View abstract.
- Cooke WH, Grandjean PW, Barnes WS. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on power output and fatigue during bicycle ergometry. (abstract) J Appl Physiol 1995;78:670-3. View abstract.
- Vanakoski J, Kosunen V, Meririnne E, Seppala T. Creatine and caffeine in anaerobic and aerobic exercise: effects on physical performance and pharmacokinetic considerations. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;36:258-62. View abstract.
- Cooke WH, Barnes WS. The influence of recovery duration on high-intensity exercise performance after oral creatine supplementation. Can J Appl Physiol 1997;22:454-67. View abstract.
- Barnett C, Hinds M, Jenkins DG. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on multiple sprint cycle performance. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1996;28:35-9. View abstract.
- Prevost MC, Nelson AG, Morris GS. Creatine supplementation enhances intermittent work performance. (abstract) Res Q Exerc Sport 1997;68:233-40. View abstract.
- Dawson B, Cutler M, Moody A, et al. Effects of oral creatine loading on single and repeated maximal short sprints. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1995;27:56-61. View abstract.
- Birch R, Noble D, Greenhaff PL. The influence of dietary creatine supplementation on performance during repeated bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling in man. (abstract) Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1994;69:268-76. View abstract.
- Balsom PD, Soderlund K, Sjodin B, Ekblom B. Skeletal muscle metabolism during short duration high-intensity exercise: influence of creatine supplementation. Acta Physiol Scand 1995;154:303-10. View abstract.
- Green AL, Hultman E, Macdonald IA, et al. Carbohydrate ingestion augments skeletal muscle creatine accumulation during creatine supplementation in humans. Am J Physiol 1996;271:E821-6. View abstract.
- Francaux M, Poortmans JR. Effects of training and creatine supplement on muscle strength and body mass. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999;80:165-8. View abstract.
- Chambers DJ, Haire K, Morley N, et al. St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegia: enhanced protection with exogenous creatine phosphate. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61:67-75. View abstract.
- Juhn MS, O'Kane JW, Vinci DM. Oral creatine supplementation in male collegiate athletes: a survey of dosing habits and side effects. J Am Diet Assoc 1999;99:593-5.
- Harris RC, Soderlund K, Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci (Lond) 1992;83:367-74. View abstract.
- Febbraio MA, Flanagan TR, Snow RJ, et al. Effect of creatine supplementation on intramuscular TCr, metabolism and performance during intermittent, supramaximal exercise in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 1995;155:387-95. View abstract.
- Vandenberghe K, Van Hecke P, Van Leemputte M, et al. Phosphocreatine resynthesis is not affected by creatine loading. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:236-42. View abstract.
- Ingwall JS, Morales MF, Stockdale FE, Wildenthal K. Creatine: a possible stimulus skeletal cardiac muscle hypertrophy. Recent Adv Stud Cardiac Struct Metab 1975;8:467-81. View abstract.
- Sipila I, Rapola J, Simell O, Vannas A. Supplementary creatine as a treatment for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina. N Engl J Med 1981;304:867-70. View abstract.
- Heinanen K, Nanto-Salonen K, Komu M, et al. Creatine corrects muscle 31P spectrum in gyrate atrophy with hyperornithinaemia. Eur J Clin Invest 1999;29:1060-5. View abstract.
- Juhn MS. Oral creatine supplementation. Separating fact from hype. Phys Sportsmed 1999;27:47-50,53-54,56,61,89. View abstract.
- Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:216-34. View abstract.
- Demant TW, Rhodes EC. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance. Sports Med 1999;28:49-60. View abstract.
- Earnest CP, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. High-performance capillary electrophoresis-pure creatine monohydrate reduces blood lipids in men and women. Clin Sci (Colch) 1996;91:113-8. View abstract.
- Rawson ES, Wehnert ML, Clarkson PM. Effects of 30 days of creatine ingestion in older men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1999;80:139-44. View abstract.
- Bermon S, Venembre P, Sachet C, et al. Effects of creatine monohydrate ingestion in sedentary and weight-trained older adults. Acta Physiol Scand 1998;164:147-55. View abstract.
- Rawson ES, Clarkson PM. Acute creatine supplementation in older men. Int J Sports Med 2000;21:71-5. View abstract.
- Mihic S, MacDonald JR, McKenzie S, Tarnopolsky MA. Acute creatine loading increases fat-free mass, but does not affect blood pressure, plasma creatinine, or CK activity in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:291-6. View abstract.
- Matthews RT, Ferrante RJ, Klivenyi P, et al. Creatine and cyclocreatine attenuate MPTP neurotoxicity. Exp Neurol 1999;157:142-9. View abstract.
- Matthews RT, Yang L, Jenkins BG, et al. Neuroprotective effects of creatine and cyclocreatine in animal models of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci 1998;18:156-63. View abstract.
- Klivenyi P, Ferrante RJ, Matthews RT, et al. Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nat Med 1999;5:347-50. View abstract.
