Skip navigation

Licorice


What is it?

Licorice is a plant. You are probably most familiar with it as a flavoring in foods, beverages, and tobacco. The root is used to make medicine.

Licorice is used for various digestive system complaints including stomach ulcers, heartburn, colic, and ongoing inflammation of the lining of the stomach (chronic gastritis).

Some people use licorice for sore throat, bronchitis, cough, and infections caused by bacteria or viruses.

Licorice is also used for osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), liver disorders, malaria, tuberculosis, food poisoning, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).

Licorice is sometimes used along with the herbs Panax ginseng and Bupleurum falcatum to improve the function of the adrenal glands, especially in people who have taken steroid drugs long-term. Steroids tend to suppress the activity of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands produce important hormones that regulate the body’s response to stress.

Licorice is also used in an herbal form called Shakuyaku-kanzo-to to increase fertility in women with a hormonal disorder called polycystic ovary syndrome. In combination with other herbs, licorice is also used to treat prostate cancer and the skin disorder known as eczema.

Some people use licorice as a shampoo to reduce oiliness in their hair.

Many “licorice” products manufactured in the U.S. actually don't contain any licorice. Instead, they contain anise oil, which has the characteristic smell and taste of “black licorice.”

Licorice interacts with many prescription medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider if you plan to start using licorice.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for LICORICE are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Itchy and inflamed skin (eczema). There is some evidence that applying licorice to the skin can improve symptoms of eczema. Applying a gel containing licorice three times daily for 2 weeks seems to reduce redness, swelling, and itching.
  • Heartburn (dyspepsia). Research suggests that taking a specific product containing licorice plus peppermint leaf, German chamomile, caraway, lemon balm, clown’s mustard plant, celandine, angelica, and milk thistle (Iberogast, Medical Futures, Inc) three times daily for 4 weeks can improve symptoms of heartburn.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Bleeding. Early research suggests that applying a specific product containing alpinia, licorice, thyme, stinging nettle, and common grape vine to the skin reduces bleeding during surgery, but does not reduce time in surgery. Another early study suggests that applying the same product after dental surgery reduces bleeding.
  • Canker sores. Research suggests that applying a patch containing licorice to the inside of the mouth for 16 hours daily for 8 days reduces the size of canker sores but does not speed up healing time. Other research suggests that applying licorice patches and gargling with warm water containing licorice reduces pain in patients with canker sores.
  • Dental plaque. Early research suggests that using a toothpaste containing licorice twice dally does not reduce plaque, gingivitis, or bleeding when compared to toothpaste without licorice. Using mouthwash containing glycyrrhizin also does not seem to reduce plaque.
  • Recurrent fevers (Familial Mediterranean fever). Early research suggests that taking a specific product containing andrographis, Siberian ginseng, schisandra, and licorice (ImmunoGuard, Inspired Nutritionals) reduces the duration, frequency, and severity of attacks of familial Mediterranean fever in children.
  • Hepatitis. There is some evidence that certain components in licorice might be effective in treating hepatitis B and hepatitis C when given intravenously (by IV). However, the studies involved too few patients to draw firm conclusions.
  • High cholesterol. Early research suggests that taking licorice root extract daily for 1 month reduces total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in people with high cholesterol.
  • High potassium levels. Some research suggests that certain components in licorice decrease potassium levels in people with diabetes or kidney problems.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early research suggests that a product containing slippery elm bark, lactulose, oat bran, and licorice root can improve bowel movements in people with constipation-related to IBS. Stomach pain and bloating might also be reduced.
  • Skin discoloration (melasma). Early research suggests that applying a cream containing licorice, emblica, and belides (Clariderm Clear) twice daily for 60 days is effective for lightening skin in people with skin discolorations.
  • Muscle cramps. Early research suggests that taking a specific product containing licorice and peony (Shakuyaku-kanzo-to) might reduce muscle cramps in people with liver disease (hepatic cirrhosis) or in people undergoing treatment for kidney failure (hemodialysis).
  • Abnormal levels of a hormone in the blood (neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia). Early evidence suggests that taking 45 grams of a specific product containing peony and licorice (Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction, PGD) daily for 4 weeks reduces levels of a hormone called prolactin in women with high levels of prolactin, without affecting other hormone levels or mental symptoms. Other early research suggests that a product containing licorice and peony (shakutaku-kanzo-to) reduces prolactin levels in men in the short-term, but not in the long-term.
  • Liver disease (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). Early research suggests that taking 2 grams of licorice root extract daily for 2 months reduces test markers of liver injury in patients with liver disease not caused by drinking alcohol.
  • Mouth sores (aral lichen planus). Early evidence suggests that administering a certain licorice component intravenously (by IV) improves symptoms of mouth sores in people with hepatitis C.
  • Pain. Early research suggests that taking a combination of licorice root and peony root with Taiwanese tonic vegetable soup containing lily bulb, lotus seed, and jujube fruit reduces pain in cancer patients.
  • Stomach ulcers. There is some evidence that specially prepared licorice will speed up the healing of stomach ulcers. However, other evidence suggests that similar licorice preparations do not improve stomach ulcer symptoms.
  • Recovery after surgery. There is early evidence that gargling with a solution containing licorice for 30 seconds five minutes before receiving anesthesia and having a tube placed into the windpipe decreases cough and sore throat after surgery.
  • Psoriasis. Early evidence suggests that applying a cream containing licorice and milk to the skin for 4 weeks does not reduce the amount of standard therapy needed, but does seem to improve skin peeling in patients with psoriasis.
  • Weight loss. There is conflicting information about the use of licorice for weight loss. Licorice seems to reduce body fat. However, it causes water retention that can offset any change in body weight.
  • Arthritis.
  • Lupus.
  • Infections.
  • Infertility.
  • Cough.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Prostate cancer.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of licorice for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
The chemicals contained in licorice are thought to decrease swelling, thin mucus secretions, decrease cough, and increase the chemicals in our body that heal ulcers.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
Licorice is LIKELY SAFE for most people when consumed in amounts found in foods. Licorice is POSSIBLY SAFE when consumed in larger amounts for medicinal purposes and when applied to the skin for a short amount of time. However, it is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in large amounts for more than 4 weeks. Consuming licorice daily for several weeks or longer can cause severe side effects including high blood pressure, low potassium levels, weakness, paralysis, and occasionally brain damage in otherwise healthy people. In people who eat a lot of salt or have heart disease, kidney disease, or high blood pressure, as little as 5 grams per day can cause these problems.

