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Melatonin


What is it?

Melatonin is a hormone found naturally in the body. Melatonin used as medicine is usually made synthetically in a laboratory. It is most commonly available in pill form, but melatonin is also available in forms that can be placed in the cheek or under the tongue. This allows the melatonin to be absorbed directly into the body.

People use melatonin to adjust the body’s internal clock. It is used for jet lag, for adjusting sleep-wake cycles in people whose daily work schedule changes (shift-work disorder), and for helping blind people establish a day and night cycle.

Melatonin is also used for the inability to fall asleep (insomnia); delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS); insomnia associated with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); insomnia due to certain high blood pressure medications called beta-blockers; and sleep problems in children with developmental disorders including autism, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disabilities. It is also used as a sleep aid after discontinuing the use of benzodiazepine drugs and to reduce the side effects of stopping smoking.

Some people use melatonin for Alzheimer’s disease, ringing in the ears, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia, migraine and other headaches, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), bone loss (osteoporosis), a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia (TD), epilepsy, as an anti-aging agent, for menopause, and for birth control.

Other uses include breast cancer, brain cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, head cancer, neck cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Melatonin is also used for some of the side effects of cancer treatment (chemotherapy) including weight loss, nerve pain, weakness, and a lowered number of clot-forming cells (thrombocytopenia).

It is also used to calm people before they are given anesthesia for surgery.

The forms of melatonin that can be absorbed through the cheek or under the tongue are used for insomnia, shift-work disorder, and to calm people before receiving anesthesia for surgery.

Sometimes people apply melatonin to the skin to protect against sunburn.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for MELATONIN are as follows:

Likely effective for...

  • Sleeping problems in children with autism and intellectual disabilities. Taking melatonin by mouth is helpful for disturbed sleep-wake cycles in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities, autism, and other central nervous system disorders. Melatonin also appears to shorten the time it takes for to children with developmental disabilities (cerebral palsy, autism, and intellectual disabilities.
  • Sleep disorders in blind people.

Possibly effective for...

  • Jet lag. Most research shows that melatonin can improve certain symptoms of jet lag such as alertness and movement coordination. Melatonin also seems to improve, to a lesser extent, other jet lag symptoms such as daytime sleepiness and tiredness. But, melatonin might not be effective for shortening the time it takes for people with jet lag to fall asleep.
  • Insomnia. For primary insomnia (insomnia that is not attributable to a medical or environmental cause), melatonin seems to be able to shorten the amount of time it takes to fall asleep, but only by about 12 minutes, according to one research study. Melatonin does not appear to significantly improve “sleep efficiency,” the percentage of time that a person actually spends sleeping during the time set aside for sleeping. Some people say melatonin makes them sleep better, even though tests don’t agree. There is some evidence that melatonin is more likely to help older people than younger people or children. This may be because older people have less melatonin in their bodies to start with.
    There is some interest in finding out whether melatonin might help with “secondary insomnia.” This is trouble sleeping that is related to other conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease; depression; schizophrenia; hospitalization; and “ICU syndrome,” sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit. Research to date suggests that melatonin might not help to reduce the time it takes to fall asleep in secondary insomnia, but it might improve sleep efficiency.
  • Cluster headaches. Taking 10 mg of melatonin by mouth every evening might reduce the number of cluster headaches. However, taking 2 mg of melatonin at bedtime doesn’t seem to work.
  • Reducing anxiety before surgery. Melatonin used under the tongue seems to be as effective in reducing anxiety before surgery as midazolam, a conventional medication. It also seems to have fewer side effects in some people.
  • Helping elderly people sleep after they stop taking a type of drug called benzodiazepines. The controlled-release form of melatonin is the type that was shown to work for this.
  • Helping decrease symptoms in people who are quitting smoking. A single oral dose of 0.3 mg of melatonin taken 3.5 hours after stopping cigarettes seems to reduce anxiety, restlessness, irritability, depression, and cigarette craving over the next 10 hours.
  • Low blood platelets (thrombocytopenia).
  • Improving the effectiveness of certain cancer medications used to fight tumors in the breast, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, stomach, colon, prostate, and decreasing some side effects of cancer treatment.
  • Decreasing symptoms of a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia (TD).
  • Decreasing sunburn when applied to the skin in a cream form before going into the sun.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Adjusting sleep schedule in people that do shift work.

Likely ineffective for...

  • Depression. There is also some concern that melatonin might worsen symptoms in some people.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Epilepsy. There is some evidence that melatonin at bedtime may reduce the number and length of seizures in children with epilepsy. But melatonin should be used cautiously, because melatonin may increase the number of seizures in some people.
  • Menopausal symptoms. Limited research suggests that melatonin does not relieve menopausal symptoms. However, melatonin in combination with soy isoflavones might help psychological symptoms associated with menopause.
  • Sleep problems associated with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Limited research suggests melatonin might improve insomnia in children with ADHD who are taking stimulants. But improved sleep does not seem to decrease symptoms of ADHD.
  • Migraine headache. There is some evidence that taking melatonin nightly before bed can prevent episodic migraine headache. When headaches do occur, they are milder and pass more quickly. Some research suggests that melatonin production might be altered in people with migraine.
  • Insomnia caused by medications used for high blood pressure (beta-blockers).
  • Headache characterized by sudden sharp pain (idiopathic stabbing headache).
  • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus).
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Osteoporosis.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • Birth control.
  • Fibromyalgia.
  • Aging.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate melatonin for these uses.

How does it work?

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Melatonin’s main job in the body is to regulate night and day cycles or sleep-wake cycles. Darkness causes the body to produce more melatonin, which signals the body to prepare for sleep. Light decreases melatonin production and signals the body to prepare for being awake. Some people who have trouble sleeping have low levels of melatonin. It is thought that adding melatonin from supplements might help them sleep.

Are there safety concerns?

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Melatonin is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth short-term or applied to the skin. It can cause some side effects including headache, short-term feelings of depression, daytime sleepiness, dizziness, stomach cramps, and irritability. Do not drive or use machinery for four to five hours after taking melatonin.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Melatonin is POSSIBLY UNSAFE in pregnancy. Don’t use it. Melatonin might also interfere with ovulation, making it more difficult to become pregnant.

Not enough is known about the safety of using melatonin when breast-feeding. It’s best not to use it.

Children: Melatonin should not be used in most children. It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Because of its effects on other hormones, melatonin might interfere with development during adolescence.

High blood pressure: Melatonin can raise blood pressure in people who are taking certain medications to control blood pressure. Avoid using it.

Diabetes: Melatonin might increase blood sugar in people with diabetes. Monitor your blood sugar carefully, if you have diabetes and take melatonin.

Depression: Melatonin can make symptoms of depression worse.

Seizure disorders: Using melatonin might increase the risk of having a seizure.

Are there interactions with medications?

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Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)
The body makes melatonin. Birth control pills seem to increase how much melatonin the body makes. Taking melatonin along with birth control pills might cause too much melatonin to be in the body.

Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.

Caffeine
Caffeine might decrease melatonin levels in the body. Taking melatonin along with caffeine might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin supplements.

Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
Taking fluvoxamine (Luvox) can increase the amount of melatonin that the body absorbs. Taking melatonin along with fluvoxamine (Luvox) might increase the effects and side effects of melatonin.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
There is some concern that melatonin might increase or decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. By affecting blood sugar, melatonin might decrease or increase the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)
Melatonin might increase the immune system. Taking melatonin along with medications that decrease the immune system might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.

Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Melatonin might slow blood clotting. Taking melatonin along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Nifedipine GITS (Procardia XL)
Nifedipine GITS (Procardia XL) is used to lower blood pressure. Taking melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of nifedipine GITS for lowering blood pressure.

Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines)
Melatonin might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Drugs that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking melatonin along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some of these sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and others.

Sedative medications (CNS depressants)
Melatonin might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking melatonin along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.

Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan)
The body breaks down melatonin to get rid of it. Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can increase how quickly the body gets rid of melatonin. Taking melatonin along with verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin.

Minor

Be watchful with this combination.

Flumazenil (Romazicon)
Flumazenil (Romazicon) might decrease the effects of melatonin. It is not yet clear why this interaction occurs. Taking flumazenil (Romazicon) along with melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin supplements.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

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Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Melatonin might increase the effect of herbs that slow blood clotting and might increase the risk of bleeding in some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, red clover, willow, and others.

