What is it?
Melatonin is a hormone found naturally in the body. Melatonin used as medicine is usually made synthetically in a laboratory. It is most commonly available in pill form, but melatonin is also available in forms that can be placed in the cheek or under the tongue. This allows the melatonin to be absorbed directly into the body.
People use melatonin to adjust the body’s internal clock. It is used for jet lag, for adjusting sleep-wake cycles in people whose daily work schedule changes (shift-work disorder), and for helping blind people establish a day and night cycle.
Melatonin is also used for the inability to fall asleep (insomnia); delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS); insomnia associated with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); insomnia due to certain high blood pressure medications called beta-blockers; and sleep problems in children with developmental disorders including autism, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disabilities. It is also used as a sleep aid after discontinuing the use of benzodiazepine drugs and to reduce the side effects of stopping smoking.
Some people use melatonin for Alzheimer’s disease, ringing in the ears, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia, migraine and other headaches, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), bone loss (osteoporosis), a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia (TD), epilepsy, as an anti-aging agent, for menopause, and for birth control.
Other uses include breast cancer, brain cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, head cancer, neck cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Melatonin is also used for some of the side effects of cancer treatment (chemotherapy) including weight loss, nerve pain, weakness, and a lowered number of clot-forming cells (thrombocytopenia).
It is also used to calm people before they are given anesthesia for surgery.
The forms of melatonin that can be absorbed through the cheek or under the tongue are used for insomnia, shift-work disorder, and to calm people before receiving anesthesia for surgery.
Sometimes people apply melatonin to the skin to protect against sunburn.
How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
The effectiveness ratings for MELATONIN are as follows:
Likely effective for...
- Sleep disorders in blind people. Taking melatonin by mouth helps improve sleep disorders in blind children and adults.
- Trouble falling asleep (delayed sleep phase syndrome). Taking melatonin by mouth appears to reduce the length of time needed to fall asleep in young adults and children who have trouble falling asleep. However, within one year of stopping treatment, this sleeping problem seems to return.
- Sleeping problems in people with sleep-wake cycle disturbances. Taking melatonin by mouth is helpful for disturbed sleep-wake cycles in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities, autism, and other central nervous system disorders. Melatonin also appears to shorten the time it takes for to children with developmental disabilities to fall asleep. In addition, melatonin appears to improve sleep quality in people with reduced rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Also, melatonin appears to reduce the time it takes to fall asleep and the number of sleep interruptions in elderly people with sleep-wake cycle disturbances and dementia.
Possibly effective for...
- Withdrawal from drugs called benzodiazepines. Taking the controlled-release form of melatonin by mouth seems to help older people with insomnia related to withrdrawal from drugs called benzodiazepines.
- High blood pressure. Taking the controlled-release form of melatonin before bedtime seems to lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.
- Insomnia. For primary insomnia (insomnia that is not attributable to a medical or environmental cause), melatonin seems to be able to shorten the amount of time it takes to fall asleep, but only by about 12 minutes, according to one research study. Melatonin does not appear to improve “sleep efficiency,” the percentage of time that a person actually spends sleeping during the time set aside for sleeping. Some people say melatonin makes them sleep better, even though tests do not agree. There is some evidence that melatonin is more likely to help older people than younger people or children. This may be because older people have less melatonin in their bodies to start with.
There is some interest in finding out whether melatonin might help with “secondary insomnia.” This is trouble sleeping that is related to other conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease; depression; schizophrenia; hospitalization; and “ICU syndrome,” sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit. Research to date suggests that melatonin might not help to reduce the time it takes to fall asleep in secondary insomnia, but it might improve sleep efficiency.
- Jet lag. Most research shows that melatonin can improve certain symptoms of jet lag such as alertness and movement coordination. Melatonin also seems to slightly improve other jet lag symptoms such as daytime sleepiness and tiredness. However, melatonin might not be effective for shortening the time it takes for people with jet lag to fall asleep.
- Reducing anxiety before surgery. Melatonin used under the tongue seems to be as effective in reducing anxiety before surgery as midazolam, a conventional medication. It also seems to have fewer side effects in some people. Taking melatonin by mouth also seems to reduce anxiety before surgery, although some conflicting evidence exists.
- Tumors. Taking high doses of melatonin with chemotherapy or other cancer treatments might reduce tumor size and improve survival rates in people with tumors.
- Sunburn. Applying melatonin to the skin before sun exposure seems to prevent sunburn
- Low blood platelets (thrombocytopenia). Taking melatonin by mouth can improve low blood platelet counts associated with cancer, cancer treatment, and other disorders.
Possibly ineffective for...
- Exercise performance. Taking melatonin one hour before resistance exercise does not seem to improve performance.
- Infertility. Taking melatonin does not appear to improve fertility or pregnancy rates in women undergoing fertility treatments.
- Adjusting sleep schedule in people who do shift work. Taking melatonin by mouth does not seem to improve sleeping problems in people who do shift work.
Likely ineffective for...
- Depression. Although melatonin might improve sleeping problems in people with depression, it does not seem to improve depression itself. There is also some concern that melatonin might worsen symptoms in some people.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
- Age-related vision loss (age-related macular degeneration). Early research suggests that taking melatonin might delay the loss of vision in people with age-related vision loss.
- Memory loss (dementia). Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin does not improve behavior and symptoms in people with Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia. However, other evidence suggests that taking melatonin might reduce confusion and restlessness in people with dementia
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Limited research suggests that melatonin might reduce insomnia in children with ADHD who are taking stimulants. However, improved sleep does not seem to decrease symptoms of ADHD.
- Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia). Some research suggests that taking melatonin can reduce excessive urination at night in some men with enlarged prostate.
- Insomnia caused by drugs called beta-blockers. There is early evidence that taking a melatonin supplement might decrease insomnia caused by drugs called beta-blockers.
- Bipolar disorder. Early research suggests that taking melatonin at bedtime increases sleep duration and reduces manic symptoms in people with bipolar disorder who also have insomnia.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Some early research suggests that taking melatonin in the evening might improve some symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, including fatigue, concentration, and motivation. However, other early research suggests that taking melatonin by mouth does not improve CFS symptoms.
- Lung disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin improves shortness of breath in people with COPD. However, it does not seem to improve lung function or exercise capacity.
- An inflammatory disease called chronic sarcoidosis. Early research suggests that taking melatonin daily improves lung function and skin lesions in people with chronic sarcoidosis.
- Cluster headache. Taking melatonin by mouth every evening might reduce the frequency of cluster headaches. However, other research suggests that it does not.
- Delirium. Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin nightly for 14 days reduces the risk of delirium in older people.
- Indigestion (dyspepsia). Taking melatonin nightly seems to reduce indigestion.
- Nighttime bedwetting (enuresis). Early research suggests that taking melatonin before bed does not reduce the number of wet beds in children with nighttime bedwetting.
- Fibromyalgia. Melatonin might decrease the severity of pain and stiffness in people with fibromyalgia.
- Acid reflux disease. Taking melatonin daily at bedtime might improve symptoms of acid reflux, including heartburn. However, taking conventional medication seems to be more effective.
- Stomach ulcers caused by H. pylori infection. Evidence suggests that taking melatonin together with the drug omeprazole improves healing in people with ulcers caused by H. pylori infection.
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early research suggests that taking melatonin might improve some, but not all, symptoms of IBS.
- Menopausal symptoms. Limited research suggests that melatonin does not relieve menopausal symptoms. However, taking melatonin in combination with soy isoflavones might help psychological symptoms associated with menopause.
- Metabolic syndrome. Early research suggests that taking melatonin reduces blood pressure as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol in people with metabolic syndrome.
- Migraine headache. There is some evidence that taking melatonin before bed can prevent episodic migraine headache. When headaches do occur, they are milder and pass more quickly. However, other evidence shows that taking melatonin does not reduce the frequency of migraine attacks.
- Mild problems with mental function. Taking a docosahexaeonic acid (DHA) mixture that contains melatonin and tryptophan appears to improve mental function, speech, and sensitively to smell in older people with some problems with mental function.
- Withdrawal from nicotine. Taking melatonin 3.5 hours after nicotine withdrawal in smokers seems to reduce anxiety, restlessness, and cigarette cravings.
- Liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis). Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin improves liver function in people with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
- Recovery after surgery. Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin the night before and 1 hour before undergoing surgery might reduce pain and drug use after surgery.
- Prostate cancer. Taking melatonin by mouth together with conventional medications might reduce the growth of prostate cancer.
- Acting out dreams while sleeping. Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin before bed increases muscle paralysis during sleep in people with a sleep disorder that involves acting out dreams.
- Restless leg syndrome. Early research suggests that taking melatonin before bedtime might make symptoms worse in people with restless leg syndrome.
- Seizures. There is some evidence that taking melatonin at bedtime may reduce the number and length of seizures in children with epilepsy. However, other evidence suggests that it does not reduce seizures. Melatonin should be used cautiously, because melatonin may increase the number of seizures in some people.
- Headache characterized by sudden sharp pain. Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin daily might prevent sudden stabbing headaches.
- Stress. There is some evidence that taking melatonin might improve memory while under stress.
- Agitation caused by anesthesia drugs. Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin before anesthesia reduces agitation after surgery.
- Movement disorder (tardive dyskinesia). Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin by mouth decreases symptoms of a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia. However, other evidence suggests that taking melatonin daily does not reduce involuntary movements.
- Ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin at night reduces ringing in the ears and improves sleep quality. However, other research suggests that it does not reduce ear ringing.
- Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). Taking melatonin daily in combination with conventional medication seems to help control a type of inflammatory bowel disease called ulcerative colitis.
- Birth control.
- Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate melatonin for these uses.
Melatonin’s main job in the body is to regulate night and day cycles or sleep-wake cycles. Darkness causes the body to produce more melatonin, which signals the body to prepare for sleep. Light decreases melatonin production and signals the body to prepare for being awake. Some people who have trouble sleeping have low levels of melatonin. It is thought that adding melatonin from supplements might help them sleep.
Melatonin is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth short-term or when applied to the skin.
Melatonin is POSSIBLY SAFE when used by mouth appropriately, long-term. Melatonin has been used safely for up to 2 years in some people. However, it can cause some side effects including headache, short-term feelings of depression, daytime sleepiness, dizziness, stomach cramps, and irritability. Do not drive or use machinery for four to five hours after taking melatonin.
Special precautions & warnings:
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Melatonin is POSSIBLY UNSAFE to use during pregnancy. Do not use it. Melatonin might also interfere with ovulation, making it more difficult to become pregnant.
Not enough is known about the safety of using melatonin when breast-feeding. It is best not to use it.
Infants and children: Melatonin should not be used in most children. It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Because of its effects on other hormones, melatonin might interfere with development during adolescence.
Bleeding disorders: Melatonin might make bleeding worse in people with bleeding disorders.
