What is it?
Pyridoxine is a vitamin. It can be found in certain foods such as cereals, beans, vegetables, liver, meat, and eggs. It can also be made in a laboratory.
Pyridoxine is used for preventing and treating low levels of pyridoxine (pyridoxine deficiency) and the “tired blood” (anemia) that may result. It is also used for heart disease; high cholesterol; reducing blood levels of homocysteine, a chemical that might be linked to heart disease; and helping clogged arteries stay open after a balloon procedure to unblock them (angioplasty).
Women use pyridoxine for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and other menstruation problems, "morning sickness" (nausea and vomiting) in early pregnancy, stopping milk flow after childbirth, depression related to pregnancy or using birth control pills, and symptoms of menopause.
Pyridoxine is also used for Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Down syndrome, autism, diabetes and related nerve pain, sickle cell anemia, migraine headaches, asthma, carpal tunnel syndrome, night leg cramps, muscle cramps, arthritis, allergies, acne and various other skin conditions, and infertility. It is also used for dizziness, motion sickness, preventing the eye disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD), seizures, convulsions due to fever, and movement disorders (tardive dyskinesia, hyperkinesis, chorea), as well as for increasing appetite and helping people remember dreams.
Some people use pyridoxine for boosting the immune system, eye infections, bladder infections, and preventing cancer and kidney stones.
Pyridoxine is also used to overcome certain harmful side effects related to radiation treatment and treatment with medications such as mitomycin, procarbazine, cycloserine, fluorouracil, hydrazine, isoniazid, penicillamine, and vincristine.
Pyridoxine is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products.
You may remember a prescription medication called Bendectin that was used for morning sickness in pregnancy. Bendectin contained pyridoxine and a sleep-inducing antihistamine called doxylamine. The makers of Bendectin took it off the market in 1983 because they were running up expensive legal bills in defense of their product. Opponents charged it might be responsible for birth defects. Meanwhile, a product called Diclectin that is similar to Bendectin remained available in Canada, and there was research showing that neither pyridoxine nor Bendectin seems to cause birth defects in animals. After Bendectin was removed from the market, there was no reduction in birth defects, but hospitalization rates for pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting doubled.
How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
The effectiveness ratings for PYRIDOXINE (VITAMIN B6) are as follows:
- Anemia (sideroblastic anemia). Taking pyridoxine by mouth is effective for treating an inherited type of anemia called sideroblastic anemia.
- Certain seizures in infants (pyridoxine-dependent seizures). Administering pyridoxine intravenously (by IV) controls seizures in infants that are caused by pyridoxine dependence.
- Pyridoxine deficiency. Taking pyridoxine by mouth is effective for preventing and treating pyridoxine deficiency.
Likely effective for...
- High homocysteine blood levels. Taking pyridoxine by mouth alone or together with folic acid is effective for treating high homocysteine levels in the blood.
Possibly effective for...
- Macular degeneration. Some research shows that taking pyridoxine with other vitamins including folic acid and vitamin B12 might help prevent the loss of vision caused by the eye disease called age-related macular degeneration.
- Behavior disorder in children caused by low serotonin levels (hyperkinetic cerebral dysfunction syndrome). Early research shows that taking pyridoxine by mouth might have a beneficial effect on children with a behavior disorder caused by low serotonin levels.
- High blood pressure. Early research suggests that taking pyridoxine can lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure
- Kidney stones. There is some evidence that taking pyridoxine alone or combined with magnesium can decrease the risk of kidney stones in people with a hereditary disorder that increases their risk of forming kidney stones (type I primary hyperoxaluria). However, it does not appear to help people with other kinds of kidney stones.
- Lung cancer. Taking pyridoxine by mouth seems to decrease the risk of lung cancer in individuals who smoke.
- Upset stomach and vomiting in pregnancy. Some research suggests pyridoxine does not improve symptoms of mild to moderate nausea as much as severe nausea. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology considers pyridoxine a first-line treatment for nausea and vomiting caused by pregnancy. Pyridoxine plus the medication doxylamine is recommended for women who do not get better when treated with just pyridoxine.
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). There is some evidence that taking pyridoxine by mouth can improve PMS symptoms including breast pain. The lowest effective dose should be used. Higher doses will increase the chance of side effects and are not likely to increase the beneficial effects.
- Movement disorders (tardive dyskinesia).Taking pyridoxine seems to improve movement disorders in people taking drugs for mental disorders.
Possibly ineffective for...
- Alzheimer's disease. Some evidence suggests that taking pyridoxine supplements does not reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in older people.
- Itchy and inflamed skin (atopic eczema). Early research suggests that taking pyridoxine daily for 4 weeks does not reduce eczema symptoms in children.
- Autism. Taking pyridoxine with magnesium daily does not seem to improve autistic behavior in children.
- Carpal tunnel syndrome. Although some early research suggests that pyridoxine might relieve certain symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, most research suggests that this supplement does not benefit people with this condition.
- Mental function. Taking pyridoxine daily together with folic acid and vitamin B12 does not seem to improve mental function in older people.