Herbs and supplements with sleep-promoting (sedative) properties
Using melatonin along with herbs that have sedative properties might increase the effects and side effects of melatonin. Some of these supplements include 5-HTP, calamus, California poppy, catnip, hops, Jamaican dogwood, kava, St. John's wort, skullcap, valerian, yerba mansa, and others.

Are there interactions with foods?

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There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

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The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:
  • For insomnia:
    • 0.3-5 mg at bedtime is a typical dose.
    • In children with insomnia due to delayed sleep onset, melatonin 5 mg at 6:00 PM daily.
    • In children with developmental disorders (including cerebral palsy, autism, and intellectual disabilities), melatonin 5 mg at 8:00 PM daily. Both immediate-release and sustained-release preparations have been used.
  • For jet lag: 0.5-5 mg at bedtime is commonly taken on the arrival day at the destination, continuing for 2-5 days. Low doses of 0.5-3 mg are often used to avoid the hypnotic properties of the higher 4-5 mg doses.
  • For tardive dyskinesia (TD): 10 mg daily of a controlled-release formulation.
  • As treatment for solid tumors in combination with conventional therapy: 10-50 mg along with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or interleukin 2 (IL-2). Melatonin is typically started 7 days before the start of chemotherapy and continued throughout full treatment course.
  • For treatment of prostate cancer that has spread to other sites (metastatic cancer) and is resistant to triptorelin used alone: 20 mg taken daily has been used in combination with 3.75 mg of triptorelin injected into the muscle every 28 days.
  • For prevention and treatment of lowered clot-forming cells (thrombocytopenia) associated with cancer chemotherapy: 20 mg each evening.
  • For benzodiazepine withdrawal in elderly people with insomnia: 2 mg of controlled-release melatonin taken at bedtime for 6 weeks (the benzodiazepine dosage is reduced 50% during the second week, 75% during weeks 3 and 4, and stopped during weeks 5 and 6) and continued up to 6 months.
  • For prevention of cluster headache: an evening dose of 10 mg.
  • For reducing anxiety before surgery in adults: 0.05 mg/kg under the tongue.
  • For reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms: 0.3 mg orally 3.5 hours after stopping smoking.

Other names

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5-Methoxy-N-Acetyltryptamine, MEL, Melatonina, Mélatonine, MLT, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, N-Acétyl-5-Méthoxytryptamine, Pineal Hormone.

Methodology

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To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

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To see all references for the Melatonin page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/940.html.