High blood pressure: Melatonin can raise blood pressure in people who are taking certain medications to control blood pressure. Avoid using it.
Diabetes: Melatonin might increase blood sugar in people with diabetes. Monitor your blood sugar carefully, if you have diabetes and take melatonin.
Depression: Melatonin can make symptoms of depression worse.
Seizure disorders: Using melatonin might increase the risk of having a seizure.
Transplant recipients: Melatonin can increase immune function and might interfere with immunosuppressive therapy used by people receiving transplants.
Be cautious with this combination.
Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)
The body makes melatonin. Birth control pills seem to increase how much melatonin the body makes. Taking melatonin along with birth control pills might cause too much melatonin to be in the body.
Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.
Caffeine might increase or decrease melatonin levels in the body. When taken together with melatonin supplements, caffeine seems to increase melatonin levels.
Taking fluvoxamine (Luvox) can increase the amount of melatonin that the body absorbs. Taking melatonin along with fluvoxamine (Luvox) might increase the effects and side effects of melatonin.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Melatonin might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking melatonin along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking melatonin, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by the liver include acetaminophen (Tylenol), amitriptyline (Elavil), clopidogrel (Plavix), clozapine (Clozaril), diazepam (Valium), estradiol, olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), propranolol (Inderal), ropinirole (Requip), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, verapamil (Calan, Covera-HS, Isoptin, Verelan), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Melatonin might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking melatonin along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking melatonin, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), carisoprodol (Soma), citalopram (Celexa), diazepam (Valium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), phenytoin (Dilantin), warfarin, and many others.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
There is some concern that melatonin might increase or decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. By affecting blood sugar, melatonin might decrease or increase the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
Melatonin might decrease blood pressure in healthy people. However, melatonin might make blood pressure worse in people who are already taking medications for high blood pressure. Do not take too much melatonin if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)
Melatonin might increase the immune system. Taking melatonin along with medications that decrease the immune system might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.
Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
Medications that lower the seizure threshold
Melatonin might increase the frequency of seizures in some people, particularly children. Taking melatonin with drugs that lower the seizure threshold might increase the risk of a seizure.
Some medications that lower seizure threshold include anesthetics (propofol, others), antiarrhythmics (mexiletine), antibiotics (amphotericin, penicillin, cephalosporins, imipenem), antidepressants (bupropion, others), antihistamines (cyproheptadine, others), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), narcotics (fentanyl, others), stimulants (methylphenidate), theophylline, and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Melatonin might slow blood clotting. Taking melatonin along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Medications used to prevent seizures (Anticonvulsants)
Melatonin might increase the frequency of seizures in some people, particularly children with multiple neurological disorders. In theory, taking melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of medications used to prevent seizures.
Some medications used to prevent seizures include phenobarbital, primidone (Mysoline), valproic acid (Depakene), gabapentin (Neurontin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), phenytoin (Dilantin), and others.
Taking melatonin with methamphetamine might increase the effects and side effects of methamphetamine.
Nifedipine GITS (Procardia XL)
Nifedipine GITS (Procardia XL) is used to lower blood pressure. Taking melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of nifedipine GITS for lowering blood pressure.
Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines)
Melatonin might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Drugs that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking melatonin along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.
Some of these sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and others.
Sedative medications (CNS depressants)
Melatonin might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking melatonin along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.
Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.
Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan)
The body breaks down melatonin to get rid of it. Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can increase how quickly the body gets rid of melatonin. Taking melatonin along with verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin.
Be watchful with this combination.
Flumazenil (Romazicon) might decrease the effects of melatonin. It is not yet clear why this interaction occurs. Taking flumazenil (Romazicon) along with melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin supplements.
Caffeine might increase or decrease melatonin levels in the body. When taken together with melatonin supplements, caffeine seems to increase melatonin levels.
Taking echinacea together with melatonin might have negative effects on immune function.
Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
Melatonin might lower blood pressure. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have this same effect might increase the risk of blood pressure dropping too low in some people. Some of these products include andrographis, casein peptides, cat's claw, coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theanine, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might lower seizure threshold
Melatonin might increase the risk for seizures in some people, particularly in children. Taking supplements that also lower seizure threshold with melatonin might increase the risk even more. Some of these supplements include butanediol (BD), cedar leaf, Chinese club moss, EDTA, folic acid, gamma butyrolactone (GBL), gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), glutamine, huperzine A, hydrazine sulfate, hyssop oil, juniper, L-carnitine, rosemary, sage, wormwood, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Melatonin might increase the effect of herbs that slow blood clotting and might increase the risk of bleeding in some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, red clover, willow, and others.
Herbs and supplements with sleep-promoting (sedative) properties
Using melatonin along with herbs that have sedative properties might increase the effects and side effects of melatonin. Some of these supplements include 5-HTP, calamus, California poppy, catnip, hops, Jamaican dogwood, kava, St. John's wort, skullcap, valerian, yerba mansa, and others.
St. John's wort
Taking St. John's wort increases melatonin levels in the body. In theory, taking St. John's wort with melatonin might increase both the effects and side effects of melatonin.
Taking vitamin B12 might reduce blood levels of melatonin.
Taking vitex agnus-castus increases melatonin levels in the body. In theory, taking vitex agnus-castus with melatonin might increase both the effects and side effects of melatonin.
There are no known interactions with foods.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For insomnia:
- 0.3-5 mg at bedtime is a typical dose.
- In children with insomnia due to delayed sleep onset, melatonin 5 mg at 6:00 PM daily.