- Stopping breast milk production. Early research suggests that taking pyridoxine daily for 6-7 days does not stop breast milk production.
- Stroke. Taking pyridoxine by mouth does not seem to prevent the occurrence of another stoke in people with a history of stroke.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
- Preventing re-blockage of blood vessels after angioplasty. Evidence on the benefits of pyridoxine for preventing the re-blockage of blood vessels after angioplasty is inconsistent. Some evidence suggests that taking folic acid, vitamin B12 and pyridoxine might be beneficial. However, other research finds no benefit.
- Asthma. The effectiveness of pyridoxine supplementation in children with asthma is unclear.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early research suggests that taking pyridoxine by mouth, with or without high doses of B vitamins, might help ADHD. However, research using high doses of both pyridoxine and vitamins seems to have no effect on ADHD symptoms.
- Depression. Early research suggests that taking pyridoxine might reduce depression symptoms in postmenopausal women but not in the general population.
- Painful periods (dysmenorrhea). Early research suggests that taking pyridoxine daily might reduce painful periods.
- Nerve problems caused by diabetes. Evidence on the effects of pyridoxine in people with nerve problems caused by diabetes is inconsistent. Some research shows that taking pyridoxine with thiamine daily reduces the severity of symptoms, while other research shows no benefit.
- Seizures caused by a high fever (febrile seizures). Early research suggests that taking pyridoxine daily for 12 months does not reduce the recurrence of seizures caused by a high fever.
- High blood sugar during pregnancy (gestational diabetes). Some early research suggests that taking pyridoxine daily for 2 weeks may lower sugar levels in women with high blood sugar during pregnancy. However other early research shows no benefit of pyridoxine on this condition.
- Nerve damage caused by tuberculosis medication. Early research suggests that taking pyridoxine daily might reduce nerve damage caused by a drug taken for tuberculosis.
- Complications in pregnancy. Taking pyridoxine during pregnancy does not seem to reduce the risk of eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, or preterm birth, but may reduce the risk of tooth decay.
- Nerve damage caused by chemotherapy. Early research suggests that pyridoxine might help reverse nerve damage caused by the chemotherapy drug vincristine.
- Boosting the immune system.
- Muscle cramps.
- Eye problems.
- Kidney problems.
- Night leg cramps.
- Lyme disease.
- Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate pyridoxine for these uses.
Pyridoxine is required for the proper function of sugars, fats, and proteins in the body. It is also required for the proper growth and development of the brain, nerves, skin, and many other parts of the body.
Pyridoxine is LIKELY SAFE for most people when used appropriately.
Pyridoxine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in amounts greater than the recommended dietary allowance. In some people, pyridoxine might cause nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, loss of appetite, headache, tingling, sleepiness, and other side effects.
Long-term use of high doses is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. It might cause certain brain and nerve problems.
Special precautions & warnings:
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Pyridoxine is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant women when taken under the supervision of their healthcare provider. It is sometimes used in pregnancy to control morning sickness. High doses are UNSAFE. High doses can cause newborns to have seizures.
Pyridoxine is LIKELY SAFE for breast-feeding women when used in amounts not larger than 2 mg per day (the recommended dietary allowance). Avoid using higher amounts. Not enough is known about the safety of pyridoxine at higher doses in breast-feeding women.
Do not take this combination.
The body breaks down phenytoin (Dilantin) to get rid of it. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) might increase how quickly the body breaks down phenytoin. Taking pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and taking phenytoin (Dilantin) might decrease the effectiveness of phenytoin (Dilantin) and increase the possibility of seizures. Do not take large doses of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) if you are taking phenytoin (Dilantin).
Be cautious with this combination.
Amiodarone (Cordarone) might increase your sensitivity to sunlight. Taking vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) along with amiodarone (Cordarone) might increase the chances of sunburn, blistering, or rashes on areas of skin exposed to sunlight. Be sure to wear sunblock and protective clothing when spending time in the sun.
Medications for high blood pressure (antihypertensive drugs)
Pyridoxine might lower blood pressure. It has the potential to add to blood pressure-lowering effects of antihypertensive drugs and increase the risk of blood pressure becoming too low.
Some medications used to lower blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
The body breaks down phenobarbital (Luminal) to get rid of it. Pyridoxine might increase how quickly the body breaks down phenobarbital (Luminal). This could decrease the effectiveness of phenobarbital (Luminal).
Be watchful with this combination.
The body breaks down levodopa to get rid of it. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) can increase how quickly the body breaks down and gets rid of levodopa. However, this is only a problem if you are taking levodopa alone. Most people take levodopa along with carbidopa (Sinemet). Carbidopa prevents this interaction from occurring. If you are taking levodopa without carbidopa, do not take vitamin B6.
Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
Pyridoxine might lower blood pressure. Using pyridoxine along with other herbs and supplements that can lower blood pressure might cause blood pressure to become too low. Some of these herbs include andrographis, casein peptides, cat's claw, coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theanine, and others.
There are no known interactions with foods.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For vitamin B6 deficiency in adults: the typical dose is 2.5-25 mg daily for three weeks, then 1.5-2.5 mg per day as maintenance treatment.