Other side effects of licorice use include tiredness, absence of a menstrual period in women, headache, water and sodium retention, and decreased sexual interest and function in men.

People who chew tobacco flavored with licorice might develop high blood pressure and other serious side effects.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It is UNSAFE to take licorice by mouth if you are pregnant. High consumption of licorice during pregnancy, about 250 grams of licorice per week, seems to increase the risk of early delivery. It might cause a miscarriage or early delivery. Not enough is known about the safety of licorice during breast-feeding. Don’t use licorice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

High blood pressure: Licorice can raise blood pressure. Don’t consume large amounts of it if you have high blood pressure.

Heart disease: Licorice can cause the body to store water, and this can make congestive heart failure worse. Licorice can also increase the risk of irregular heartbeat. Don’t consume licorice if you have heart disease.

Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Licorice might act like estrogen in the body. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don’t use licorice.

A muscle condition caused by nerve problems (hypertonia): Licorice can cause the level of potassium to drop in the blood. This can make hypertonia worse. Avoid licorice if you have hypertonia.

Low potassium levels in the blood (hypokalemia): Licorice can lower potassium in the blood. If your potassium is already low, licorice might make it too low. Don’t use licorice if you have this condition.

Sexual problems in men: Licorice can lower a man’s interest in sex and also worsen erectile dysfunction (ED) by lowering levels of a hormone called testosterone.

Kidney disease: Overuse of licorice could make kidney disease worse. Don’t use it.

Surgery: Licorice might interfere with blood pressure control during and after surgery. Stop taking licorice at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top

Major

Do not take this combination.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. The body breaks down warfarin (Coumadin) to get rid of it. Licorice might increase the breakdown and decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Decreasing the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the risk of clotting. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.

Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Cisplatin (Platinol-AQ)
Cisplatin (Platinol-AQ) is used to treat cancer. There is some concern that licorice might decrease how well cisplatin (Platinol-AQ) works for cancer.

Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Large amounts of licorice can decrease potassium levels in the body. Low potassium levels can increase the side effects of digoxin (Lanoxin).

Estrogens
Licorice seems to change hormone levels in the body. Taking licorice along with estrogen pills might decrease the effects of estrogen pills.

Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin)
Licorice can cause the body to get rid of potassium. Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) can also cause the body to get rid of potassium. Taking licorice and ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) together might cause potassium to become too low.

Furosemide (Lasix)
Licorice can cause the body to get rid of potassium. Furosemide (Lasix) can also cause the body to get rid of potassium. Taking licorice and furosemide together might cause the potassium levels in your body to go too low.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Licorice might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking licorice along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking licorice, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of these medications changed by the liver include ketamine (Ketalar), phenobarbital, orphenadrine (Norflex), secobarbital (Seconal), dexamethasone (Decadron), and others.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Licorice might change how the liver breaks down some medications. Taking licorice along with medications that are broken down by the liver might increase or decrease the effects of these medications. Before taking licorice, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), and warfarin (Coumadin).

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Licorice might change how the liver breaks down some medications. Taking licorice along with medications that are broken down by the liver might increase or decrease the effects of some medications. Before taking licorice, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
Large amounts of licorice seem to increase blood pressure. By increasing blood pressure, licorice might decrease the effectiveness of medications for high blood pressure.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.

Medications for inflammation (Corticosteroids)
Some medications for inflammation can decrease potassium in the body. Licorice might also decrease potassium in the body. Taking licorice along with some medications for inflammation might decrease potassium in the body too much.

Some medications for inflammation include dexamethasone (Decadron), hydrocortisone (Cortef), methylprednisolone (Medrol), prednisone (Deltasone), and others.