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  294. El-Batch, M., Hassan, A. M., and Mahmoud, H. A. Taurine is more effective than melatonin on cytochrome P450 2E1 and some oxidative stress markers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Agric.Food Chem 5-11-2011;59:4995-5000. View abstract.
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  296. Celinski, K., Konturek, S. J., Konturek, P. C., Brzozowski, T., Cichoz-Lach, H., Slomka, M., Malgorzata, P., Bielanski, W., and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin or L-tryptophan accelerates healing of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients treated with omeprazole. J.Pineal Res. 2011;50:389-394. View abstract.
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  298. Ozcengiz, D., Gunes, Y., and Ozmete, O. Oral melatonin, dexmedetomidine, and midazolam for prevention of postoperative agitation in children. J.Anesth. 2011;25:184-188. View abstract.
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  300. Rondanelli, M., Opizzi, A., Monteferrario, F., Antoniello, N., Manni, R., and Klersy, C. The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 2011;59:82-90. View abstract.
  301. Gonciarz, M., Gonciarz, Z., Bielanski, W., Mularczyk, A., Konturek, P. C., Brzozowski, T., and Konturek, S. J. The pilot study of 3-month course of melatonin treatment of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: effect on plasma levels of liver enzymes, lipids and melatonin. J.Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;61:705-710. View abstract.
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  304. Kozirog, M., Poliwczak, A. R., Duchnowicz, P., Koter-Michalak, M., Sikora, J., and Broncel, M. Melatonin treatment improves blood pressure, lipid profile, and parameters of oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome. J.Pineal Res. 2011;50:261-266. View abstract.
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  308. de Almeida, E. A., Di, Mascio P., Harumi, T., Spence, D. W., Moscovitch, A., Hardeland, R., Cardinali, D. P., Brown, G. M., and Pandi-Perumal, S. R. Measurement of melatonin in body fluids: standards, protocols and procedures. Childs Nerv.Syst. 2011;27:879-891. View abstract.
  309. Dominguez-Rodriguez, A., Abreu-Gonzalez, P., Jimenez-Sosa, A., Avanzas, P., Bosa-Ojeda, F., and Kaski, J. C. Usefulness of intraplatelet melatonin levels to predict angiographic no-reflow after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Am.J.Cardiol. 12-1-2010;106:1540-1544. View abstract.
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  313. Paul, M. A., Gray, G. W., Lieberman, H. R., Love, R. J., Miller, J. C., Trouborst, M., and Arendt, J. Phase advance with separate and combined melatonin and light treatment. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2011;214:515-523. View abstract.
  314. Uberos, J., Augustin-Morales, M. C., Molina, Carballo A., Florido, J., Narbona, E., and Munoz-Hoyos, A. Normalization of the sleep-wake pattern and melatonin and 6-sulphatoxy-melatonin levels after a therapeutic trial with melatonin in children with severe epilepsy. J.Pineal Res. 2011;50:192-196. View abstract.
  315. Alstadhaug, K. B., Odeh, F., Salvesen, R., and Bekkelund, S. I. Prophylaxis of migraine with melatonin: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 10-26-2010;75:1527-1532. View abstract.
  316. Vigore, L., Messina, G., Brivio, F., Fumagalli, L., Rovelli, F., DI, Fede G., and Lissoni, P. Psychoneuroendocrine modulation of regulatory T lymphocyte system: in vivo and in vitro effects of the pineal immunomodulating hormone melatonin. In Vivo 2010;24:787-789. View abstract.
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  319. Al-Aama, T., Brymer, C., Gutmanis, I., Woolmore-Goodwin, S. M., Esbaugh, J., and Dasgupta, M. Melatonin decreases delirium in elderly patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Int.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 2011;26:687-694. View abstract.
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  324. Rizzo, P., Raffone, E., and Benedetto, V. Effect of the treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin in comparison with a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid on oocyte quality and pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles. A prospective, clinical trial. Eur.Rev.Med.Pharmacol.Sci. 2010;14:555-561. View abstract.
  325. Mrowicka, M., Garncarek, P., Miller, E., Kedziora, J., Smigielski, J., Malinowska, K., and Mrowicki, J. [Effect of melatonin on activity of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) in erythrocytes of patients during short- and long-term hypokinesis]. Wiad.Lek. 2010;63:3-9. View abstract.
  326. Strassman, R. J., Qualls, C. R., Lisansky, E. J., and Peake, G. T. Sleep deprivation reduces LH secretion in men independently of melatonin. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1991;124:646-651. View abstract.
  327. Leu, R. M., Beyderman, L., Botzolakis, E. J., Surdyka, K., Wang, L., and Malow, B. A. Relation of melatonin to sleep architecture in children with autism. J.Autism Dev.Disord. 2011;41:427-433. View abstract.
  328. Francis, G. J., Becker, W. J., and Pringsheim, T. M. Acute and preventive pharmacologic treatment of cluster headache. Neurology 8-3-2010;75:463-473. View abstract.
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  330. Chaste, P., Clement, N., Mercati, O., Guillaume, J. L., Delorme, R., Botros, H. G., Pagan, C., Perivier, S., Scheid, I., Nygren, G., Anckarsater, H., Rastam, M., Stahlberg, O., Gillberg, C., Serrano, E., Lemiere, N., Launay, J. M., Mouren-Simeoni, M. C., Leboyer, M., Gillberg, C., Jockers, R., and Bourgeron, T. Identification of pathway-biased and deleterious melatonin receptor mutants in autism spectrum disorders and in the general population. PLoS.One. 2010;5:e11495. View abstract.
  331. Kucukakin, B., Wilhelmsen, M., Lykkesfeldt, J., Reiter, R. J., Rosenberg, J., and Gogenur, I. No effect of melatonin to modify surgical-stress response after major vascular surgery: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Eur.J.Vasc.Endovasc.Surg. 2010;40:461-467. View abstract.
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  334. Braam, W., van, Geijlswijk, I, Keijzer, H., Smits, M. G., Didden, R., and Curfs, L. M. Loss of response to melatonin treatment is associated with slow melatonin metabolism. J.Intellect.Disabil.Res. 2010;54:547-555. View abstract.
  335. Mazzoccoli, G., Vendemiale, G., De, Cata A., Carughi, S., and Tarquini, R. Altered time structure of neuro-endocrine-immune system function in lung cancer patients. BMC.Cancer 2010;10:314. View abstract.
  336. Baeza, I., Fdez-Tresguerres, J., Ariznavarreta, C., and De la Fuente, M. Effects of growth hormone, melatonin, oestrogens and phytoestrogens on the oxidized glutathione (GSSG)/reduced glutathione (GSH) ratio and lipid peroxidation in aged ovariectomized rats. Biogerontology. 2010;11:687-701. View abstract.
  337. Kunz, D. and Mahlberg, R. A two-part, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of exogenous melatonin in REM sleep behaviour disorder. J.Sleep Res. 2010;19:591-596. View abstract.
  338. Garrido, M., Paredes, S. D., Cubero, J., Lozano, M., Toribio-Delgado, A. F., Munoz, J. L., Reiter, R. J., Barriga, C., and Rodriguez, A. B. Jerte Valley cherry-enriched diets improve nocturnal rest and increase 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and total antioxidant capacity in the urine of middle-aged and elderly humans. J.Gerontol.A Biol.Sci.Med.Sci. 2010;65:909-914. View abstract.
  339. Wright, B., Sims, D., Smart, S., Alwazeer, A., Alderson-Day, B., Allgar, V., Whitton, C., Tomlinson, H., Bennett, S., Jardine, J., McCaffrey, N., Leyland, C., Jakeman, C., and Miles, J. Melatonin versus placebo in children with autism spectrum conditions and severe sleep problems not amenable to behaviour management strategies: a randomised controlled crossover trial. J.Autism Dev.Disord. 2011;41:175-184. View abstract.
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  341. Palm, L., Blennow, G., and Wetterberg, L. Correction of non-24-hour sleep/wake cycle by melatonin in a blind retarded boy. Ann.Neurol. 1991;29:336-339. View abstract.
  342. Rezzani, R., Porteri, E., De, Ciuceis C., Bonomini, F., Rodella, L. F., Paiardi, S., Boari, G. E., Platto, C., Pilu, A., Avanzi, D., Rizzoni, D., and Agabiti, Rosei E. Effects of melatonin and Pycnogenol on small artery structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 2010;55:1373-1380. View abstract.
  343. Jonsson, L., Ljunggren, E., Bremer, A., Pedersen, C., Landen, M., Thuresson, K., Giacobini, M., and Melke, J. Mutation screening of melatonin-related genes in patients with autism spectrum disorders. BMC.Med.Genomics 2010;3:10. View abstract.