- For vitamin B6 deficiency in women taking birth control pills: the dose is 25-30 mg per day.
- For symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS): the daily dose is 50-100 mg. Doses as high as 500 mg per day have been used, but daily doses over 100 mg don't appear to have additional benefit, and may increase the risk for harmful side effects.
- For hereditary sideroblastic anemia: initially 200-600 mg per day is used, decreasing to 30-50 mg daily after improvement.
- For kidney stones: 25-500 mg daily has been used.
- For treating tardive dyskinesia: 100 mg per day has been increased weekly up to 400 mg per day, given in two divided doses.
- For preventing macular degeneration: 50 mg daily in combination with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) 1000 mcg, and folic acid 2500 mcg.
- For nausea during pregnancy: 10-25 mg pyridoxine three or four times daily has been used; alternatively, 75 mg of sustained-release pyridoxine combined with 12 mcg vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), 1 mg folic acid, and 200 mg calcium (PremesisRx) is used daily as an FDA-approved prescription product for nausea during pregnancy.
The daily recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) of vitamin B6 are: Infants 0-6 months, 0.1 mg; Infants 7-12 months, 0.3 mg; Children 1-3 years, 0.5 mg; Children 4-8 years, 0.6 mg; Children 9-13 years, 1 mg; Males 14-50 years, 1.3 mg; Males over 50 years, 1.7 mg; Females 14-18 years, 1.2 mg; Females 19-50 years, 1.3 mg; Females over 50 years, 1.5 mg; Pregnant women, 1.9 mg; and breast-feeding women, 2 mg. Some researchers think the RDA for women 19-50 years should be increased to 1.5-1.7 mg per day. The recommended maximum daily intake is: Children 1-3 years, 30 mg; Children 4-8 years, 40 mg; Children 9-13 years, 60 mg; Adults, pregnant and breast-feeding women, 14-18 years, 80 mg; and Adults, pregnant and breast-feeding women, over 18 years, 100 mg.
Adermine Chlorhydrate, Adermine Hydrochloride, B Complex Vitamin, B6, Chlorhydrate de pyridoxine, Complexe de Vitamines B, Phosphate de Pyridoxal, Piridoxina, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal Phosphate, Pyridoxal 5 Phosphate, Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxine HCl, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Pyridoxine-5-Phosphate, P5P, P-5-P, Vitamin B-6, Vitamina B6, Vitamine B6.
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).
To see all references for the Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/934.html.
- Lal, K. J., Dakshinamurti, K., and Thliveris, J. The effect of vitamin B6 on the systolic blood pressure of rats in various animal models of hypertension. J Hypertens. 1996;14:355-363. View abstract.
- Mabin, D. C., Hollis, S., Lockwood, J., and David, T. J. Pyridoxine in atopic dermatitis. Br.J.Dermatol. 1995;133:764-767. View abstract.
- Spellacy, W. N., Buhi, W. C., and Birk, S. A. Vitamin B6 treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus: studies of blood glucose and plasma insulin. Am.J Obstet.Gynecol. 3-15-1977;127:599-602. View abstract.
- Spooner, G. R., Desai, H. B., Angel, J. F., Reeder, B. A., and Donat, J. R. Using pyridoxine to treat carpal tunnel syndrome. Randomized control trial. Can.Fam.Physician 1993;39:2122-2127. View abstract.
- McKiernan, J., Mellor, D. H., and Court, S. A controlled trial of pyridoxine supplementation in children with febrile convulsions. Clin.Pediatr.(Phila) 1981;20:208-211. View abstract.
- Krishnamurthy, D. V., Selkon, J. B., Ramachandran, K., Devadatta, S., Mitchison, D. A., Radhakrishna, S., and Stott, H. Effect of pyridoxine on vitamin B6 concentrations and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activity in whole blood of tuberculous patients receiving high-dosage isoniazid. Bull.World Health Organ 1967;36:853-870. View abstract.
- Marti-Carvajal, A. J., Sola, I., Lathyris, D., Karakitsiou, D. E., and Simancas-Racines, D. Homocysteine-lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2013;1:CD006612. View abstract.
- Myung, S. K., Ju, W., Cho, B., Oh, S. W., Park, S. M., Koo, B. K., and Park, B. J. Efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2013;346:f10. View abstract.
- Oladapo, O. T. and Fawole, B. Treatments for suppression of lactation. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;9:CD005937. View abstract.
- Dror, D. K. and Allen, L. H. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy. Paediatr.Perinat.Epidemiol. 2012;26 Suppl 1:55-74. View abstract.
Grajecki, D., Zyriax, B. C., and Buhling, K. J. The effect of micronutrient supplements on female fertility: a systematic review. Arch.Gynecol.Obstet. 2012;285:1463-1471. View abstract.
- Thaver, D., Saeed, M. A., and Bhutta, Z. A. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2006;:CD000179. View abstract.
- Williams, A. L., Cotter, A., Sabina, A., Girard, C., Goodman, J., and Katz, D. L. The role for vitamin B-6 as treatment for depression: a systematic review. Fam.Pract. 2005;22:532-537. View abstract.