Midazolam (Versed, others)
Midazolam (Versed) is changed and broken down by the body. Licorice might increase how quickly this medication is broken down by the body. Licorice should be used cautiously if you are taking midazolam (Versed).

Water pills (Diuretic drugs)
Large amounts of licorice can decrease potassium levels in the body. "Water pills" can also decrease potassium in the body. Taking licorice along with "water pills" might decrease potassium in the body too much.

Some "water pills" that can deplete potassium include chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Thalitone), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HydroDIURIL, Microzide), and others.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Herbs that affect the heart
Using too much licorice can decrease potassium in the body. This can damage the heart. Using licorice with herbs that can damage the heart might make this effect worse. Herbs that might damage the heart include digitalis, lily-of-the-valley, pheasant's eye, and squill.

Stimulant laxative herbs
Using too much licorice can decrease potassium in the body. Herbs that have a stimulant laxative effect can also lower potassium in the body. Using licorice along with these herbs can increase the risk of lowering potassium levels too much. Stimulant laxative herbs include aloe vera, alder buckthorn, European buckthorn, cascara sagrada, castor oil, rhubarb, and senna.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
Grapefruit juice
Drinking grapefruit juice when taking licorice might increase licorice's ability to cause potassium depletion.

Salt
Licorice use can increase sodium and water retention and increase blood pressure. Also, eating a lot of salt can make the side effects of licorice even worse.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:
  • For upset stomach: A specific combination product containing licorice (Iberogast, Medical Futures, Inc) and several other herbs has been used in a dose of 1 mL three times daily.

Other names

Return to top
Acide Glycyrrhizique, Acide Glycyrrhizinique, Alcacuz, Alcazuz, Bois Doux, Bois Sucré, Can Cao, Chinese Licorice, Deglycyrrhized Licorice, Gan Cao, Gan Zao, Glabra, Glycyrrhiza, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza glabra typica, Glycyrrhiza glabra violacea, Glycyrrhiza glabra glandulifera, Glycyrrhiza Radix, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Glycyrrhizae, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Glycyrrhizinic Acid, Isoflavone, Jethi-Madh, Kanzo, Lakritze, Licorice Root, Liquiritiae Radix, Liquirizia, Mulathi, Mulethi, Orozuz, Phytoestrogen, Phyto-œstrogène, Racine de Réglisse, Racine Douce, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Régalissse, Regaliz, Reglisse, Réglisse, Réglisse Déglycyrrhisée, Réglisse Espagnole, Réglisse Russe, Regliz, Russian Licorice, Spanish Licorice, Subholz, Sussholz, Sweet Root, Yashtimadhu, Yashti-Madhu, Yashti-Madhuka, Zhi Gan Cao.

Methodology

Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

Return to top
To see all references for the Licorice page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/881.html.