- Tarnopolsky MA, Roy BD, MacDonald JR. A randomized, controlled trial of creatine monohydrate in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies. Muscle Nerve 1997;20:1502-9. View abstract.
- Gordon A, Hultman E, Kaijser L, et al. Creatine supplementation in chronic heart failure increases skeletal muscle creatine phosphate and muscle performance. Cardiovasc Res 1995;30:413-8. View abstract.
- Andrews R, Greenhaff P, Curtis S, et al. The effect of dietary creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle metabolism in congestive heart failure. Eur Heart J 1998;19:617-22. View abstract.
- Pepping J. Creatine. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56:1608-10. View abstract.
- Graham AS, Hatton RC. Creatine: a review of efficacy and safety. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash) 1999;39:803-10. View abstract.
- Juhn MS, Tarnopolsky M. Potential side effects of oral creatine supplementation: a critical review. Clin J Sport Med 1998;8:298-304. View abstract.
- Poortmans JR, Francaux M. Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1108-10. View abstract.
- Poortmans JR, Auquier H, Renaut V, et al. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on renal responses in men (abstract). Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1997;76:566-7. View abstract.
- Pritchard NR, Kalra PA. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. Lancet 1998;351:1252-3. View abstract.
- Vandeberghe K, Gillis N, Van Leemputte M, et al. Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading. J Appl Physiol 1996;80:452-7. View abstract.
- Mujika I, Chatard J, Lacoste L, et al. Creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in competitive swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:1435-41. View abstract.
- Burke LM, Pyne DB, Telford RD. Oral creatine supplementation does not improve sprint performance in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995;27:S146.
- Hultman E, Soderlund K, Timmons JA, et al. Muscle creatine loading in men. J Appl Physiol 1996;81:232-7. View abstract.
- Balsom PD, Soderland K, Ekblom B. Creatine in humans with special reference to creatine supplementation. Sports Med 1994;18:268-80. View abstract.
- Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, et al. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training (abstract). J Appl Physiol 1997;83:2055-63. View abstract.
- Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. (abstract) Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:73-82. View abstract.
- Manabe S, Kurihara N, Wada O, et al. Formation of PhIP in a mixture of creatinine, phenylalanine and sugar or aldehyde by aqueous heating. Carcinogenesis 1992;13:827-830. View abstract.
- Laser Reutersward A, Skog K, Jagerstad M. Mutagenicity of pan-fried bovine tissues in relation to their content of creatine, creatinine, monosaccharides and free amino acids. Food Chem Toxicol 1987;25:755-62. View abstract.
- Lillie JW, O'Keefe M, Valinski H, et al. Cyclocreatine (1-carboxymethyl-2-iminoimidazolidine) inhibits growth of a broad spectrum of cancer cells derived from solid tumors. Cancer Res 1993;53:3172-8. View abstract.
- Bergnes G, Yuan W, Khandekar VS, et al. Creatine and phosphocreatine analogs: anticancer activity and enzymatic analysis. Oncol Res 1996;8:121-30. View abstract.
- Miller EE, Evans AE, Cohn M. Inhibition of rate of tumor growth by creatine and cyclocreatine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993;90:3304-8. View abstract.
- Martin KJ, Chen SF, Clark GM, et al. Evaluation of creatine analogues as a new class of anticancer agents using freshly explanted human tumor cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:608-13. View abstract.
- Ferraro S, Codella C, Palumbo F, et al. Hemodynamic effects of creatine phosphate in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind comparison trial versus placebo. Clin Cardiol 1996;19:699-703. View abstract.
- Greenhaff P. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. Lancet 1998;352:233-4. View abstract.
- Schilling BK, Stone MH, Utter A, et al. Creatine supplementation and health variables: a retrospective study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:183-8. View abstract.
- Vahedi K, Domingo V, Amarenco P, Bousser MG. Ischemic stroke in a sportsman who consumed MaHuang extract and creatine monohydrate for bodybuilding. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 2000;68:112-3. View abstract.
- Koshy KM, Griswold E, Schneeberger EE. Interstitial nephritis in a patient taking creatine. N Engl J Med 1999;340:814-5. View abstract.
- Vorgerd M, Grehl T, Jager M, et al. Creatine therapy in myophosphorylase deficiency (McArdle disease): a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Arch Neurol 2000;57:956-63. View abstract.
- Show more references
- Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 10/23/2014
This copyrighted, evidence-based medicine resource is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database disclaims any responsibility related to consequences of using any product. This monograph should not replace advice from a healthcare professional and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
Copyright © 1995 - 2014 Therapeutic Research Faculty
, publishers of Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
, Prescriber’s Letter
, Pharmacist’s Letter
. All rights reserved. For scientific data on natural medicines, professionals may consult the Professional Version of Natural Medicines Comprehensive DatabaseNatural Medicines Comprehensive Database (http://www.naturaldatabase.com/)