- Bennink, H. J. and Schreurs, W. H. Improvement of oral glucose tolerance in gestational diabetes by pyridoxine. Br Med J 7-5-1975;3:13-15. View abstract.
- Macdougall, M. Poor-quality studies suggest that vitamin B6 use is beneficial in premenstrual syndrome. West J Med 2000;172:245. View abstract.
- Vasdev, S., Ford, C. A., Parai, S., Longerich, L., and Gadag, V. Dietary vitamin B6 supplementation attenuates hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Mol.Cell Biochem. 1999;200(1-2):155-162. View abstract.
- Proctor, M. L. and Murphy, P. A. Herbal and dietary therapies for primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2001;:CD002124. View abstract.
- Ford, A. H. and Almeida, O. P. Effect of homocysteine lowering treatment on cognitive function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J.Alzheimers.Dis. 2012;29:133-149. View abstract.
- Ebbing, M., Bonaa, K. H., Arnesen, E., Ueland, P. M., Nordrehaug, J. E., Rasmussen, K., Njolstad, I., Nilsen, D. W., Refsum, H., Tverdal, A., Vollset, S. E., Schirmer, H., Bleie, O., Steigen, T., Midttun, O., Fredriksen, A., Pedersen, E. R., and Nygard, O. Combined analyses and extended follow-up of two randomized controlled homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin trials. J Intern.Med 2010;268:367-382. View abstract.
- Balk, E. M., Raman, G., Tatsioni, A., Chung, M., Lau, J., and Rosenberg, I. H. Vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation and cognitive function: a systematic review of randomized trials. Arch.Intern.Med 1-8-2007;167:21-30. View abstract.
- Dose-dependent effects of folic acid on blood concentrations of homocysteine: a meta-analysis of the randomized trials. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2005;82:806-812. View abstract.
- Whelan, A. M., Jurgens, T. M., and Naylor, H. Herbs, vitamins and minerals in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review. Can.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2009;16:e407-e429. View abstract.
- Bleys, J., Miller, E. R., III, Pastor-Barriuso, R., Appel, L. J., and Guallar, E. Vitamin-mineral supplementation and the progression of atherosclerosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am.J Clin.Nutr 2006;84:880-887. View abstract.
- Hatzitolios, A., Iliadis, F., Katsiki, N., and Baltatzi, M. Is the anti-hypertensive effect of dietary supplements via aldehydes reduction evidence based? A systematic review. Clin Exp.Hypertens. 2008;30:628-639. View abstract.
- Head KA. Peripheral neuropathy: Pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies. Altern Med Rev 2006;11:294-329. View abstract.
- Ozyurek H, Turker H, Akbalik M, et al. Pyridoxine and pyridostigmine treatment in vincristine-induced neuropathy. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2007;24:447-52. View abstract.
- Chittumma P, Kaewkiattikun K, Wiriyasiriwach B. Comparison of the effectiveness of ginger and vitamin B6 for treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. J Med Assoc Thai 2007;90:15-20. View abstract.
- O'Connor D, Marshall S, Massy-Westropp N. Non-surgical treatment (other than steroid injection) for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;:CD003219. View abstract.
- Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Miller J, et al. Relation of higher folate intake to lower risk of Alzheimer disease in the elderly. Arch Neurol 2007;64:86-92. View abstract.
- Christen WG, Glynn RJ, Chew EY, et al. Folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin combination treatment and age-related macular degeneration in women. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:335-41. View abstract.
- ACOG (American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology) Practice Bulletin #52: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:803-15. View abstract.
- McMahon JA, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Knight RG, Mann JI, Williams SM. A controlled trial of homocysteine lowering and cognitive performance. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2764-72. View abstract.
- Bonaa KH, Njolstad I, Ueland PM, et al. NORVIT: Homocysteine lowering and cardiovascular events after acute myocardial infarction. N Enlg J Med 2006;354:1578-88. View abstract.
- Corrada M, Kawas C. Reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease with high folate Intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Alzheimers Dement 2005;1:11-18. View abstract.
- Herrmann H. Prevention of cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2708-10. View abstract.
- Lange H, Suryapranata H, De Luca G, et al. Folate therapy and in-stent restenosis after coronary stenting. N Engl J Med 2004;350:2673-81. View abstract.
- Hanley DF. The challenge of stroke prevention. JAMA 2004;291:621-2. View abstract.
- Toole JF, Malinow MR, Chambless LE, et al. Lowering homocysteine in patients with ischemic stroke to prevent recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death: the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:565-75.. View abstract.
- Jansen T, Romiti R, Kreuter A, Altmeyer P. Rosacea fulminans triggered by high-dose vitamins B6 and B12. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2001;15:484-5.. View abstract.
- Hansson O, Sillanpaa M. Pyridoxine and serum concentration of phenytoin and phenobarbitone. Lancet 1976;1:256. View abstract.
- Vasile A, Goldberg R, Kornberg B. Pyridoxine toxicity: report of a case. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1984;83:790-1. View abstract.