  1. Ito A, Hayashi N, Katayama K, and et al. Effect of glycyrrhizin on viral replication and quasispecies in patients with type C chronic hepatitis. Int Hepatol Comm 1997;233-238.
  2. Suzuki H, Ohta Y, Takino T, and et al. Effects of glycyrrhizin on biochemical tests in patients with chronic hepatitis -- double blind trial. Asian Medical Journal 1984;26:423-438.
  3. Yamada, K., Kanba, S., Yagi, G., and Asai, M. Effectiveness of herbal medicine (shakuyaku-kanzo-to) for neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1997;17:234-235. View abstract.
  4. Bannister, B., Ginsburg, R., and Shneerson, J. Cardiac arrest due to liquoriceinduced hypokalaemia. Br Med J 9-17-1977;2:738-739. View abstract.
  5. Arase, Y., Ikeda, K., Murashima, N., Chayama, K., Tsubota, A., Koida, I., Suzuki, Y., Saitoh, S., Kobayashi, M., and Kumada, H. The long term efficacy of glycyrrhizin in chronic hepatitis C patients. Cancer 1997;79:1494-1500. View abstract.
  6. Da Nagao, Y., Sata, M., Suzuki, H., Tanikawa, K., Itoh, K., and Kameyama, T. Effectiveness of glycyrrhizin for oral lichen planus in patients with chronic HCV infection. J Gastroenterol 1996;31:691-695. View abstract.
  7. van der Zwan A. Hypertension encephalopathy after liquorice ingestion. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1993;95:35-37. View abstract.
  8. Murakami, T. and Uchikawa, T. Effect of glycyrrhizine on hyperkalemia due to hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism in diabetes mellitus. Life Sci 1993;53:PL63-8. View abstract.
  9. Luchon, L., Meyrier, A., and Paillard, F. [Hypokalemia without arterial hypertension by licorice poisoning]. Nephrologie 1993;14:177-181. View abstract.
  10. Berlango Jimenez A., Jimenez Murillo L., Montero Perez F. J., Munoz Avila J. A., Torres Murillo J., and Calderon de la Barca Gazquez J. M. [Acute rhabdomyolysis and tetraparesis secondary to hypokalemia due to ingested licorice]. An Med Interna 1995;12:33-35. View abstract.
  1. Cumming, A. M., Boddy, K., Brown, J. J., Fraser, R., Lever, A. F., Padfield, P. L., and Robertson, J. I. Severe hypokalaemia with paralysis induced by small doses of liquorice. Postgrad Med J 1980;56:526-529. View abstract.
  2. Gibertoni, M., Bonito, V., Colombo, A., Falasca, A., and Nichelli, P. [Licorice-induced myopathy. Report of a new case]. Riv Patol Nerv Ment 1983;104:179-183. View abstract.
  3. Corse, F. M., Galgani, S., Gasparini, C., Giacanelli, M., and Piazza, G. Acute hypokalemic myopathy due to chronic licorice ingestion: report of a case. Ital J Neurol Sci 1983;4:493-497. View abstract.
  4. Koster, M. and David, G. K. Reversible severe hypertension due to licorice ingestion. N Engl J Med 1968;278:1381-1383. View abstract.
  5. Anonymous. Treatment of duodenal ulcer with glycyrrhizinic-acid-reduced liquorice. A multicentre trial. Br Med J 1971;3:501-503. View abstract.
  6. Engqvist, A., von Feilitzen, F., Pyk, E., and Reichard, H. Double-blind trial of deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in gastric ulcer. Gut 1973;14:711-715. View abstract.
  7. Wilson, J. A. A comparison of carbenoxolone sodium and deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in the treatment of gastric ulcer in the ambulant patient. Br J Clin Pract 1972;26:563-566. View abstract.
  8. Beretta-Piccoli, C., Salvade, G., Crivelli, P. L., and Weidmann, P. Body-sodium and blood volume in a patient with licorice-induced hypertension. J Hypertens 1985;3:19-23. View abstract.
  9. Balakrishnan, V., Pillai, M. V., Raveendran, P. M., and Nair, C. S. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in the treatment of chronic duodenal ulcer. J Assoc Physicians India 1978;26:811-814. View abstract.
  10. Bardhan, K. D., Cumberland, D. C., Dixon, R. A., and Holdsworth, C. D. Clinical trial of deglycyrrhizinised liquorice in gastric ulcer. Gut 1978;19:779-782. View abstract.
  11. Das SK, Das V, Gulati AK, and et al. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in aphthous ulcers. J Assoc Physicians India 1989;37:647. View abstract.
  12. Steinberg, D., Sgan-Cohen, H. D., Stabholz, A., Pizanty, S., Segal, R., and Sela, M. N. The anticariogenic activity of glycyrrhizin: preliminary clinical trials. Isr J Dent Sci 1989;2:153-157. View abstract.
  13. Korri, H., Awada, A., Baajour, W., Beaini, M., and Nasreddine, W. [Rapidly progressing quadriparesis secondary to licorice (souss) intoxication]. J Med Liban 2012;60:117-119. View abstract.
  14. Ruiz-Granados, E. S., Shouls, G., Sainsbury, C., and Antonios, T. A salty cause of severe hypertension. BMJ Case Rep 2012;2012. View abstract.
  15. Celik, M. M., Karakus, A., Zeren, C., Demir, M., Bayarogullari, H., Duru, M., and Al, M. Licorice induced hypokalemia, edema, and thrombocytopenia. Hum Exp Toxicol 2012;31:1295-1298. View abstract.
  16. Hajiaghamohammadi, A. A., Ziaee, A., and Samimi, R. The efficacy of licorice root extract in decreasing transaminase activities in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 2012;26:1381-1384. View abstract.
  17. MacKenzie, M. A., Hoefnagels, W. H., Jansen, R. W., Benraad, T. J., and Kloppenborg, P. W. The influence of glycyrrhetinic acid on plasma cortisol and cortisone in healthy young volunteers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;70:1637-1643. View abstract.