  344. Brivio, F., Fumagalli, L., Fumagalli, G., Pescia, S., Brivio, R., DI, Fede G., Rovelli, F., and Lissoni, P. Synchronization of cortisol circadian rhythm by the pineal hormone melatonin in untreatable metastatic solid tumor patients and its possible prognostic significance on tumor progression. In Vivo 2010;24:239-241. View abstract.
  345. Elkhayat, H. A., Hassanein, S. M., Tomoum, H. Y., Abd-Elhamid, I. A., Asaad, T., and Elwakkad, A. S. Melatonin and sleep-related problems in children with intractable epilepsy. Pediatr.Neurol. 2010;42:249-254. View abstract.
  346. Whittom, S., Dumont, M., Petit, D., Desautels, A., Adam, B., Lavigne, G., and Montplaisir, J. Effects of melatonin and bright light administration on motor and sensory symptoms of RLS. Sleep Med. 2010;11:351-355. View abstract.
  347. Miano, S. and Ferri, R. Epidemiology and management of insomnia in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Paediatr.Drugs 4-1-2010;12:75-84. View abstract.
  348. Park, K., Lee, Y., Park, S., Lee, S., Hong, Y., Kil, Lee S., and Hong, Y. Synergistic effect of melatonin on exercise-induced neuronal reconstruction and functional recovery in a spinal cord injury animal model. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:270-281. View abstract.
  349. Espino, J., Bejarano, I., Paredes, S. D., Gonzalez, D., Barriga, C., Reiter, R. J., Pariente, J. A., and Rodriguez, A. B. Melatonin counteracts alterations in oxidative metabolism and cell viability induced by intracellular calcium overload in human leucocytes: changes with age. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2010;107:590-597. View abstract.
  350. Cilio, M. R. and Ferriero, D. M. Synergistic neuroprotective therapies with hypothermia. Semin.Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;15:293-298. View abstract.
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  352. Gonzalez, A., Martinez-Campa, C., Mediavilla, M. D., Alonso-Gonzalez, C., Alvarez-Garcia, V., Sanchez-Barcelo, E. J., and Cos, S. Inhibitory effects of melatonin on sulfatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and expression in glioma cells. Oncol.Rep. 2010;23:1173-1178. View abstract.
  353. Serfaty, M. A., Osborne, D., Buszewicz, M. J., Blizard, R., and Raven, P. W. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of treatment as usual plus exogenous slow-release melatonin (6 mg) or placebo for sleep disturbance and depressed mood. Int.Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2010;25:132-142. View abstract.
  354. Aurora, R. N., Zak, R. S., Maganti, R. K., Auerbach, S. H., Casey, K. R., Chowdhuri, S., Karippot, A., Ramar, K., Kristo, D. A., and Morgenthaler, T. I. Best practice guide for the treatment of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). J.Clin.Sleep Med. 2-15-2010;6:85-95. View abstract.
  355. Akmali, M., Ahmadi, R., and Vessal, M. Pre- and post-treatment of streptozocin administered rats with melatonin: effects on some hepatic enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. Arch.Iran Med. 2010;13:105-110. View abstract.
  356. Borazan, H., Tuncer, S., Yalcin, N., Erol, A., and Otelcioglu, S. Effects of preoperative oral melatonin medication on postoperative analgesia, sleep quality, and sedation in patients undergoing elective prostatectomy: a randomized clinical trial. J.Anesth. 2010;24:155-160. View abstract.
  357. Pedrosa, A. M., Weinlich, R., Mognol, G. P., Robbs, B. K., Viola, J. P., Campa, A., and Amarante-Mendes, G. P. Melatonin protects CD4+ T cells from activation-induced cell death by blocking NFAT-mediated CD95 ligand upregulation. J.Immunol. 4-1-2010;184:3487-3494. View abstract.
  358. Fang, Q., Chen, G., Zhu, W., Dong, W., and Wang, Z. Influence of melatonin on cerebrovascular proinflammatory mediators expression and oxidative stress following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits. Mediators.Inflamm. 2009;426346. View abstract.
  359. Zaouali, M. A., Ben, Abdennebi H., Padrissa-Altes, S., Mahfoudh-Boussaid, A., and Rosello-Catafau, J. Pharmacological strategies against cold ischemia reperfusion injury. Expert.Opin.Pharmacother. 2010;11:537-555. View abstract.
  360. Guo, Y., Wang, J., Wang, Z., Yang, Y., Wang, X., and Duan, Q. Melatonin protects N2a against ischemia/reperfusion injury through autophagy enhancement. J.Huazhong.Univ Sci.Technolog.Med.Sci. 2010;30:1-7. View abstract.
  361. Espino, J., Bejarano, I., Ortiz, A., Lozano, G. M., Garcia, J. F., Pariente, J. A., and Rodriguez, A. B. Melatonin as a potential tool against oxidative damage and apoptosis in ejaculated human spermatozoa. Fertil.Steril. 2010;94:1915-1917. View abstract.
  362. Srinath, R., Acharya, A. B., and Thakur, S. L. Salivary and gingival crevicular fluid melatonin in periodontal health and disease. J.Periodontol. 2010;81:277-283. View abstract.
  363. Wiktorska, J. A., Lewinski, A., Stuss, M., Nowak, D., Pietras, T., and Sewerynek, E. Effects of certain antioxidants on lipid peroxidation process in lung homogenates of L thyroxine-receiving rats. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2010;31:137-146. View abstract.
  364. Dilek, M., Naziroglu, M., Baha, Oral H., Suat, Ovey, I, Kucukayaz, M., Mungan, M. T., Kara, H. Y., and Sutcu, R. Melatonin modulates hippocampus NMDA receptors, blood and brain oxidative stress levels in ovariectomized rats. J.Membr.Biol. 2010;233(1-3):135-142. View abstract.
  365. Sharma, S., Haldar, C., Chaube, S. K., Laxmi, T., and Singh, S. S. Long-term melatonin administration attenuates low-LET gamma-radiation-induced lymphatic tissue injury during the reproductively active and inactive phases of Indian palm squirrels (Funambulus pennanti). Br.J.Radiol. 2010;83:137-151. View abstract.
  366. Kaur, C., Sivakumar, V., and Ling, E. A. Melatonin protects periventricular white matter from damage due to hypoxia. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:185-193. View abstract.
  367. Hoppe, J. B., Frozza, R. L., Horn, A. P., Comiran, R. A., Bernardi, A., Campos, M. M., Battastini, A. M., and Salbego, C. Amyloid-beta neurotoxicity in organotypic culture is attenuated by melatonin: involvement of GSK-3beta, tau and neuroinflammation. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:230-238. View abstract.
  368. Tian, X. Z., Wen, Q., Shi, J. M., Liang, Wang, Zeng, S. M., Tian, J. H., Zhou, G. B., Zhu, S. E., and Liu, G. S. Effects of melatonin on in vitro development of mouse two-cell embryos cultured in HTF medium. Endocr.Res. 2010;35:17-23. View abstract.
  369. Sisecioglu, M., Cankaya, M., Gulcin, I., and Ozdemir, H. Interactions of melatonin and serotonin with lactoperoxidase enzyme. J.Enzyme Inhib.Med.Chem. 2010;25:779-783. View abstract.
  370. Ferrante, E., Rossi, P., Tassorelli, C., Lisotto, C., and Nappi, G. Focus on therapy of primary stabbing headache. J.Headache Pain 2010;11:157-160. View abstract.
  371. Hajak, G., Huether, G., Blanke, J., Blomer, M., Freyer, C., Poeggeler, B., Reimer, A., Rodenbeck, A., Schulz-Varszegi, M., and Ruther, E. The influence of intravenous L-tryptophan on plasma melatonin and sleep in men. Pharmacopsychiatry 1991;24:17-20. View abstract.
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  373. Uluocak, N., Atilgan, D., Erdemir, F., Parlaktas, B. S., Yasar, A., Erkorkmaz, U., and Akbas, A. An animal model of ischemic priapism and the effects of melatonin on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative injury parameters in rat penis. Int.Urol.Nephrol. 2010;42:889-895. View abstract.
  374. Neri, G., De, Stefano A., Baffa, C., Kulamarva, G., Di, Giovanni P., Petrucci, G., Poliandri, A., Dispenza, F., Citraro, L., and Croce, A. Treatment of central and sensorineural tinnitus with orally administered Melatonin and Sulodexide: personal experience from a randomized controlled study. Acta Otorhinolaryngol.Ital. 2009;29:86-91. View abstract.
  375. Garcia, J. J., Pinol-Ripoll, G., Martinez-Ballarin, E., Fuentes-Broto, L., Miana-Mena, F. J., Venegas, C., Caballero, B., Escames, G., Coto-Montes, A., and Acuna-Castroviejo, D. Melatonin reduces membrane rigidity and oxidative damage in the brain of SAMP8 mice. Neurobiol.Aging 2011;32:2045-2054. View abstract.
  376. Kandil, T. S., Mousa, A. A., El-Gendy, A. A., and Abbas, A. M. The potential therapeutic effect of melatonin in Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. BMC.Gastroenterol. 2010;10:7. View abstract.
  377. Esteban, S., Garau, C., Aparicio, S., Moranta, D., Barcelo, P., Fiol, M. A., and Rial, R. Chronic melatonin treatment and its precursor L-tryptophan improve the monoaminergic neurotransmission and related behavior in the aged rat brain. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:170-177. View abstract.
  378. Das, A., McDowell, M., Pava, M. J., Smith, J. A., Reiter, R. J., Woodward, J. J., Varma, A. K., Ray, S. K., and Banik, N. L. The inhibition of apoptosis by melatonin in VSC4.1 motoneurons exposed to oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, or TNF-alpha toxicity involves membrane melatonin receptors. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:157-169. View abstract.