- In children with developmental disorders (including cerebral palsy, autism, and intellectual disabilities), melatonin 5 mg at 8:00 PM daily. Both immediate-release and sustained-release preparations have been used.
- For jet lag: 0.5-5 mg at bedtime is commonly taken on the arrival day at the destination, continuing for 2-5 days. Low doses of 0.5-3 mg are often used to avoid the hypnotic properties of the higher 4-5 mg doses.
- For tardive dyskinesia (TD): 10 mg daily of a controlled-release formulation.
- As treatment for solid tumors in combination with conventional therapy: 10-50 mg along with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or interleukin 2 (IL-2). Melatonin is typically started 7 days before the start of chemotherapy and continued throughout full treatment course.
- For treatment of prostate cancer that has spread to other sites (metastatic cancer) and is resistant to triptorelin used alone: 20 mg taken daily has been used in combination with 3.75 mg of triptorelin injected into the muscle every 28 days.
- For prevention and treatment of lowered clot-forming cells (thrombocytopenia) associated with cancer chemotherapy: 20 mg each evening.
- For benzodiazepine withdrawal in elderly people with insomnia: 2 mg of controlled-release melatonin taken at bedtime for 6 weeks (the benzodiazepine dosage is reduced 50% during the second week, 75% during weeks 3 and 4, and stopped during weeks 5 and 6) and continued up to 6 months.
- For prevention of cluster headache: an evening dose of 10 mg.
- For reducing anxiety before surgery in adults: 0.05 mg/kg under the tongue.
- For reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms: 0.3 mg orally 3.5 hours after stopping smoking.
5-Methoxy-N-Acetyltryptamine, MEL, Melatonina, Mélatonine, MLT, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, N-Acétyl-5-Méthoxytryptamine, Pineal Hormone.
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).
To see all references for the Melatonin page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/940.html.
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- Celinski, K., Konturek, P. C., Konturek, S. J., Slomka, M., Cichoz-Lach, H., Brzozowski, T., and Bielanski, W. Effects of melatonin and tryptophan on healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers with Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. J.Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;62:521-526. View abstract.
- Seppi, K., Weintraub, D., Coelho, M., Perez-Lloret, S., Fox, S. H., Katzenschlager, R., Hametner, E. M., Poewe, W., Rascol, O., Goetz, C. G., and Sampaio, C. The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: Treatments for the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26 Suppl 3:S42-S80. View abstract.
- Grossman, E., Laudon, M., and Zisapel, N. Effect of melatonin on nocturnal blood pressure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Vasc.Health Risk Manag. 2011;7:577-584. View abstract.
- Castro, F., Carrizo, E., Prieto de, Rincon D., Rincon, C. A., Asian, T., Medina-Leendertz, S., and Bonilla, E. Effectiveness of melatonin in tardive dyskinesia. Invest Clin. 2011;52:252-260. View abstract.
- Merks, B. T., Burger, H., Willemsen, J., van Gool, J. D., and de Jong, T. P. Melatonin treatment in children with therapy-resistant monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. J.Pediatr.Urol. 2012;8:416-420. View abstract.
- Chojnacki, C., Wisniewska-Jarosinska, M., Walecka-Kapica, E., Klupinska, G., Jaworek, J., and Chojnacki, J. Evaluation of melatonin effectiveness in the adjuvant treatment of ulcerative colitis. J.Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;62:327-334. View abstract.
- Hurtuk, A., Dome, C., Holloman, C. H., Wolfe, K., Welling, D. B., Dodson, E. E., and Jacob, A. Melatonin: can it stop the ringing? Ann.Otol.Rhinol.Laryngol. 2011;120:433-440. View abstract.
- Batioglu, A. S., Sahin, U., Gurlek, B., Ozturk, N., and Unsal, E. The efficacy of melatonin administration on oocyte quality. Gynecol.Endocrinol. 2012;28:91-93. View abstract.
- Eryilmaz, O. G., Devran, A., Sarikaya, E., Aksakal, F. N., Mollamahmutoglu, L., and Cicek, N. Melatonin improves the oocyte and the embryo in IVF patients with sleep disturbances, but does not improve the sleeping problems. J.Assist.Reprod.Genet. 2011;28:815-820. View abstract.
- Rossignol, D. A. and Frye, R. E. Melatonin in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dev.Med.Child Neurol. 2011;53:783-792. View abstract.
- Celinski, K., Konturek, S. J., Konturek, P. C., Brzozowski, T., Cichoz-Lach, H., Slomka, M., Malgorzata, P., Bielanski, W., and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin or L-tryptophan accelerates healing of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients treated with omeprazole. J.Pineal Res. 2011;50:389-394. View abstract.
- Ozcengiz, D., Gunes, Y., and Ozmete, O. Oral melatonin, dexmedetomidine, and midazolam for prevention of postoperative agitation in children. J.Anesth. 2011;25:184-188. View abstract.
- Hussain, S. A., Al-Khalifa, I. I., Jasim, N. A., and Gorial, F. I. Adjuvant use of melatonin for treatment of fibromyalgia. J.Pineal Res. 2011;50:267-271. View abstract.
- Cook, J. S., Sauder, C. L., and Ray, C. A. Melatonin differentially affects vascular blood flow in humans. Am.J.Physiol Heart Circ.Physiol 2011;300:H670-H674. View abstract.
- Kozirog, M., Poliwczak, A. R., Duchnowicz, P., Koter-Michalak, M., Sikora, J., and Broncel, M. Melatonin treatment improves blood pressure, lipid profile, and parameters of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome. J.Pineal Res. 2011;50:261-266. View abstract.