- van der Griend R, Haas FJ, Biesma DH, et al. Combination of low-dose folic acid and pyridoxine for treatment of hyperhomocysteinaemia in patients with premature arterial disease and their relatives. Atherosclerosis 1999;143:177-83.. View abstract.
- Brenner A. The effects of megadoses of selected B complex vitamins on children with hyperkinesis: controlled studies with long-term follow-up. J Learn Disabil 1982;15:258-64.
- Haslam RH, Dalby JT, Rademaker AW. Effects of megavitamin therapy on children with attention deficit disorders. Pediatrics 1984;74:103-11.. View abstract.
- Mydlik M, Derzsiova K, Zemberova E. Influence of water and sodium diuresis and furosemide on urinary excretion of vitamin B6, oxalic acid and vitamin C in chronic renal failure. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1999;25:352-6.. View abstract.
- Fishman SM, Christian P, West KP. The role of vitamins in the prevention and control of anaemia. Public Health Nutr 2000;3:125-50.. View abstract.
- van der Vange N, van der Berg H, Kloosterboer HJ, Haspels AA. Effects of seven low-dose combined contraceptives on vitamin B6 status. Contraception 1989;40:377-84.. View abstract.
- Haspels AA, Bennink HJ, Schreurs WH. Disturbance of tryptophan metabolism and its correction during oestrogen treatment in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 1978;1:15-20. . View abstract.
- Tyrer LB. Nutrition and the pill. J Reprod Med 1984;29:547-50.. View abstract.
- Butterworth CE. Interactions of nutrients with oral contraceptives and other drugs J Am Diet Assoc 1973;62:510-4.. View abstract.
- Ubbink JB, Vermaak WJ, Delport R, et al. The relationship between vitamin B6 metabolism, asthma, and theophylline therapy. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;585:285-94. View abstract.
- Goldin BR, Lichtenstein AH, Gorbach SL. Nutritional and metabolic roles of intestinal flora. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Malvern, PA: Lea & Febiger, 1994.
- Cohen AC. Pyridoxine in the prevention and treatment of convulsions and neurotoxicity due to cycloserine. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1969;166:346-9. View abstract.
- Ellis JM, Folkers K, Levy M, et al. Response of vitamin B-6 deficiency and the carpal tunnel syndrome to pyridoxine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1982;79:7494-8.. View abstract.
- Keniston RC, Nathan PA, Leklem JE, Lockwood RS. Vitamin B6, vitamin C, and carpal tunnel syndrome. A cross-sectional study of 441 adults. J Occup Environ Med 1997;39:949-59.. View abstract.
- Badner NH, Freeman D, Spence JD. Preoperative oral B vitamins prevent nitrous oxide-induced postoperative plasma homocysteine increases. Anesth Analg 2001;93:1507-10.. View abstract.
- Delport R, Ubbink JB, Vermaak WJ, Becker PJ. Theophylline increases pyridoxal kinase activity independently from vitamin B6 nutritional status. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1993;79:325-33.. View abstract.
- Kawada A, Kashima A, Shiraishi H, et al. Pyridoxine-induced photosensitivity and hypophosphatasia. Dermatology 2000;201:356-60.. View abstract.
- Bernstein AL, Dinesen JS. Brief communication: effect of pharmacologic doses of vitamin B6 on carpal tunnel syndrome, electroencephalographic results, and pain. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:73-6.. View abstract.
- Hartman TJ, Woodson K, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, et al. Association of the B-vitamins pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (B6), B12, and folate with lung cancer risk in older men. Am J Epidemiol 2001;153:688-94.. View abstract.
- Byers CM, DeLisa JA, Frankel DL, Kraft GH. Pyridoxine metabolism in carpal tunnel syndrome with and without peripheral neuropathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1984;65:712-6.. View abstract.
- Friso S, Jacques PF, Wilson PW, et al. Low circulating vitamin B is associated with elevation of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein independently of plasma homocysteine levels. Circulation 2001;103:2788-91. View abstract.
- McKinley MC, McNulty H, McPartlin J, et al. Low-dose vitamin B-6 effectively lowers fasting plasma homocysteine in healthy elderly persons who are folate and riboflavin replete. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:759-64.. View abstract.
- Gerritsen AA, de Krom MC, Struijs MA, et al. Conservative treatment options for carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. J Neurol 2002;249:272-80.. View abstract.
- Folkers K, Ellis J, Watanabe T, et al. Biochemical evidence for a deficiency of vitamin B6 in the carpal tunnel syndrome based on a crossover clinical study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1978;75:3410-2. View abstract.
- Franzblau A, Rock CL, Werner RA, et al. The relationship of vitamin B6 status to median nerve function and carpal tunnel syndrome among active industrial workers. J Occup Environ Med 1996;38:485-91.. View abstract.
- Ellis J, Folkers K, Levy M, et al. Therapy with vitamin B6 with and without surgery for treatment of patients having the idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1981;33:331-44.. View abstract.
- Ellis JM, Azuma J, Watanabe T, et al. Survey and new data on treatment with pyridoxine of patients having a clinical syndrome including the carpal tunnel and other defects. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1977;17:165-77. View abstract.