  379. Azpeleta, C., Martinez-Alvarez, R. M., Delgado, M. J., Isorna, E., and De, Pedro N. Melatonin reduces locomotor activity and circulating cortisol in goldfish. Horm.Behav. 2010;57:323-329. View abstract.
  380. Mogulkoc, R. and Baltaci, A. K. Effect of melatonin supplementation on plasma vasopressin response to different conditions in rats with hyperthyroidism induced by L-thyroxine. Regul.Pept. 4-9-2010;161(1-3):38-42. View abstract.
  381. Huang, S. H., Cao, X. J., Liu, W., Shi, X. Y., and Wei, W. Inhibitory effect of melatonin on lung oxidative stress induced by respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:109-116. View abstract.
  382. Suwanjang, W., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Govitrapong, P., and Chetsawang, B. The protective effect of melatonin on methamphetamine-induced calpain-dependent death pathway in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cultured cells. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:94-101. View abstract.
  383. Rodella, L. F., Filippini, F., Bonomini, F., Bresciani, R., Reiter, R. J., and Rezzani, R. Beneficial effects of melatonin on nicotine-induced vasculopathy. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:126-132. View abstract.
  384. Hill, S. M., Frasch, T., Xiang, S., Yuan, L., Duplessis, T., and Mao, L. Molecular mechanisms of melatonin anticancer effects. Integr.Cancer Ther. 2009;8:337-346. View abstract.
  385. Rahman, S. A., Kayumov, L., and Shapiro, C. M. Antidepressant action of melatonin in the treatment of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome. Sleep Med. 2010;11:131-136. View abstract.
  386. Paulis, L., Pechanova, O., Zicha, J., Barta, A., Gardlik, R., Celec, P., Kunes, J., and Simko, F. Melatonin interactions with blood pressure and vascular function during L-NAME-induced hypertension. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:102-108. View abstract.
  387. Dong, W., Huang, F., Fan, W., Cheng, S., Chen, Y., Zhang, W., Shi, H., and He, H. Differential effects of melatonin on amyloid-beta peptide 25-35-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in hippocampal neurons at different stages of culture. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:117-125. View abstract.
  388. Nishimura, J., Saegusa, Y., Dewa, Y., Jin, M., Kawai, M., Kemmochi, S., Harada, T., Hayashi, S. M., Shibutani, M., and Mitsumori, K. Antioxidant enzymatically modified isoquercitrin or melatonin supplementation reduces oxidative stress-mediated hepatocellular tumor promotion of oxfendazole in rats. Arch.Toxicol. 2010;84:143-153. View abstract.
  389. Bendz, L. M. and Scates, A. C. Melatonin treatment for insomnia in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Ann.Pharmacother. 2010;44:185-191. View abstract.
  390. Srivastava, R. K. and Krishna, A. Melatonin modulates glucose homeostasis during winter dormancy in a vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi. Comp Biochem.Physiol A Mol.Integr.Physiol 2010;155:392-400. View abstract.
  391. de Castro-Silva, C., de Bruin, V. M., Cunha, G. M., Nunes, D. M., Medeiros, C. A., and de Bruin, P. F. Melatonin improves sleep and reduces nitrite in the exhaled breath condensate in cystic fibrosis--a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:65-71. View abstract.
  392. Song, Y. M. and Chen, M. D. Effects of melatonin administration on plasma leptin concentration and adipose tissue leptin secretion in mice. Acta Biol.Hung. 2009;60:399-407. View abstract.
  393. Paul, M. A., Miller, J. C., Gray, G. W., Love, R. J., Lieberman, H. R., and Arendt, J. Melatonin treatment for eastward and westward travel preparation. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010;208:377-386. View abstract.
  394. Di Bella, G. and Colori, B. Complete objective response of neuroblastoma to biological treatment. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2009;30:437-449. View abstract.
  395. Flemstrom, G., Bengtsson, M. W., Makela, K., and Herzig, K. H. Effects of short-term food deprivation on orexin-A-induced intestinal bicarbonate secretion in comparison with related secretagogues. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2010;198:373-380. View abstract.
  396. Radwan, P., Skrzydlo-Radomanska, B., Radwan-Kwiatek, K., Burak-Czapiuk, B., and Strzemecka, J. Is melatonin involved in the irritable bowel syndrome? J.Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60 Suppl 3:67-70. View abstract.
  397. Wirojanan, J., Jacquemont, S., Diaz, R., Bacalman, S., Anders, T. F., Hagerman, R. J., and Goodlin-Jones, B. L. The efficacy of melatonin for sleep problems in children with autism, fragile X syndrome, or autism and fragile X syndrome. J.Clin.Sleep Med. 4-15-2009;5:145-150. View abstract.
  398. Maldonado, M. D., Mora-Santos, M., Naji, L., Carrascosa-Salmoral, M. P., Naranjo, M. C., and Calvo, J. R. Evidence of melatonin synthesis and release by mast cells. Possible modulatory role on inflammation. Pharmacol.Res. 2010;62:282-287. View abstract.
  399. Sadowska-Woda, I., Wojcik, N., Karowicz-Bilinska, A., and Bieszczad-Bedrejczuk, E. Effect of selected antioxidants in beta-cyfluthrin-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes in vitro. Toxicol.In Vitro 2010;24:879-884. View abstract.
  400. Anderson, K. N. and Shneerson, J. M. Drug treatment of REM sleep behavior disorder: the use of drug therapies other than clonazepam. J.Clin.Sleep Med. 6-15-2009;5:235-239. View abstract.
  401. Hamada, F., Watanabe, K., Wakatsuki, A., Nagai, R., Shinohara, K., Hayashi, Y., Imamura, R., and Fukaya, T. Therapeutic effects of maternal melatonin administration on ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative cerebral damage in neonatal rats. Neonatology. 2010;98:33-40. View abstract.
  402. Chowdhury, V. S., Yamamoto, K., Ubuka, T., Bentley, G. E., Hattori, A., and Tsutsui, K. Melatonin stimulates the release of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone by the avian hypothalamus. Endocrinology 2010;151:271-280. View abstract.
  403. Liu, Y., Zhang, H., Zhang, L., Zhang, X., Xie, Y., and Zhao, W. Melatonin modulates acute testicular damage induced by carbon ions in mice. Pharmazie 2009;64:685-689. View abstract.
  404. Cernysiov, V., Gerasimcik, N., Mauricas, M., and Girkontaite, I. Regulation of T-cell-independent and T-cell-dependent antibody production by circadian rhythm and melatonin. Int.Immunol. 2010;22:25-34. View abstract.
  405. Murawska-Cialowicz, E., Jethon, Z., Magdalan, J., Januszewska, L., Podhorska-Okolow, M., Zawadzki, M., Sozanski, T., and Dziegiel, P. Effects of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities in the liver, kidneys and brain of rats administered with benzo(a)pyrene. Exp.Toxicol.Pathol. 2011;63(1-2):97-103. View abstract.
  406. Yang, F. L., Subeq, Y. M., Lee, C. J., Lee, R. P., Peng, T. C., and Hsu, B. G. Melatonin ameliorates hemorrhagic shock-induced organ damage in rats. J.Surg.Res. 5-15-2011;167:e315-e321. View abstract.
  407. Malekinejad, H., Farshid, A. A., and Mirzakhani, N. Liquorice plant extract reduces ochratoxin A-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Exp.Toxicol.Pathol. 2011;63(1-2):125-130. View abstract.
  408. Mulder, E. J., Anderson, G. M., Kemperman, R. F., Oosterloo-Duinkerken, A., Minderaa, R. B., and Kema, I. P. Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, serotonin and 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in normoserotonemic and hyperserotonemic autistic individuals. Neuropsychobiology 2010;61:27-32. View abstract.
  409. Gagne, A. M., Danilenko, K. V., Rosolen, S. G., and Hebert, M. Impact of oral melatonin on the electroretinogram cone response. J.Circadian.Rhythms 2009;7:14. View abstract.
  410. Casao, A., Mendoza, N., Perez-Pe, R., Grasa, P., Abecia, J. A., Forcada, F., Cebrian-Perez, J. A., and Muino-Blanco, T. Melatonin prevents capacitation and apoptotic-like changes of ram spermatozoa and increases fertility rate. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:39-46. View abstract.
  411. Venkataraman, P., Selvakumar, K., Krishnamoorthy, G., Muthusami, S., Rameshkumar, R., Prakash, S., and Arunakaran, J. Effect of melatonin on PCB (Aroclor 1254) induced neuronal damage and changes in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase-4 mRNA expression in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of adult rats. Neurosci.Res. 2010;66:189-197. View abstract.
  412. Zhou, W., Wang, P., and Tao, L. Effect of melatonin on proliferation of neonatal cord blood mononuclear cells. World J.Pediatr. 2009;5:300-303. View abstract.
  413. Faigl, V., Keresztes, M., Kulcsar, M., Nagy, S., Keresztes, Z., Amiridis, G. S., Solti, L., Huszenicza, G., and Cseh, S. Testicular function and semen characteristics of Awassi rams treated with melatonin out of the breeding season. Acta Vet.Hung. 2009;57:531-540. View abstract.