- van Geijlswijk, I. M., Korzilius, H. P., and Smits, M. G. The use of exogenous melatonin in delayed sleep phase disorder: a meta-analysis. Sleep 2010;33:1605-1614. View abstract.
- Wade, A. G., Crawford, G., Ford, I., McConnachie, A., Nir, T., Laudon, M., and Zisapel, N. Prolonged release melatonin in the treatment of primary insomnia: evaluation of the age cut-off for short- and long-term response. Curr.Med.Res.Opin. 2011;27:87-98. View abstract.
- de, Jonghe A., Korevaar, J. C., van Munster, B. C., and de Rooij, S. E. Effectiveness of melatonin treatment on circadian rhythm disturbances in dementia. Are there implications for delirium? A systematic review. Int.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 2010;25:1201-1208. View abstract.
- Cichoz-Lach, H., Celinski, K., Konturek, P. C., Konturek, S. J., and Slomka, M. The effects of L-tryptophan and melatonin on selected biochemical parameters in patients with steatohepatitis. J.Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;61:577-580. View abstract.
- Uberos, J., Augustin-Morales, M. C., Molina, Carballo A., Florido, J., Narbona, E., and Munoz-Hoyos, A. Normalization of the sleep-wake pattern and melatonin and 6-sulphatoxy-melatonin levels after a therapeutic trial with melatonin in children with severe epilepsy. J.Pineal Res. 2011;50:192-196. View abstract.
- Alstadhaug, K. B., Odeh, F., Salvesen, R., and Bekkelund, S. I. Prophylaxis of migraine with melatonin: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 10-26-2010;75:1527-1532. View abstract.
- Al-Aama, T., Brymer, C., Gutmanis, I., Woolmore-Goodwin, S. M., Esbaugh, J., and Dasgupta, M. Melatonin decreases delirium in elderly patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Int.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 2011;26:687-694. View abstract.
- Wade, A. G., Ford, I., Crawford, G., McConnachie, A., Nir, T., Laudon, M., and Zisapel, N. Nightly treatment of primary insomnia with prolonged release melatonin for 6 months: a randomized placebo controlled trial on age and endogenous melatonin as predictors of efficacy and safety. BMC.Med. 2010;8:51. View abstract.
- Rizzo, P., Raffone, E., and Benedetto, V. Effect of the treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin in comparison with a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid on oocyte quality and pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles. A prospective, clinical trial. Eur.Rev.Med.Pharmacol.Sci. 2010;14:555-561. View abstract.
- van Geijlswijk, I. M., van der Heijden, K. B., Egberts, A. C., Korzilius, H. P., and Smits, M. G. Dose finding of melatonin for chronic idiopathic childhood sleep onset insomnia: an RCT. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010;212:379-391. View abstract.
- Kunz, D. and Mahlberg, R. A two-part, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of exogenous melatonin in REM sleep behaviour disorder. J.Sleep Res. 2010;19:591-596. View abstract.
- Elkhayat, H. A., Hassanein, S. M., Tomoum, H. Y., Abd-Elhamid, I. A., Asaad, T., and Elwakkad, A. S. Melatonin and sleep-related problems in children with intractable epilepsy. Pediatr.Neurol. 2010;42:249-254. View abstract.
- Whittom, S., Dumont, M., Petit, D., Desautels, A., Adam, B., Lavigne, G., and Montplaisir, J. Effects of melatonin and bright light administration on motor and sensory symptoms of RLS. Sleep Med. 2010;11:351-355. View abstract.
- Serfaty, M. A., Osborne, D., Buszewicz, M. J., Blizard, R., and Raven, P. W. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of treatment as usual plus exogenous slow-release melatonin (6 mg) or placebo for sleep disturbance and depressed mood. Int.Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2010;25:132-142. View abstract.
- Borazan, H., Tuncer, S., Yalcin, N., Erol, A., and Otelcioglu, S. Effects of preoperative oral melatonin medication on postoperative analgesia, sleep quality, and sedation in patients undergoing elective prostatectomy: a randomized clinical trial. J.Anesth. 2010;24:155-160. View abstract.
- Kandil, T. S., Mousa, A. A., El-Gendy, A. A., and Abbas, A. M. The potential therapeutic effect of melatonin in Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. BMC.Gastroenterol. 2010;10:7. View abstract.
- Rahman, S. A., Kayumov, L., and Shapiro, C. M. Antidepressant action of melatonin in the treatment of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome. Sleep Med. 2010;11:131-136. View abstract.
- de Castro-Silva, C., de Bruin, V. M., Cunha, G. M., Nunes, D. M., Medeiros, C. A., and de Bruin, P. F. Melatonin improves sleep and reduces nitrite in the exhaled breath condensate in cystic fibrosis--a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:65-71. View abstract.
- Paul, M. A., Miller, J. C., Gray, G. W., Love, R. J., Lieberman, H. R., and Arendt, J. Melatonin treatment for eastward and westward travel preparation. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010;208:377-386. View abstract.
- Neri, G., Baffa, C., De, Stefano A., Poliandri, A., Kulamarva, G., Di, Giovanni P., Petrucci, A. G., Castriotta, A., Citraro, L., Cerrone, D., D' Orazio, F., and Croce, A. Management of tinnitus: oral treatment with melatonin and sulodexide. J.Biol.Regul.Homeost.Agents 2009;23:103-110. View abstract.