  18. Lorenzin, F., Degen, C., Milani, A., Siciliano, M., and Rossi, L. [Pseudo-hyperaldosteronism caused by licorice. Pathogenetic considerations and presentation of a clinical case]. Clin Ter 1990;132:55-58. View abstract.
  19. van Beers, E. J., Stam, J., and van den Bergh, W. M. Licorice consumption as a cause of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a case report. Crit Care 2011;15:R64. View abstract.
  20. Costa, A., Moises, T. A., Cordero, T., Alves, C. R., and Marmirori, J. Association of emblica, licorice and belides as an alternative to hydroquinone in the clinical treatment of melasma. An Bras Dermatol 2010;85:613-620. View abstract.
  21. Cassano, N., Mantegazza, R., Battaglini, S., Apruzzi, D., Loconsole, F., and Vena, G. A. Adjuvant role of a new emollient cream in patients with palmar and/or plantar psoriasis: a pilot randomized open-label study. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2010;145:789-792. View abstract.
  22. Imtiaz, K. E. Sweet root, bitter pill: liquorice-induced hyperaldosteronism. QJM 2011;104:1093-1095. View abstract.
  23. Chatterjee, N., Domoto-Reilly, K., Fecci, P. E., Schwamm, L. H., and Singhal, A. B. Licorice-associated reversible cerebral vasoconstriction with PRES. Neurology 2010;75:1939-1941. View abstract.
  24. Scali, M., Pratesi, C., Zennaro, M. C., Zampollo, V., and Armanini, D. Pseudohyperaldosteronism from liquorice-containing laxatives. J Endocrinol Invest 1990;13:847-848. View abstract.
  25. Yorgun, H., Aksoy, H., Sendur, M. A., Ates, A. H., Kaya, E. B., Aytemir, K., and Oto, A. Brugada syndrome with aborted sudden cardiac death related to liquorice-induced hypokalemia. Med Princ Pract 2010;19:485-489. View abstract.
  26. Goultschin, J., Palmon, S., Shapira, L., Brayer, L., and Gedalia, I. Effect of glycyrrhizin-containing toothpaste on dental plaque reduction and gingival health in humans. A pilot study. J Clin Periodontol 1991;18:210-212. View abstract.
  27. Caubet-Kamar, N., Tubery, M., Garrouste, C., Lauque, D., and Kamar, N. Harmful effect of saline infusion in a patient with glycyrrhizic acid poisoning. CJEM 2010;12:224-225. View abstract.
  28. Tu, J. H., He, Y. J., Chen, Y., Fan, L., Zhang, W., Tan, Z. R., Huang, Y. F., Guo, D., Hu, D. L., Wang, D., and Hong-Hao Zhou. Effect of glycyrrhizin on the activity of CYP3A enzyme in humans. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010;66:805-810. View abstract.
  29. Yamamoto, T., Hatanaka, M., Matsuda, J., Kadoya, H., Takahashi, A., Namba, T., Takeji, M., and Yamauchi, A. [Clinical characteristics of five elderly patients with severe hypokalemia induced by glycyrrhizin derivatives]. Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 2010;52:80-85. View abstract.
  30. Crean, A. M., Abdel-Rahman, S. E., and Greenwood, J. P. A sweet tooth as the root cause of cardiac arrest. Can J Cardiol 2009;25:e357-e358. View abstract.
  31. Agarwal, A., Gupta, D., Yadav, G., Goyal, P., Singh, P. K., and Singh, U. An evaluation of the efficacy of licorice gargle for attenuating postoperative sore throat: a prospective, randomized, single-blind study. Anesth Analg 2009;109:77-81. View abstract.
  32. Kinoshita, H., Okabayashi, M., Kaneko, M., Yasuda, M., Abe, K., Machida, A., Ohkubo, T., Kamata, T., and Yakushiji, F. Shakuyaku-kanzo-to induces pseudoaldosteronism characterized by hypokalemia, rhabdomyolysis, metabolic alkalosis with respiratory compensation, and increased urinary cortisol levels. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:439-443. View abstract.
  33. Bocker, D. and Breithardt, G. [Induction of arrhythmia by licorice abuse]. Z Kardiol 1991;80:389-391. View abstract.
  34. Johns, C. Glycyrrhizic acid toxicity caused by consumption of licorice candy cigars. CJEM 2009;11:94-96. View abstract.
  35. Brasseur, A. and Ducobu, J. [Severe hypokalemia after holidays return]. Rev Med Brux 2008;29:490-493. View abstract.
  36. Moghadamnia, A. A., Motallebnejad, M., and Khanian, M. The efficacy of the bioadhesive patches containing licorice extract in the management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Phytother Res 2009;23:246-250. View abstract.
  37. Yuan, H. N., Wang, C. Y., Sze, C. W., Tong, Y., Tan, Q. R., Feng, X. J., Liu, R. M., Zhang, J. Z., Zhang, Y. B., and Zhang, Z. J. A randomized, crossover comparison of herbal medicine and bromocriptine against risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2008;28:264-370. View abstract.
  38. Tancevski, I., Eller, P., Spiegel, M., Kirchmair, R., and Patsch, J. R. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Malicious licorice. Circulation 2008;117:e299. View abstract.
  39. Wu, T. H., Chiu, T. Y., Tsai, J. S., Chen, C. Y., Chen, L. C., and Yang, L. L. Effectiveness of Taiwanese traditional herbal diet for pain management in terminal cancer patients. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2008;17:17-22. View abstract.
  40. Martin, M. D., Sherman, J., van der Ven, V., and Burgess, J. A controlled trial of a dissolving oral patch concerning glycyrrhiza (licorice) herbal extract for the treatment of aphthous ulcers. Gen Dent 2008;56:206-210. View abstract.