  414. Srivastava, R. K. and Krishna, A. Melatonin affects steroidogenesis and delayed ovulation during winter in vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi. J.Steroid Biochem.Mol.Biol. 2010;118(1-2):107-116. View abstract.
  415. Braam, W., Didden, R., Maas, A. P., Korzilius, H., Smits, M. G., and Curfs, L. M. Melatonin decreases daytime challenging behaviour in persons with intellectual disability and chronic insomnia. J.Intellect.Disabil.Res. 1-1-2010;54:52-59. View abstract.
  416. Xu, S., Zhou, Z., Zhang, L., Yu, Z., Zhang, W., Wang, Y., Wang, X., Li, M., Chen, Y., Chen, C., He, M., Zhang, G., and Zhong, M. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons. Brain Res. 1-22-2010;1311:189-196. View abstract.
  417. Yildirim, G., Attar, R., Ozkan, F., Kumbak, B., Ficicioglu, C., and Yesildaglar, N. The effects of letrozole and melatonin on surgically induced endometriosis in a rat model: a preliminary study. Fertil.Steril. 2010;93:1787-1792. View abstract.
  418. Rechcinski, T., Trzos, E., Wierzbowska-Drabik, K., Krzeminska-Pakula, M., and Kurpesa, M. Melatonin for nondippers with coronary artery disease: assessment of blood pressure profile and heart rate variability. Hypertens.Res. 2010;33:56-61. View abstract.
  419. Juszczak, M. and Boczek-Leszczyk, E. Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor activation stimulates oxytocin release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system while melatonin inhibits this process. Brain Res.Bull. 1-15-2010;81:185-190. View abstract.
  420. Myslobodsky, M. The paradox of caffeine-zolpidem interaction: a network analysis. Curr.Drug Targets. 2009;10:1009-1020. View abstract.
  421. Ortega-Gutierrez, S., Lopez-Vicente, M., Lostale, F., Fuentes-Broto, L., Martinez-Ballarin, E., and Garcia, J. J. Protective effect of melatonin against mitomycin C-induced genotoxic damage in peripheral blood of rats. J.Biomed.Biotechnol. 2009;2009:791432. View abstract.
  422. Manda, K. and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin maintains adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions after irradiation. Prog.Neurobiol. 1-11-2010;90:60-68. View abstract.
  423. Di, Bella G. and Madarena, M. Complete objective response of oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma to biological treatment. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2009;30:312-321. View abstract.
  424. Sonmez, M. F., Narin, F., and Balcioglu, E. Melatonin and vitamin C attenuates alcohol-induced oxidative stress in aorta. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2009;105:410-415. View abstract.
  425. Danielczyk, K. and Dziegiel, P. [MT1 melatonin receptors and their role in the oncostatic action of melatonin]. Postepy Hig.Med.Dosw.(Online.) 2009;63:425-434. View abstract.
  426. Franca, E. L., Feliciano, N. D., Silva, K. A., Ferrari, C. K., and Honorio-Franca, A. C. Modulatory role of melatonin on superoxide release by spleen macrophages isolated from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 2009;110:517-522. View abstract.
  427. Geihs, M. A., Vargas, M. A., Maciel, F. E., Caldas, S. S., Cruz, B. P., Primel, E. G., Monserrat, J. M., and Nery, L. E. Effect of melatonin in the antioxidant defense system in the locomotor muscles of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata (Decapoda, Brachyura). Gen.Comp Endocrinol. 3-1-2010;166:72-82. View abstract.
  428. Wang, X. The antiapoptotic activity of melatonin in neurodegenerative diseases. CNS.Neurosci.Ther. 2009;15:345-357. View abstract.
  429. Shieh, J. M., Wu, H. T., Cheng, K. C., and Cheng, J. T. Melatonin ameliorates high fat diet-induced diabetes and stimulates glycogen synthesis via a PKCzeta-Akt-GSK3beta pathway in hepatic cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:339-344. View abstract.
  430. Kim, T. H., Jung, J. A., Kim, G. D., Jang, A. H., Ahn, H. J., Park, Y. S., and Park, C. S. Melatonin inhibits the development of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:324-329. View abstract.
  431. Shi, J. M., Tian, X. Z., Zhou, G. B., Wang, L., Gao, C., Zhu, S. E., Zeng, S. M., Tian, J. H., and Liu, G. S. Melatonin exists in porcine follicular fluid and improves in vitro maturation and parthenogenetic development of porcine oocytes. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:318-323. View abstract.
  432. Carbajo-Pescador, S., Martin-Renedo, J., Garcia-Palomo, A., Tunon, M. J., Mauriz, J. L., and Gonzalez-Gallego, J. Changes in the expression of melatonin receptors induced by melatonin treatment in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:330-338. View abstract.
  433. Ersoz, N., Guven, A., Cayci, T., Uysal, B., Turk, E., Oztas, E., Akgul, E. O., Korkmaz, A., and Cetiner, S. Comparison of the efficacy of melatonin and 1400W on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury: a role for inhibiting iNOS. Ren Fail. 2009;31:704-710. View abstract.
  434. Saxena, G., Bharti, S., Kamat, P. K., Sharma, S., and Nath, C. Melatonin alleviates memory deficits and neuronal degeneration induced by intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin in rats. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2010;94:397-403. View abstract.
  435. Cemek, M., Emin, Buyukokuroglu M., Yurumez, Y., Yavuz, Y., Aslan, A., Buyukben, A., and Aymelek, F. Tissue trace and major element levels in organophosphate insecticide fenthion (Lebaycid) toxicity in rats: prophylactic and therapeutic effect of exogenous melatonin. Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf 2010;73:206-212. View abstract.
  436. Borah, A. and Mohanakumar, K. P. Melatonin inhibits 6-hydroxydopamine production in the brain to protect against experimental parkinsonism in rodents. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:293-300. View abstract.
  437. Izykowska, I., Cegielski, M., Gebarowska, E., Podhorska-Okolow, M., Piotrowska, A., Zabel, M., and Dziegiel, P. Effect of melatonin on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts subjected to UVA and UVB radiation In vitro. In Vivo 2009;23:739-745. View abstract.
  438. Izykowska, I., Gebarowska, E., Cegielski, M., Podhorska-Okolow, M., Piotrowska, A., Zabel, M., and Dziegiel, P. Effect of melatonin on melanoma cells subjected to UVA and UVB radiation in In vitro studies. In Vivo 2009;23:733-738. View abstract.
  439. Jagota, A. and Kalyani, D. Effect of melatonin on age induced changes in daily serotonin rhythms in suprachiasmatic nucleus of male Wistar rat. Biogerontology. 2010;11:299-308. View abstract.
  440. Spuch, C., Antequera, D., Isabel Fernandez-Bachiller, M., Isabel Rodriguez-Franco, M., and Carro, E. A new tacrine-melatonin hybrid reduces amyloid burden and behavioral deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neurotox.Res. 2010;17:421-431. View abstract.
  441. Martinez-Campa, C., Gonzalez, A., Mediavilla, M. D., Alonso-Gonzalez, C., Alvarez-Garcia, V., Sanchez-Barcelo, E. J., and Cos, S. Melatonin inhibits aromatase promoter expression by regulating cyclooxygenases expression and activity in breast cancer cells. Br.J.Cancer 11-3-2009;101:1613-1619. View abstract.
  442. Olivier, P., Fontaine, R. H., Loron, G., Van, Steenwinckel J., Biran, V., Massonneau, V., Kaindl, A., Dalous, J., Charriaut-Marlangue, C., Aigrot, M. S., Pansiot, J., Verney, C., Gressens, P., and Baud, O. Melatonin promotes oligodendroglial maturation of injured white matter in neonatal rats. PLoS.One. 2009;4:e7128. View abstract.
  443. Badoe, E. V. Classical Rett Syndrome in a Ghanaian child: a case report. West Afr.J.Med. 2009;28:134-136. View abstract.
  444. Becker, P. M. and Sattar, M. Treatment of sleep dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Curr.Treat.Options.Neurol. 2009;11:349-357. View abstract.
  445. Nierenberg, A. A. Low-dose buspirone, melatonin and low-dose bupropion added to mood stabilizers for severe treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Psychother.Psychosom. 2009;78:391-393. View abstract.
  446. Yurtcu, M., Abasiyanik, A., Bicer, S., and Avunduk, M. C. Efficacy of antioxidant treatment in the prevention of testicular atrophy in experimental testicular torsion. J.Pediatr.Surg. 2009;44:1754-1758. View abstract.
  447. Kuehn, C. C., Rodrigues Oliveira, L. G., Santos, C. D., Ferreira, D. S., Alonso Toldo, M. P., de, Albuquerque S., and do Prado, J. C. J. Melatonin and dehydroepiandrosterone combination: does this treatment exert a synergistic effect during experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection? J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:253-259. View abstract.
  448. Radogna, F., Nuccitelli, S., Mengoni, F., and Ghibelli, L. Neuroprotection by melatonin on astrocytoma cell death. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2009;1171:509-513. View abstract.
  449. Paternoster, L., Radogna, F., Accorsi, A., Cristina, Albertini M., Gualandi, G., and Ghibelli, L. Melatonin as a modulator of apoptosis in B-lymphoma cells. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2009;1171:345-349. View abstract.