- Luthringer, R., Muzet, M., Zisapel, N., and Staner, L. The effect of prolonged-release melatonin on sleep measures and psychomotor performance in elderly patients with insomnia. Int.Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:239-249. View abstract.
- Kain, Z. N., MacLaren, J. E., Herrmann, L., Mayes, L., Rosenbaum, A., Hata, J., and Lerman, J. Preoperative melatonin and its effects on induction and emergence in children undergoing anesthesia and surgery. Anesthesiology 2009;111:44-49. View abstract.
- Braam, W., Smits, M. G., Didden, R., Korzilius, H., van Geijlswijk, I. M., and Curfs, L. M. Exogenous melatonin for sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability: a meta-analysis. Dev.Med.Child Neurol. 2009;51:340-349. View abstract.
- Gogenur, I., Kucukakin, B., Bisgaard, T., Kristiansen, V., Hjortso, N. C., Skene, D. J., and Rosenberg, J. The effect of melatonin on sleep quality after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Anesth.Analg. 2009;108:1152-1156. View abstract.
- Ismail, S. A. and Mowafi, H. A. Melatonin provides anxiolysis, enhances analgesia, decreases intraocular pressure, and promotes better operating conditions during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. Anesth.Analg. 2009;108:1146-1151. View abstract.
- Gehrman, P. R., Connor, D. J., Martin, J. L., Shochat, T., Corey-Bloom, J., and Ancoli-Israel, S. Melatonin fails to improve sleep or agitation in double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of institutionalized patients with Alzheimer disease. Am.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 2009;17:166-169. View abstract.
- Koch, B. C., Nagtegaal, J. E., Hagen, E. C., van der Westerlaken, M. M., Boringa, J. B., Kerkhof, G. A., and Ter Wee, P. M. The effects of melatonin on sleep-wake rhythm of daytime haemodialysis patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study (EMSCAP study). Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2009;67:68-75. View abstract.
- Cagnacci, A., Elliott, J. A., and Yen, S. S. Amplification of pulsatile LH secretion by exogenous melatonin in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:210-212. View abstract.
- Caumo, W., Levandovski, R., and Hidalgo, M. P. Preoperative anxiolytic effect of melatonin and clonidine on postoperative pain and morphine consumption in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J.Pain 2009;10:100-108. View abstract.
- Rimmele, U., Spillmann, M., Bartschi, C., Wolf, O. T., Weber, C. S., Ehlert, U., and Wirtz, P. H. Melatonin improves memory acquisition under stress independent of stress hormone release. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2009;202:663-672. View abstract.
- Lu, W. Z., Song, G. H., Gwee, K. A., and Ho, K. Y. The effects of melatonin on colonic transit time in normal controls and IBS patients. Dig.Dis.Sci. 2009;54:1087-1093. View abstract.
- Wirtz, P. H., Spillmann, M., Bartschi, C., Ehlert, U., and von Kanel, R. Oral melatonin reduces blood coagulation activity: a placebo-controlled study in healthy young men. J Pineal Res 2008;44:127-133. View abstract.
- Dowling, G. A., Burr, R. L., van Someren, E. J., Hubbard, E. M., Luxenberg, J. S., Mastick, J., and Cooper, B. A. Melatonin and bright-light treatment for rest-activity disruption in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Am Geriatr.Soc. 2008;56:239-246. View abstract.
- Lemoine, P., Nir, T., Laudon, M., and Zisapel, N. Prolonged-release melatonin improves sleep quality and morning alertness in insomnia patients aged 55 years and older and has no withdrawal effects. J Sleep Res 2007;16:372-380. View abstract.
- Caumo, W., Torres, F., Moreira, N. L., Jr., Auzani, J. A., Monteiro, C. A., Londero, G., Ribeiro, D. F., and Hidalgo, M. P. The clinical impact of preoperative melatonin on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth.Analg. 2007;105:1263-71, table. View abstract.
- Lopez-Gonzalez, M. A., Santiago, A. M., and Esteban-Ortega, F. Sulpiride and melatonin decrease tinnitus perception modulating the auditolimbic dopaminergic pathway. J Otolaryngol. 2007;36:213-219. View abstract.
- Peles, E., Hetzroni, T., Bar-Hamburger, R., Adelson, M., and Schreiber, S. Melatonin for perceived sleep disturbances associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal among patients in methadone maintenance treatment: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Addiction 2007;102:1947-1953. View abstract.
- Wade, A. G., Ford, I., Crawford, G., McMahon, A. D., Nir, T., Laudon, M., and Zisapel, N. Efficacy of prolonged release melatonin in insomnia patients aged 55-80 years: quality of sleep and next-day alertness outcomes. Curr.Med Res Opin. 2007;23:2597-2605. View abstract.
- Vissers, F. H., Knipschild, P. G., and Crebolder, H. F. Is melatonin helpful in stopping the long-term use of hypnotics? A discontinuation trial. Pharm.World Sci. 2007;29:641-646. View abstract.
- Bjorvatn, B., Stangenes, K., Oyane, N., Forberg, K., Lowden, A., Holsten, F., and Akerstedt, T. Randomized placebo-controlled field study of the effects of bright light and melatonin in adaptation to night work. Scand.J Work Environ.Health 2007;33:204-214. View abstract.
- Klupinska, G., Poplawski, T., Drzewoski, J., Harasiuk, A., Reiter, R. J., Blasiak, J., and Chojnacki, J. Therapeutic effect of melatonin in patients with functional dyspepsia. J.Clin.Gastroenterol. 2007;41:270-274. View abstract.