  41. Lee, C. K., Park, K. K., Lim, S. S., Park, J. H., and Chung, W. Y. Effects of the licorice extract against tumor growth and cisplatin-induced toxicity in a mouse xenograft model of colon cancer. Biol Pharm Bull 2007;30:2191-2195. View abstract.
  42. Chen, M. F., Shimada, F., Kato, H., Yano, S., and Kanaoka, M. Effect of oral administration of glycyrrhizin on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone. Endocrinol Jpn 1991;38:167-174. View abstract.
  43. Mumoli, N. and Cei, M. Licorice-induced hypokalemia. Int J Cardiol 2008;124:e42-e44. View abstract.
  44. Armanini, D., Nacamulli, D., Francini-Pesenti, F., Battagin, G., Ragazzi, E., and Fiore, C. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application. Steroids 2005;70:538-542. View abstract.
  45. Shintani, S., Murase, H., Tsukagoshi, H., and Shiigai, T. Glycyrrhizin (licorice)-induced hypokalemic myopathy. Report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Eur Neurol 1992;32:44-51. View abstract.
  46. Armanini, D., Mattarello, M. J., Fiore, C., Bonanni, G., Scaroni, C., Sartorato, P., and Palermo, M. Licorice reduces serum testosterone in healthy women. Steroids 2004;69(11-12):763-766. View abstract.
  47. Saeedi, M., Morteza-Semnani, K., and Ghoreishi, M. R. The treatment of atopic dermatitis with licorice gel. J Dermatolog Treat 2003;14:153-157. View abstract.
  48. Caradonna, P., Gentiloni, N., Servidei, S., Perrone, G. A., Greco, A. V., and Russo, M. A. Acute myopathy associated with chronic licorice ingestion: reversible loss of myoadenylate deaminase activity. Ultrastruct Pathol 1992;16:529-535. View abstract.
  49. Sigurjonsdottir, H. A., Manhem, K., Axelson, M., and Wallerstedt, S. Subjects with essential hypertension are more sensitive to the inhibition of 11 beta-HSD by liquorice. J Hum Hypertens 2003;17:125-131. View abstract.
  50. Fuhrman, B., Volkova, N., Kaplan, M., Presser, D., Attias, J., Hayek, T., and Aviram, M. Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: increased resistance of LDL to atherogenic modifications, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased systolic blood pressure. Nutrition 2002;18:268-273. View abstract.
  51. Serra, A., Uehlinger, D. E., Ferrari, P., Dick, B., Frey, B. M., Frey, F. J., and Vogt, B. Glycyrrhetinic Acid decreases plasma potassium concentrations in patients with anuria. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002;13:191-196. View abstract.
  52. van Rossum, T. G., Vulto, A. G., Hop, W. C., and Schalm, S. W. Glycyrrhizin-induced reduction of ALT in European patients with chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:2432-2437. View abstract.
  53. van Rossum, T. G., Vulto, A. G., Hop, W. C., Brouwer, J. T., Niesters, H. G., and Schalm, S. W. Intravenous glycyrrhizin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I/II trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999;14:1093-1099. View abstract.
  54. Fugh-Berman, A. Herb-drug interactions. Lancet 2000;355:134-138. View abstract.
  55. Hawrelak, J. A. and Myers, S. P. Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16:1065-1071. View abstract.
  56. Cataldo, F., Di Stefano, P., Violante, M., Traverso, G., and Mule, M. [Pseudohyperaldosteronism secondary to licorice poisoning associated with hemorrhagic gastritis]. Pediatr Med Chir 1997;19:219-221. View abstract.
  57. Eyi, E. G., Engin-Ustun, Y., Kaba, M., and Mollamahmutoglu, L. Ankaferd blood stopper in episiotomy repair. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 2013;40:141-143. View abstract.
  58. Baykul, T., Alanoglu, E. G., and Kocer, G. Use of Ankaferd Blood Stopper as a hemostatic agent: a clinical experience. J Contemp Dent Pract 2010;11:E088-E094. View abstract.
  59. Kraus SD, Kaminskis A. The anti-estrogenic action of beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. Exp Med Surg 1969;27:411-20. View abstract.
  60. Hukkanen J, Ukkola O, Savolainen MJ. Effects of low-dose liquorice alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide on the plasma potassium in healthy volunteers. Blood Press 2009;18:192-5. View abstract.
  61. Heidemann HT, Kreuzfelder E. Hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria due to licorice ingestion and diuretic treatment. Klin Wochenschr 1983;61:303-5. View abstract.
  62. Teelucksingh S, Mackie AD, Burt D, McIntyre MA, Brett L, Edwards CR. Potentiation of hydrocortisone activity in skin by glycyrrhetinic acid. Lancet 1990;335:1060-3. View abstract.
  63. Chen MF, Shimada F, Kato H, Yano S, Kanaoka M. Effect of glycyrrhizin on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone following low dosage of prednisolone hemisuccinate. Endocrinol Jpn 1990;37:331-41. View abstract.
  64. Madisch A, Melderis H, Mayr G, et al. [A plant extract and its modified preparation in functional dyspepsia. Results of a double-blind placebo controlled comparative study]. Z Gastroenterol 2001;39:511-7. View abstract.
  65. Bell ZW, Canale RE, Bloomer RJ. A dual investigation of the effect of dietary supplementation with licorice flavonoid oil on anthropometric and biochemical markers or health and adiposity. Lipids Health Dis 2011;10:29. View abstract.