  450. Santello, F. H., Del Vecchio, Filipin M., Caetano, L. C., Brazao, V., Caetano, L. N., Dos Santos, C. D., Alonso Toldo, M. P., and do Prado, J. C. J. Influence of melatonin therapy and orchiectomy on T cell subsets in male Wistar rats infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:271-276. View abstract.
  451. Kumar, A. and Singh, A. Possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in protective effect of melatonin against sleep deprivation-induced behaviour modification and oxidative damage in mice. Fundam.Clin.Pharmacol. 2009;23:439-448. View abstract.
  452. Lin, G. J., Huang, S. H., Chen, Y. W., Hueng, D. Y., Chien, M. W., Chia, W. T., Chang, D. M., and Sytwu, H. K. Melatonin prolongs islet graft survival in diabetic NOD mice. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:284-292. View abstract.
  453. Agrawal, R., Tyagi, E., Shukla, R., and Nath, C. A study of brain insulin receptors, AChE activity and oxidative stress in rat model of ICV STZ induced dementia. Neuropharmacology 2009;56:779-787. View abstract.
  454. Daglioglu, E., Serdar, Dike M., Kilinc, K., Erdogan, D., Take, G., Ergungor, F., Okay, O., and Biyikli, Z. Neuroprotective effect of melatonin on experimental peripheral nerve injury: an electron microscopic and biochemical study. Cent.Eur.Neurosurg. 2009;70:109-114. View abstract.
  455. Pan, L., Fu, J. H., Xue, X. D., Xu, W., Zhou, P., and Wei, B. Melatonin protects against oxidative damage in a neonatal rat model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. World J.Pediatr. 2009;5:216-221. View abstract.
  456. Billiard, M. REM sleep behavior disorder and narcolepsy. CNS.Neurol.Disord.Drug Targets. 2009;8:264-270. View abstract.
  457. Hutton, L. C., Abbass, M., Dickinson, H., Ireland, Z., and Walker, D. W. Neuroprotective properties of melatonin in a model of birth asphyxia in the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus). Dev.Neurosci. 2009;31:437-451. View abstract.
  458. Petrosillo, G., Colantuono, G., Moro, N., Ruggiero, F. M., Tiravanti, E., Di, Venosa N., Fiore, T., and Paradies, G. Melatonin protects against heart ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Am.J.Physiol Heart Circ.Physiol 2009;297:H1487-H1493. View abstract.
  459. Odaci, E. and Kaplan, S. Chapter 16: Melatonin and nerve regeneration. Int.Rev.Neurobiol. 2009;87:317-335. View abstract.
  460. Gomez-Moreno, G., Guardia, J., Ferrera, M. J., Cutando, A., and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin in diseases of the oral cavity. Oral Dis. 2010;16:242-247. View abstract.
  461. McIntyre, I. M., Norman, T. R., Burrows, G. D., and Armstrong, S. M. Melatonin supersensitivity to dim light in seasonal affective disorder. Lancet 2-24-1990;335:488. View abstract.
  462. Tapias, V., Cannon, J. R., and Greenamyre, J. T. Melatonin treatment potentiates neurodegeneration in a rat rotenone Parkinson's disease model. J.Neurosci.Res. 2-1-2010;88:420-427. View abstract.
  463. Sonmez, M. F., Narin, F., Akkus, D., and Ozdamar, S. Effect of melatonin and vitamin C on expression of endothelial NOS in heart of chronic alcoholic rats. Toxicol.Ind.Health 2009;25:385-393. View abstract.
  464. Alonso-Vale, M. I., Peres, S. B., Vernochet, C., Farmer, S. R., and Lima, F. B. Adipocyte differentiation is inhibited by melatonin through the regulation of C/EBPbeta transcriptional activity. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:221-227. View abstract.
  465. Pan, L., Xu, W., Fu, J. H., and Xue, X. D. [Effect of melatonin on hyperoxia-induced oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in the lung of neonatal rats with chronic lung disease]. Zhongguo Dang.Dai Er.Ke.Za Zhi. 2009;11:581-584. View abstract.
  466. Tajes, M., Gutierrez-Cuesta, J., Ortuno-Sahagun, D., Camins, A., and Pallas, M. Anti-aging properties of melatonin in an in vitro murine senescence model: involvement of the sirtuin 1 pathway. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:228-237. View abstract.
  467. Cruz, A., Tasset, I., Ramirez, L. M., Arjona, A., Segura, J., Tunez, I., Montilla, P., Muntane, J., and Padillo, F. J. Effect of melatonin on myocardial oxidative stress induced by experimental obstructive jaundice. Rev.Esp.Enferm.Dig. 2009;101:460-463. View abstract.
  468. Reiter, R. J., Paredes, S. D., Manchester, L. C., and Tan, D. X. Reducing oxidative/nitrosative stress: a newly-discovered genre for melatonin. Crit Rev.Biochem.Mol.Biol. 2009;44:175-200. View abstract.
  469. Zeman, M., Szantoova, K., Stebelova, K., Mravec, B., and Herichova, I. Effect of rhythmic melatonin administration on clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the heart of hypertensive TGR(mRen2)27 rats. J.Hypertens.Suppl 2009;27:S21-S26. View abstract.
  470. Martin, V., Garcia-Santos, G., Rodriguez-Blanco, J., Casado-Zapico, S., Sanchez-Sanchez, A., Antolin, I., Medina, M., and Rodriguez, C. Melatonin sensitizes human malignant glioma cells against TRAIL-induced cell death. Cancer Lett. 1-28-2010;287:216-223. View abstract.
  471. Terron, M. P., Delgado, J., Paredes, S. D., Barriga, C., Reiter, R. J., and Rodriguez, A. B. Effect of melatonin and tryptophan on humoral immunity in young and old ringdoves (Streptopelia risoria). Exp.Gerontol. 2009;44:653-658. View abstract.
  472. Zarazaga, L. A., Gatica, M. C., Celi, I., Guzman, J. L., and Malpaux, B. Effect of melatonin implants on sexual activity in Mediterranean goat females without separation from males. Theriogenology 10-15-2009;72:910-918. View abstract.
  473. Jung, K. H., Hong, S. W., Zheng, H. M., Lee, D. H., and Hong, S. S. Melatonin downregulates nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 and nuclear factor-kappaB during prevention of oxidative liver injury in a dimethylnitrosamine model. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:173-183. View abstract.
  474. Samantaray, S., Das, A., Thakore, N. P., Matzelle, D. D., Reiter, R. J., Ray, S. K., and Banik, N. L. Therapeutic potential of melatonin in traumatic central nervous system injury. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:134-142. View abstract.
  475. Veneroso, C., Tunon, M. J., Gonzalez-Gallego, J., and Collado, P. S. Melatonin reduces cardiac inflammatory injury induced by acute exercise. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:184-191. View abstract.
  476. Chang, H. M., Wu, U. I., and Lan, C. T. Melatonin preserves longevity protein (sirtuin 1) expression in the hippocampus of total sleep-deprived rats. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:211-220. View abstract.
  477. Ashrafi, M. R., Mohammadi, M., Tafarroji, J., Shabanian, R., Salamati, P., and Zamani, G. R. Melatonin versus chloral hydrate for recording sleep EEG. Eur.J.Paediatr.Neurol. 2010;14:235-238. View abstract.
  478. Maciel, F. E., Ramos, B. P., Geihs, M. A., Vargas, M. A., Cruz, B. P., Meyer-Rochow, V. B., Vakkuri, O., Allodi, S., Monserrat, J. M., and Nery, L. E. Effects of melatonin in connection with the antioxidant defense system in the gills of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata. Gen.Comp Endocrinol. 1-15-2010;165:229-236. View abstract.
  479. Stepien, A., Moskwa-Fortuna, A., Wisniewska-Jarosinska, M., Harasiuk, A., and Chojnacki, J. [Melatonin secretion and metabolism in patients with irritable bowel syndrome]. Pol.Merkur Lekarski. 2009;26:440-443. View abstract.
  480. Klupinska, G., Poplawski, T., Smigielski, J., Blasiak, J., and Chojnacki, J. [The effect of melatonin on oxidative DNA damage in gastric mucosa cells of patients with functional dyspepsia]. Pol.Merkur Lekarski. 2009;26:366-369. View abstract.
  481. Bazwinsky-Wutschke, I., Muhlbauer, E., Wolgast, S., and Peschke, E. Transcripts of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases are changed after forskolin- or IBMX-induced insulin secretion due to melatonin treatment of rat insulinoma beta-cells (INS-1). Horm.Metab Res. 2009;41:805-813. View abstract.
  482. Simon Padilla, O. J., De Linares Del, Rio C., Godden, P., Granizo, E., Pinilla, M., and Rodriguez, C. [Use of combined treatment with melatonin and clomethiazole in circadian rhythm sleep disorder in the elderly with dementia]. Rev.Esp.Geriatr.Gerontol. 2009;44:233-234. View abstract.
  483. Fukai, S. and Akishita, M. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones]. Nihon Rinsho 2009;67:1396-1401. View abstract.
  484. Paredes, S. D., Bejarano, I., Terron, M. P., Barriga, C., Reiter, R. J., and Rodriguez, A. B. Melatonin and tryptophan counteract lipid peroxidation and modulate superoxide dismutase activity in ringdove heterophils in vivo. Effect of antigen-induced activation and age. Age (Dordr.) 2009;31:179-188. View abstract.
  485. Neri, G., Baffa, C., De, Stefano A., Poliandri, A., Kulamarva, G., Di, Giovanni P., Petrucci, A. G., Castriotta, A., Citraro, L., Cerrone, D., D' Orazio, F., and Croce, A. Management of tinnitus: oral treatment with melatonin and sulodexide. J.Biol.Regul.Homeost.Agents 2009;23:103-110. View abstract.