- Berk, L., Berkey, B., Rich, T., Hrushesky, W., Blask, D., Gallagher, M., Kudrimoti, M., McGarry, R. C., Suh, J., and Mehta, M. Randomized phase II trial of high-dose melatonin and radiation therapy for RPA class 2 patients with brain metastases (RTOG 0119). Int.J Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys. 7-1-2007;68:852-857. View abstract.
- Medeiros, C. A., Carvalhedo de Bruin, P. F., Lopes, L. A., Magalhaes, M. C., de Lourdes, Seabra M., and de Bruin, V. M. Effect of exogenous melatonin on sleep and motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. J Neurol. 2007;254:459-464. View abstract.
- Suresh Kumar, P. N., Andrade, C., Bhakta, S. G., and Singh, N. M. Melatonin in schizophrenic outpatients with insomnia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry 2007;68:237-241. View abstract.
- Grossman, E., Laudon, M., Yalcin, R., Zengil, H., Peleg, E., Sharabi, Y., Kamari, Y., Shen-Orr, Z., and Zisapel, N. Melatonin reduces night blood pressure in patients with nocturnal hypertension. Am J Med 2006;119:898-902. View abstract.
- Ibrahim, M. G., Bellomo, R., Hart, G. K., Norman, T. R., Goldsmith, D., Bates, S., and Egi, M. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomised pilot study of nocturnal melatonin in tracheostomised patients. Crit Care Resusc. 2006;8:187-191. View abstract.
- Pignone, A. M., Rosso, A. D., Fiori, G., Matucci-Cerinic, M., Becucci, A., Tempestini, A., Livi, R., Generini, S., Gramigna, L., Benvenuti, C., Carossino, A. M., Conforti, M. L., and Perfetto, F. Melatonin is a safe and effective treatment for chronic pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. J Pineal Res 2006;41:95-100. View abstract.
- Weekley, L. B. Melatonin-induced relaxation of rat aorta: interaction with adrenergic agonists. J Pineal Res 1991;11:28-34. View abstract.
- Capuzzo, M., Zanardi, B., Schiffino, E., Buccoliero, C., Gragnaniello, D., Bianchi, S., and Alvisi, R. Melatonin does not reduce anxiety more than placebo in the elderly undergoing surgery. Anesth.Analg. 2006;103:121-3, table. View abstract.
- Mero, A. A., Vahalummukka, M., Hulmi, J. J., Kallio, P., and von Wright, A. Effects of resistance exercise session after oral ingestion of melatonin on physiological and performance responses of adult men. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2006;96:729-739. View abstract.
- Jansen, S. L., Forbes, D. A., Duncan, V., and Morgan, D. G. Melatonin for cognitive impairment. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;:CD003802. View abstract.
- Yi, C., Pan, X., Yan, H., Guo, M., and Pierpaoli, W. Effects of melatonin in age-related macular degeneration. Ann.N.Y Acad.Sci. 2005;1057:384-392. View abstract.
- Cagnacci, A., Elliott, J. A., and Yen, S. S. Melatonin: a major regulator of the circadian rhythm of core temperature in humans. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 1992;75:447-452. View abstract.
- Cagnacci, A., Cannoletta, M., Renzi, A., Baldassari, F., Arangino, S., and Volpe, A. Prolonged melatonin administration decreases nocturnal blood pressure in women. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18(12 Pt 1):1614-1618. View abstract.
- Perras, B., Ozcan, S., Fehm, H. L., and Born, J. Melatonin does not inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in waking young men. J Neuroendocrinol. 2005;17:811-816. View abstract.
- Lu, W. Z., Gwee, K. A., Moochhalla, S., and Ho, K. Y. Melatonin improves bowel symptoms in female patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 11-15-2005;22:927-934. View abstract.
- Mills, E., Wu, P., Seely, D., and Guyatt, G. Melatonin in the treatment of cancer: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis. J Pineal Res 2005;39:360-366. View abstract.
- Faber, M. S., Jetter, A., and Fuhr, U. Assessment of CYP1A2 activity in clinical practice: why, how, and when? Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;97:125-134. View abstract.
- Dowling, G. A., Mastick, J., Colling, E., Carter, J. H., Singer, C. M., and Aminoff, M. J. Melatonin for sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease. Sleep Med 2005;6:459-466. View abstract.
- Cavallo, A., Ris, M. D., Succop, P., and Jaskiewicz, J. Melatonin treatment of pediatric residents for adaptation to night shift work. Ambul.Pediatr. 2005;5:172-177. View abstract.
- Samarkandi, A., Naguib, M., Riad, W., Thalaj, A., Alotibi, W., Aldammas, F., and Albassam, A. Melatonin vs. midazolam premedication in children: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur.J.Anaesthesiol. 2005;22:189-196. View abstract.
- Gupta, M., Aneja, S., and Kohli, K. Add-on melatonin improves sleep behavior in children with epilepsy: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J.Child Neurol. 2005;20:112-115. View abstract.
- Hancock, E., O'Callaghan, F., and Osborne, J. P. Effect of melatonin dosage on sleep disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex. J.Child Neurol. 2005;20:78-80. View abstract.
- Danilenko, K. V. and Putilov, A. A. Melatonin treatment of winter depression following total sleep deprivation: waking EEG and mood correlates. Neuropsychopharmacology 2005;30:1345-1352. View abstract.