  66. Lapi F, Gallo E, Bernasconi S, et al. Myopathies associated with red yeast rice and liquorice: spontaneous reports from the Italian Surveillance System of Natural Health Products. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008;66:572-4. View abstract.
  67. Francini-Pesenti F, Puato M, Piccoli A, Brocadello F. Liquorice-induced hypokalaemia and water retention in the absence of hypertension. Phytother Res 2008;22:563-5. View abstract.
  68. Sontia B, Mooney J, Gaudet L, Touyz RM. Pseudohyperaldosteronism, liquorice, and hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2008;10:153-7. View abstract.
  69. Stormer FC, Reistad R, Alexander J. Glycyrrhizic acid in liquorice - evaluation of health hazard. Food Chem Toxicol 1993;31:303-12. View abstract.
  70. Russo S, Mastropasqua M, Mosetti MA, et al. Low doses of liquorice can induce hypertension encephalopathy. Am J Nephrol 2000;20:145-8. View abstract.
  71. van Uum SH. Liquorice and hypertension. Neth J Med 2005;63:119-20. View abstract.
  72. van den Bosch AE, van der Klooster JM, Zuidgeest DM, et al. Severe hypokalemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis due to ingestion of liquorice. Neth J Med 2005;63:146-8. View abstract.
  73. Lin SH, Yang SS, Chau T, Halperin ML. An unusual cause of hypokalemic paralysis: chronic licorice ingestion. Am J Med Sci 2003;325:153-6. View abstract.
  74. Janse A, van Iersel M, Hoefnagels WH, Olde Rikker MG. The old lady who liked liquorice: hypertension due to chronic intoxication in a memory-impaired patient. Neth J Med 2005;63:149-50. View abstract.
  75. Eriksson JW, Carlberg B, Hillom V. Life-threatening ventricular tachycardia due to liquorice-induced hypokalemia. J Intern Med 1999;245:307-10. View abstract.
  76. Elinav E, Chajek-Shaul T. Licorice consumption causing severe hypokalemic paralysis. Mayo Clin Proc 2003;78:767-8. View abstract.
  77. Dellow EL, Unwin RJ, Honour JW. Pontefract cakes can be bad for you: refractory hypertension and liquorice excess. Nephol Dial Transplant 1999;14:218-20. View abstract.
  78. de Klerk GJ, Nieuwenhuis G, Beutler JJ. Hypokalaemia and hypertension associated with use of liquorice flavoured chewing gum. BMJ 1997;314:731-2. View abstract.
  79. Brayley J, Jones J. Life-threatening hypokalemia associated with excessive licorice ingestion (letter). Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:617-8. View abstract.
  80. Yasue H, Itoh T, Mizuno Y, Harada E. Severe hypokalemia, rhabdomyolysis, muscle paralysis, and respiratory impairment in a hypertensive patient taking herbal medicines containing licorice. Intern Med 2007;46:575-8. View abstract.
  81. Mu Y, Zhang J, Zhang S, et al. Traditional Chinese medicines Wu Wei Zi (Schisandra chinensis Baill) and Gan Cao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) activate pregnane X receptor and increase warfarin clearance in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006;316:1369-77. View abstract.
  82. Hinoshita F, Ogura Y, Suzuki Y, et al. Effect of orally administered shao-yao-gan-cao-tang (Shakuyaku-kanzo-to) on muscle cramps in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a preliminary study. Am J Chin Med 2003;31:445-53. . View abstract.
  83. Hyodo T, Taira T, Kumakura M, et al. The immediate effect of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to, traditional Japanese herbal medicine, for muscular cramps during maintenance hemodialysis. Nephron 2002;90:240. View abstract.
  84. Kumada T, et al. Effect of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to (Tsumura TJ-68) on muscle cramps accompanying cirrhosis in a placebo-controlled double-blind parallel study. J Clin Ther Med 1999;15:499-523.
  85. Melzer J, Rosch W, Reichling J, et al. Meta-analysis: phytotherapy of functional dyspepsia with the herbal drug preparation STW 5 (Iberogast). Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20:1279-87. View abstract.
  86. Armanini D, Bonanni G, Mattarello MJ, et al. Licorice consumption and serum testosterone in healthy man. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2003;111:341-3. View abstract.
  87. Westman EC, Guthrie GP. Licorice, tobacco chewing, and hypertension. N Engl J Med 1990;322:850.
  88. Madisch A, Holtmann G, Mayr G, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a herbal preparation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Digestion 2004;69:45-52. View abstract.
  89. Quinkler M, Stewart PM. Hypertension and the cortisol-cortisone shuttle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:2384-92. View abstract.
  90. Morris DJ, Davis E, Latif SA. Licorice, tobacco chewing, and hypertension. N Engl J Med 1990;322:849-50.
  91. Amaryan G, Astvatsatryan V, Gabrielyan E, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pilot clinical trial of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees, with Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, Schizandra chinensis Bail. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extracts in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever. Phytomedicine 2003;10:271-85. View abstract.