- Ellis JM, Kishi T, Azuma J, Folkers K. Vitamin B6 deficiency in patients with a clinical syndrome including the carpal tunnel defect. Biochemical and clinical response to therapy with pyridoxine. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1976;13:743-57.. View abstract.
- Dierkes J, Domrose U, Bosselmann P, et al. Homocysteine lowering effect of different multivitamin preparations in patients with end-stage renal disease. J Renal Nutr 2001;11:67-72. View abstract.
- Bostom A, Shemin D, Gohh R, et al. Treatment of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in renal transplant recipients versus hemodialysis patients. Transplantation 2000;69:2128-31. View abstract.
- Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention. The Swiss Heart Study: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:973-9. View abstract.
- Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA 1995;274:1049-57. View abstract.
- Sunder-Plassmann G, Winkelmayer WC, Fodinger M. Therapeutic potential of total homocysteine-lowering drugs on cardiovascular disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2000;9:2637-51. View abstract.
- Keebler ME, De Souza C, Fonesca V. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2001;3:54-63. View abstract.
- Selhub J, Jacques PF, Bostom AG, et al. Relationship between plasma homocysteine and vitamin status in the Framingham study population. Impact of folic acid fortification. Publ Health Rev 2000;28:117-45. View abstract.
- van der Griend R, Biesma DH, Haas FJLM, et al. The effect of different treatment regimens in reducing fasting and postmethionine-load homocysteine concentrations. J Int Med 2000;248:223-9. View abstract.
- Clarke R, Armitage J. Vitamin supplements and cardiovascular risk: review of the randomized trials of homocysteine-lowering vitamin supplements. Semin Thromb Hemost 2000;26:341-8. View abstract.
- Holven KB, Holm T, Aukrust P, et al. Effect of folic acid treatment on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and nitric oxide-derived end products in hyperhomocysteinemic subjects. Am J Med 2001;110:536-42. View abstract.
- Ueland PM, Refsum H, Beresford SA, Vollset SE. The controversy over homocysteine and cardiovascular risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:324-32. View abstract.
- Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration. Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomized trials. BMJ 1998;316:894-8. View abstract.
- Nallamothu BK, Fendrick M, Rubenfire M, et al. Potential clinical and economic effects of homocyst(e)ine lowering. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3406-12.. View abstract.
- Jacobson MD, Plancher KD, Kleinman WB. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome. Hand Clin 1996;12:253-7. View abstract.
- Bartel PR, Ubbink JB, Delport R, et al. Vitamin B6 supplementation and theophylline-related effects in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:93-9.. View abstract.
- Ubbink JB, Delport R, Becker PJ, Bissport S. Evidence of a theophylline-induced vitamin B6 deficiency caused by noncompetitive inhibition of pyridoxal kinase. J Lab Clin Med 1989;113:15-22.. View abstract.
- Pool KD, Feit H, Kirkpatrick J. Penicillamine-induced neuropathy in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med 1981;95:457-8. View abstract.
- Mydlik M, Derzsiova K, Zemberova E. Metabolism of vitamin B6 and its requirement in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 1997;52, suppl.62:s56-9.. View abstract.
- Bass JB, Farer LS, Hopewell PC, et al. Treatment of tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection in adults and children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;149:1359-74.. View abstract.
- Mulrow JP, Mulrow CD, McKenna WJ. Pyridoxine and amiodarone-induced photosensitivity. Ann Intern Med 1985;103:68-9. View abstract.
- Kaufman G. Pyridoxine against amiodarone-induced photosensitivity (letter). Lancet 1984;1:51-2. View abstract.
- Tolbert L, Haigler T, Waits MM, Dennis T. Brief report: lack of response in an autistic population to a low dose clinical trial of pyridoxine plus magnesium. J Autism Dev Disord 1993;23:193-9. View abstract.
- Lerner V, Miodownik C, Kaptsan A, et al. Vitamin B in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:1511-4. View abstract.
- Hansen CM, Shultz TD, Kwak HK, et al. Assessment of vitamin B-6 status in young women consuming a controlled diet containing four levels of vitamin B-6 provides an estimated average requirement and recommended dietary allowance. J Nutr 2001;131:1777-86. View abstract.
- De Souza MC, Walker AF, Robinson PA, Bolland K. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2000;9:131-9. View abstract.
- McCarty MF. High-dose pyridoxine as an 'anti-stress' strategy. Med Hypotheses 2000;54:803-7. View abstract.
- Collipp PJ, Chen SY, Sharma RK, et al. Tryptophane metabolism in bronchial asthma. Ann Allergy 1975;35:153-8. View abstract.
- Kanig SP, Conn RL. Kidney stones. Medical management and newer options for stone 'removal'. Postgrad Med 1985;78:38-44, 47-51. View abstract.
- Amato M, Donzelli S, Lombardi M, et al. Primary hyperoxaluria: effect of treatment with vitamin B6 and shock waves. Contrib Nephrol 1987;58:190-2. View abstract.