- Acil, M., Basgul, E., Celiker, V., Karagoz, A. H., Demir, B., and Aypar, U. Perioperative effects of melatonin and midazolam premedication on sedation, orientation, anxiety scores and psychomotor performance. Eur.J.Anaesthesiol. 2004;21:553-557. View abstract.
- Campos, F. L., Silva-Junior, F. P., de Bruin, V. M., and de Bruin, P. F. Melatonin improves sleep in asthma: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am.J.Respir.Crit Care Med. 11-1-2004;170:947-951. View abstract.
- Coppola, G., Iervolino, G., Mastrosimone, M., La Torre, G., Ruiu, F., and Pascotto, A. Melatonin in wake-sleep disorders in children, adolescents and young adults with mental retardation with or without epilepsy: a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial. Brain Dev. 2004;26:373-376. View abstract.
- Kemp, S., Biswas, R., Neumann, V., and Coughlan, A. The value of melatonin for sleep disorders occurring post-head injury: a pilot RCT. Brain Inj. 2004;18:911-919. View abstract.
- Honma, K., Kohsaka, M., Fukuda, N., Morita, N., and Honma, S. Effects of vitamin B12 on plasma melatonin rhythm in humans: increased light sensitivity phase-advances the circadian clock? Experientia 8-15-1992;48:716-720. View abstract.
- Paul, M. A., Gray, G., Sardana, T. M., and Pigeau, R. A. Melatonin and zopiclone as facilitators of early circadian sleep in operational air transport crews. Aviat.Space Environ.Med 2004;75:439-443. View abstract.
- Scheer, F. A., Van Montfrans, G. A., van Someren, E. J., Mairuhu, G., and Buijs, R. M. Daily nighttime melatonin reduces blood pressure in male patients with essential hypertension. Hypertension 2004;43:192-197. View abstract.
- Kunz, D., Mahlberg, R., Muller, C., Tilmann, A., and Bes, F. Melatonin in patients with reduced REM sleep duration: two randomized controlled trials. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2004;89:128-134. View abstract.
- Leger, D., Laudon, M., and Zisapel, N. Nocturnal 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion in insomnia and its relation to the response to melatonin replacement therapy. Am J Med 1-15-2004;116:91-95. View abstract.
- Hartter, S., Nordmark, A., Rose, D. M., Bertilsson, L., Tybring, G., and Laine, K. Effects of caffeine intake on the pharmacokinetics of melatonin, a probe drug for CYP1A2 activity. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2003;56:679-682. View abstract.
- Fischer, S., Smolnik, R., Herms, M., Born, J., and Fehm, H. L. Melatonin acutely improves the neuroendocrine architecture of sleep in blind individuals. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2003;88:5315-5320. View abstract.
- Hack, L. M., Lockley, S. W., Arendt, J., and Skene, D. J. The effects of low-dose 0.5-mg melatonin on the free-running circadian rhythms of blind subjects. J Biol.Rhythms 2003;18:420-429. View abstract.
- Smits, M. G., van Stel, H. F., van der, Heijden K., Meijer, A. M., Coenen, A. M., and Kerkhof, G. A. Melatonin improves health status and sleep in children with idiopathic chronic sleep-onset insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad.Child Adolesc.Psychiatry 2003;42:1286-1293. View abstract.
- Ursing, C., Wikner, J., Brismar, K., and Rojdmark, S. Caffeine raises the serum melatonin level in healthy subjects: an indication of melatonin metabolism by cytochrome P450(CYP)1A2. J.Endocrinol.Invest 2003;26:403-406. View abstract.
- Leppamaki, S., Partonen, T., Vakkuri, O., Lonnqvist, J., Partinen, M., and Laudon, M. Effect of controlled-release melatonin on sleep quality, mood, and quality of life in subjects with seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour. Eur.Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003;13:137-145. View abstract.
- Dericks-Tan, J. S., Schwinn, P., and Hildt, C. Dose-dependent stimulation of melatonin secretion after administration of agnus castus. Exp.Clin Endocrinol.Diabetes 2003;111:44-46. View abstract.
- Sharkey, K. M., Fogg, L. F., and Eastman, C. I. Effects of melatonin administration on daytime sleep after simulated night shift work. J Sleep Res 2001;10:181-192. View abstract.
- Kitajima, T., Kanbayashi, T., Saitoh, Y., Ogawa, Y., Sugiyama, T., Kaneko, Y., Sasaki, Y., Aizawa, R., and Shimisu, T. The effects of oral melatonin on the autonomic function in healthy subjects. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55:299-300. View abstract.
- Ninomiya, T., Iwatani, N., Tomoda, A., and Miike, T. Effects of exogenous melatonin on pituitary hormones in humans. Clin Physiol 2001;21:292-299. View abstract.
- Atkinson, G., Buckley, P., Edwards, B., Reilly, T., and Waterhouse, J. Are there hangover-effects on physical performance when melatonin is ingested by athletes before nocturnal sleep? Int J Sports Med 2001;22:232-234. View abstract.
- Wakatsuki, A., Okatani, Y., Ikenoue, N., Kaneda, C., and Fukaya, T. Effects of short-term melatonin administration on lipoprotein metabolism in normolipidemic postmenopausal women. Maturitas 4-20-2001;38:171-177. View abstract.
- Cagnacci, A., Arangino, S., Angiolucci, M., Melis, G. B., Facchinetti, F., Malmusi, S., and Volpe, A. Effect of exogenous melatonin on vascular reactivity and nitric oxide in postmenopausal women: role of hormone replacement therapy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2001;54:261-266. View abstract.
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