  92. Tewari SN, Wilson AK. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in duodenal ulcer. Practitioner 1973;210:820-3. View abstract.
  93. Turpie AG, Runcie J, Thomson TJ. Clinical trial of deglydyrrhizinized liquorice in gastric ulcer. Gut 1969;10:299-302. View abstract.
  94. van Marle J, Aarsen PN, Lind A, van Weeren-Kramer J. Deglycyrrhizinised liquorice (DGL) and the renewal of rat stomach epithelium. Eur J Pharmacol 1981;72:219-25.. View abstract.
  95. Hussain RM. The sweet cake that reaches parts other cakes can't! Postgrad Med J 2003;79:115-6.. View abstract.
  96. Strandberg TE, Andersson S, Jarvenpaa AL, et al. Preterm birth and licorice consumption during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156:803-5.. View abstract.
  97. Tamir S, Eizenberg M, Somjen D, et al. Estrogenic and antiproliferative properties of glabridin from licorice in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 2000;60:5704-9.. View abstract.
  98. Yoshida S, Takayama Y. Licorice-induced hypokalemia as a treatable cause of dropped head syndrome. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2003;105:286-7.. View abstract.
  99. Kent UM, Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Hollenberg PF. The licorice root derived isoflavan glabridin inhibits the activities of human cytochrome P450S 3A4, 2B6, and 2C9. Drug Metab Dispos 2002;30:709-15.. View abstract.
  100. Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, et al. Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet 2003;361:2045-6.. View abstract.
  101. Amato P, Christophe S, Mellon PL. Estrogenic activity of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symptoms. Menopause 2002;9:145-50. View abstract.
  102. Sigurjonsdottir HA, Franzson L, Manhem K, et al. Liquorice-induced rise in blood pressure: a linear dose-response relationship. J Hum Hypertens 2001;15:549-52. View abstract.
  103. Strandberg TE, Jarvenpaa AL, Vanhanen H, McKeigue PM. Birth outcome in relation to licorice consumption during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 2001;153:1085-8. View abstract.
  104. Holtmann G, Madisch A, Juergen H, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of an herbal preparation in patients with functional dyspepsia [Abstract]. Ann Mtg Digestive Disease Week 1999 May.
  105. Armanini D, De Palo CB, Mattarello MJ, et al. Effect of licorice on reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects. J Endocrinol Invest 2003;26:646-50. View abstract.
  106. Eagon PK, Elm MS, Hunter DS, et al. Medicinal herbs: modulation of estrogen action. Era of Hope Mtg, Dept Defense; Breast Cancer Res Prog, Atlanta, GA 2000;Jun 8-11.
  107. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid= 786bafc6f6343634fbf79fcdca7061e1&rgn=div5&view= text&node=21:3.0.1.1.13&idno=21
  108. Kase Y, Saitoh K, Ishige A, et al. Mechanisms by which Hange-shashin-to reduces prostaglandin E2 levels. Biol Pharm Bull 1998;21:1277-81. View abstract.
  109. Zhang YD, Lorenzo B, Reidenberg MM. Inhibition of 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase obtained from guinea pig kidney by furosemide, naringenin and some other compounds. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1994;49:81-5. View abstract.
  110. Lee YS, Lorenzo BJ, Koufis T, et al. Grapefruit juice and its flavonoids inhibit 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1996;59:62-71. View abstract.
  111. Armanini D, Lewicka S, Pratesi C, et al. Further studies on the mechanism of the mineralocorticoid action of licorice in humans. J Endocrinol Invest 1996;19:624-9. View abstract.
  112. Zhang XH, Lowe D, Giles P, et al. Gender may affect the action of garlic oil on plasma cholesterol and glucose levels of normal subjects. J Nutr 2001;131:1471-8. View abstract.
  113. Acharya SK, Dasarathy S, Tandon A, et al. A preliminary open trial on interferon stimulator (SNMC) derived from Glycyrrhiza glabra in the treatment of subacute hepatic failure. Indian J Med Res 1993;98:69-74. View abstract.
  114. Sato H, Goto W, Yamamura J, et al. Therapeutic basis of glycyrrhizin on chronic hepatitis B. Antiviral Res 1996;30:171-7. View abstract.
  115. Takahara T, Watanabe A, Shiraki K. Effects of glycyrrhizin on hepatitis B surface antigen: a biochemical and morphological study. J Hepatol 1994;21:601-9. View abstract.
  116. Abe Y, Ueda T, Kato T, Kohli Y. [Effectiveness of interferon, glycyrrhizin combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C]. Nippon Rinsho 1994;52:1817-22. View abstract.
  117. Armanini D, Bonanni G, Palermo M. Reduction of serum testosterone in men by licorice. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1158. View abstract.
  118. Sigurjonsdottir HA, Ragnarsson J, Franzson L, Sigurdsson G. Is blood pressure commonly raised by moderate consumption of liquorice? J Hum Hypertens 1995;9:345-8. View abstract.
  119. Farese RV Jr, Biglieri EG, Shackleton CH, et al. Licorice-induced hypermineralocorticoidism. N Engl J Med 1991;325:1223-7. View abstract.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 08/05/2014




Page last updated: 08 September 2014