- Will EJ, Bijvoet OL. Pyridoxine therapy of adult primary oxalosis. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 1979;16:727-8. View abstract.
- Gershoff SN, Prien EL. Effect of daily MgO and vitamin B6 administration to patients with recurring calcium oxalate kidney stones. Am J Clin Nutr 1967;20:393-9. View abstract.
- Goldenberg RM, Girone JA. Oral pyridoxine in the prevention of oxalate kidney stones. Am J Nephrol 1996;16:552-3. View abstract.
- Lewis PJ. Pain in the hand and wrist. Pyridoxine supplements may help patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. BMJ 1995;310:1534. View abstract.
- Stransky M, Rubin A, Lava NS, Lazaro RP. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with vitamin B6: a double-blind study. South Med J 1989;82:841-2. View abstract.
- Ellis J, Folkers K, Watanabe T, et al. Clinical results of a cross-over treatment with pyridoxine and placebo of the carpal tunnel syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;32:2040-6. View abstract.
- Folkers K, Ellis J. Successful therapy with vitamin B6 and vitamin B2 of the carpal tunnel syndrome and need for determination of the RDAs for vitamins B6 and B2 for disease states. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;585:295-301. View abstract.
- Smith GP, Rudge PJ, Peters TJ. Biochemical studies of pyridoxal and pyridoxal phosphate status and therapeutic trial of pyridoxine in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Ann Neurol 1984;15:104-7. View abstract.
- Fuhr JE, Farrow A, Nelson HS Jr. Vitamin B6 levels in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Arch Surg 1989;124:1329-30. View abstract.
- Bernstein AL. Vitamin B6 in clinical neurology. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;585:250-60. View abstract.
- Gordon N. Pyridoxine dependency: an update. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997;39:63-5. View abstract.
- Schaumburg H, Kaplan J, Windebank A. Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse. A new megavitamin syndrome. N Engl J Med 1983;309:445-8. View abstract.
- Bendich A, Cohen M. Vitamin B6 safety issues. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;585:321-30. View abstract.
- Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R, et al. Decreased rate of coronary stenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1593-600. View abstract.
- Schnyder G, Roffi M, Pin R, et al. Decreased rate of coronary restenosis after lowering of plasma homocysteine levels. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1593-600. View abstract.
- Beaulieu AJ, Gohh RY, Han H, et al. Enhanced reduction of fasting total homocysteine levels with supraphysiological versus standard multivitamin dose folic acid supplementation in renal transplant recipients. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19:2918-21. View abstract.
- Shimizu T, Maeda S, Mochizuki H, et al. Theophylline attenuates circulating vitamin B6 levels in children with asthma. Pharmacology 1994;49:392-7. View abstract.
- Collipp PJ, Goldzier S III, Weiss N, et al. Pyridoxine treatment of childhood bronchial asthma. Ann Allergy 1975;35:93-7. View abstract.
- Sur S, Camara M, Buchmeier A, et al. Double-blind trial of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in the treatment of steroid-dependent asthma. Ann Allergy 1993;70:147-52. View abstract.
- Boyde TRC. Pyridoxine supplements in the carpal tunnel syndrome (letter). BMJ 1995;311:631. View abstract.
- Tremblay R, Bonnardeaux A, Geadah D, et al. Hyperhomocystinemia in hemodialysis patients: effects of 12-month supplementation with hydrosoluble vitamins. Kidney Int 2000;58:851-8. View abstract.
- Booth GL, Wang EE. Preventive health care, 2000 update: screening and management of hyperhomocysteinemia for the prevention of coronary artery disease events. The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. CMAJ 2000;163:21-9. View abstract.
- Haslam RHA, et al. Is there a role for megavitamin therapy in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Advances Neurol 1992;58:303-10. View abstract.
- Curhan GC, Willet WC, Rimm EB, et al. A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C and B6, and the risk of kidney stones in men. J Urol 1996;155:1847-51. View abstract.
- Curhan GC, Willet WC, Speizer FE, et al. Intake of vitamin B6 and C and the risk of kidney stones in women. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999;10:840-5. View abstract.
- Revusova V, Gratzlova J, Zvara V, et al. The evaluation of some biochemical parameters in pyridoxine-treated calcium oxalate renal stone formers. Urol Int 1977;32:348-52. View abstract.
- Yendt ER, Cohanim M. Response to physiologic dose of pyridoxine in type I primary hyperoxaluria. N Engl J Med 1985;312:953-7. View abstract.
- Gill HS, Rose GA. Mild metabolic hyperoxaluria and its response to pyridoxine. Urol Int 1986;41:393-6. View abstract.
- Mitwalli A, Ayiomamitis A, Grass L, et al. Control of hyperoxaluria with large doses of pyridoxine in patients with kidney stones. Int Urol Nephrol 1988;20:353-9. View abstract.
- Baxter P, Aicardi J. Neonatal seizures after pyridoxine use. Lancet 1999;354:2082-3. View abstract.
- Sahakian V, Rouse D, Sipes S, et al. Vitamin B6 is effective therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:33-6. View abstract.
- Vutyavanich T, Wongtra-ngan S, Ruangsri R. Pyridoxine for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:881-4. View abstract.
- Findling RL, Maxwell K, Scotese-Wojtila L, et al. High-dose pyridoxine and magnesium administration in children with autistic disorder: an absence of salutary effects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Autism Dev Disord 1997;27:467-78. View abstract.
- South M. Neonatal seizures after pyridoxine use -- reply. Lancet 1999;354:2083.
- Seelig MS. Auto-immune complications of D-penicillamine - A possible result of zinc and magnesium depletion and of pyridoxine inactivation. J Am Coll Nutr 1982;1:207-14. View abstract.
- Raskin HN, Fishman RA. Pyridoxine-deficiency neuropathy due to hydralazine. N Engl J Med 1965;273:1182-5. View abstract.
- Delport R, Ubbink JB, Serfontein WJ, et al. Vitamin B6 nutritional status in asthma. The effect of theophylline therapy on plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate and pyridoxal levels. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1988;58:67-72. View abstract.
- Prasad AS, Lei KY, Moghissi KS, et al. Effect of oral contraceptives on nutrients. III. Vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1976;125:1063-9. View abstract.
- Snider DE Jr. Pyridoxine supplementation during isoniazid therapy. Tubercle 1980;61:191-6. View abstract.
- Pellock JM, Howell J, Kendig EI Jr, et al. Pyridoxine deficiency in children treated with isoniazid. Chest 1985;87:658-61. View abstract.
- Matsui MS, Rozovski SJ. Drug-nutrient interaction. Clin Ther 1982;4:423-40. View abstract.
- Hill MJ. Intestinal flora and endogenous vitamin synthesis. Eur J Cancer Prev 1997;6:S43-5. View abstract.
- Gorbach SL. Bengt E. Gustafsson memorial lecture. Function of the normal human microflora. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 1986;49:17-30. View abstract.
- Brenner A. The effects of megadoses of selected B complex vitamins on children with hyperkinesis: controlled studies with long-term follow-up. J Learn Disabil 1982;15:258-64. View abstract.
- Geerling BJ, Dagnelie PC, Badart-Smook A, et al. Diet as a risk factor for the development of ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:1008-13. View abstract.
- Voutilainen S, Lakka TA, Porkkala-Sarataho E, et al. Low serum folate concentrations are associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:424-8. View abstract.
- Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW. Dietary reference intakes: The new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:699-706. View abstract.
- Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Jones PW, Shaughn O'Brien PM. Efficacy of vitamin B6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. BMJ 1999;318:1375-81. View abstract.
- Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 14th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1998.
- Mayer EL, Jacobsen DW, Robinson K. Homocysteine and coronary atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:517-27. View abstract.
- Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug Interactions Analysis and Management. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics Inc., 1997 and updates.
- Kastrup EK. Drug Facts and Comparisons. 1998 ed. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons, 1998.
- Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
- Brattstrom LE, Israelsson B, Jeppsson JO, et al. Folic acid-an innocuous means to reduce plasma homocysteine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1988;48:215-21. View abstract.
- Woodside JV, Yarnell JW, McMaster D, et al. Effect of B-group vitamins and antioxidant vitamins on hyperhomocysteinemia: a double-blind, randomized, factorial-design, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:858-66. View abstract.
- Landgren F, Israelsson B, Lindgren A, et al. Plasma homocysteine in acute myocardial infarction: homocysteine-lowering effect of folic acid. J Intern Med 1995;237:381-8. View abstract.
- Christensen B, Landaas S, Stensvold I, et al. Whole blood folate, homocysteine in serum, and risk of first acute myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis 1999;147:317-26. View abstract.
- Morrow LE, Grimsley EW. Long-term diuretic therapy in hypertensive patients: effects on serum homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and red blood cell folate concentrations. South Med J 1999;92:866-70. View abstract.
- Bostom AG, Gohh RY, Beaulieu AJ, et al. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in renal transplant recipients. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:1089-92. View abstract.
- Rattan V, Sidhu H, Vaidyanathan S. Effect of combined supplementation of magnesium oxide and pyridoxine in calcium-oxalate stone formers. Urol Res 1994;22:161-5. View abstract.
- Coleman M, Steinberg G, Tippett J, et al. A preliminary study of the effect of pyridoxine administration in a subgroup of hyperkinetic children: A double-blind crossover comparison with methylphenidate. Biol Psych 1979;14:741-51. View abstract.
- PremesisRx. Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter 1999:15;151206.
- McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.
- Show more references
- Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 10/23/2014
This copyrighted, evidence-based medicine resource is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database disclaims any responsibility related to consequences of using any product. This monograph should not replace advice from a healthcare professional and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
Copyright © 1995 - 2015 Therapeutic Research Faculty
, publishers of Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
, Prescriber’s Letter
, Pharmacist’s Letter
. All rights reserved. For scientific data on natural medicines, professionals may consult the Professional Version of Natural Medicines Comprehensive DatabaseNatural Medicines Comprehensive Database (http://www.naturaldatabase.com/)