  486. Luthringer, R., Muzet, M., Zisapel, N., and Staner, L. The effect of prolonged-release melatonin on sleep measures and psychomotor performance in elderly patients with insomnia. Int.Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:239-249. View abstract.
  487. Tsiligianni, T., Valasi, I., Cseh, S., Vainas, E., Faigl, V., Samartzi, F., Papanikolaou, T., Dovolou, E., and Amiridis, G. S. Effects of melatonin treatment on follicular development and oocyte quality in Chios ewes - short communication. Acta Vet.Hung. 2009;57:331-335. View abstract.
  488. Carretero, M., Escames, G., Lopez, L. C., Venegas, C., Dayoub, J. C., Garcia, L., and Acuna-Castroviejo, D. Long-term melatonin administration protects brain mitochondria from aging. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:192-200. View abstract.
  489. Shang, Y., Xu, S. P., Wu, Y., Jiang, Y. X., Wu, Z. Y., Yuan, S. Y., and Yao, S. L. Melatonin reduces acute lung injury in endotoxemic rats. Chin Med.J.(Engl.) 6-20-2009;122:1388-1393. View abstract.
  490. Jang, S. S., Kim, W. D., and Park, W. Y. Melatonin exerts differential actions on X-ray radiation-induced apoptosis in normal mice splenocytes and Jurkat leukemia cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:147-155. View abstract.
  491. Laughlin, G. A., Loucks, A. B., and Yen, S. S. Marked augmentation of nocturnal melatonin secretion in amenorrheic athletes, but not in cycling athletes: unaltered by opioidergic or dopaminergic blockade. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:1321-1326. View abstract.
  492. Park, J. W., Hwang, M. S., Suh, S. I., and Baek, W. K. Melatonin down-regulates HIF-1 alpha expression through inhibition of protein translation in prostate cancer cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:415-421. View abstract.
  493. Tahan, V., Atug, O., Akin, H., Eren, F., Tahan, G., Tarcin, O., Uzun, H., Ozdogan, O., Tarcin, O., Imeryuz, N., Ozguner, F., Celikel, C., Avsar, E., and Tozun, N. Melatonin ameliorates methionine- and choline-deficient diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:401-407. View abstract.
  494. Bejarano, I., Redondo, P. C., Espino, J., Rosado, J. A., Paredes, S. D., Barriga, C., Reiter, R. J., Pariente, J. A., and Rodriguez, A. B. Melatonin induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human myeloid HL-60 cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:392-400. View abstract.
  495. Berlinguer, F., Leoni, G. G., Succu, S., Spezzigu, A., Madeddu, M., Satta, V., Bebbere, D., Contreras-Solis, I., Gonzalez-Bulnes, A., and Naitana, S. Exogenous melatonin positively influences follicular dynamics, oocyte developmental competence and blastocyst output in a goat model. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:383-391. View abstract.
  496. Li, Z., Nickkholgh, A., Yi, X., Bruns, H., Gross, M. L., Hoffmann, K., Mohr, E., Zorn, M., Buchler, M. W., and Schemmer, P. Melatonin protects kidney grafts from ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of NF-kB and apoptosis after experimental kidney transplantation. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:365-372. View abstract.
  497. Ozacmak, V. H., Barut, F., and Ozacmak, H. S. Melatonin provides neuroprotection by reducing oxidative stress and HSP70 expression during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in ovariectomized rats. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:156-163. View abstract.
  498. Kain, Z. N., MacLaren, J. E., Herrmann, L., Mayes, L., Rosenbaum, A., Hata, J., and Lerman, J. Preoperative melatonin and its effects on induction and emergence in children undergoing anesthesia and surgery. Anesthesiology 2009;111:44-49. View abstract.
  499. Taylor, F. R. Headache prevention with complementary and alternative medicine. Headache 2009;49:966-968. View abstract.
  500. Velarde, E., Alonso-Gomez, A. L., Azpeleta, C., Isorna, E., and Delgado, M. J. Melatonin attenuates the acetylcholine-induced contraction in isolated intestine of a teleost fish. J.Comp Physiol B 2009;179:951-959. View abstract.
  501. Sheth, D. S., Tajuddin, N. F., and Druse, M. J. Antioxidant neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis in HN2-5 cells. Brain Res. 8-18-2009;1285:14-21. View abstract.
  502. Olcese, J. M., Cao, C., Mori, T., Mamcarz, M. B., Maxwell, A., Runfeldt, M. J., Wang, L., Zhang, C., Lin, X., Zhang, G., and Arendash, G. W. Protection against cognitive deficits and markers of neurodegeneration by long-term oral administration of melatonin in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:82-96. View abstract.
  503. Nah, S. S., Won, H. J., Park, H. J., Ha, E., Chung, J. H., Cho, H. Y., and Baik, H. H. Melatonin inhibits human fibroblast-like synoviocyte proliferation via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/P21(CIP1)/P27(KIP1) pathways. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:70-74. View abstract.
  504. Todisco, M. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: long-lasting remission with combination of cyclophosphamide, somatostatin, bromocriptine, retinoids, melatonin, and ACTH. Cancer Biother.Radiopharm. 2009;24:353-355. View abstract.
  505. Gimenez, F., Stornelli, M. C., Tittarelli, C. M., Savignone, C. A., Dorna, I. V., de la Sota, R. L., and Stornelli, M. A. Suppression of estrus in cats with melatonin implants. Theriogenology 9-1-2009;72:493-499. View abstract.
  506. Magnanou, E., Attia, J., Fons, R., Boeuf, G., and Falcon, J. The timing of the shrew: continuous melatonin treatment maintains youthful rhythmic activity in aging Crocidura russula. PLoS.One. 2009;4:e5904. View abstract.
  507. Joo, S. S. and Yoo, Y. M. Melatonin induces apoptotic death in LNCaP cells via p38 and JNK pathways: therapeutic implications for prostate cancer. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:8-14. View abstract.
  508. Ganguly, K. and Swarnakar, S. Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -3 in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced acute gastric ulcers in mice: regulation by melatonin. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:43-55. View abstract.
  509. Girgert, R., Hanf, V., Emons, G., and Grundker, C. Membrane-bound melatonin receptor MT1 down-regulates estrogen responsive genes in breast cancer cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:23-31. View abstract.
  510. Arrebola, F. A., Abecia, J. A., Forcada, F., Garcia, A., Martin, R. A., and Mesa, O. Effects of annual rainfall and farm on lamb production after treatment with melatonin implants in Merino sheep: a 4-year study. N.Z.Vet.J. 2009;57:141-145. View abstract.
  511. Cetin, Y., Sagcan, S., Gungor, O., Ozyurtlu, N., and Uslu, B. A. Effects of CIDR-G and melatonin implants, and their combination on the efficacy of oestrus induction and fertility of Kilis goats. Reprod.Domest.Anim 2009;44:659-662. View abstract.
  512. Ozdemir, F., Deniz, O., Kaynar, K., Arslan, M., Kavgaci, H., Yildiz, B., and Aydin, F. The effects of melatonin on human hepatoma (Hep G2) cell line. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 2009;110:276-279. View abstract.
  513. Piasek, A., Bartoszek, A., and Namiesnik, J. [Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy]. Postepy Hig.Med.Dosw.(Online.) 2009;63:142-158. View abstract.
  514. Renuka, K. and Joshi, B. N. Melatonin-induced changes in ovarian function in the freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) held in long days and continuous light. Gen.Comp Endocrinol. 1-1-2010;165:42-46. View abstract.
  515. Hoebert, M., van der Heijden, K. B., van Geijlswijk, I. M., and Smits, M. G. Long-term follow-up of melatonin treatment in children with ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:1-7. View abstract.
  516. Dauchy, R. T., Blask, D. E., Dauchy, E. M., Davidson, L. K., Tirrell, P. C., Greene, M. W., Tirrell, R. P., Hill, C. R., and Sauer, L. A. Antineoplastic effects of melatonin on a rare malignancy of mesenchymal origin: melatonin receptor-mediated inhibition of signal transduction, linoleic acid metabolism and growth in tissue-isolated human leiomyosarcoma xenografts. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:32-42. View abstract.
  517. Bekyarova, G., Galunska, B., Ivanova, D., and Yankova, T. Effect of melatonin on burn-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Burns 2009;35:863-868. View abstract.
  518. Huang, J. Y., Hong, Y. T., and Chuang, J. I. Fibroblast growth factor 9 prevents MPP+-induced death of dopaminergic neurons and is involved in melatonin neuroprotection in vivo and in vitro. J.Neurochem. 2009;109:1400-1412. View abstract.
  519. Sood, M. R. Treatment approaches to irritable bowel syndrome. Pediatr.Ann. 2009;38:272-276. View abstract.
  520. Ulas, U. H., Korkmaz, A., Karadas, O., Odabasi, Z., and Reiter, R. J. Sunrise-related headache: case report. Cephalalgia 2010;30:118-122. View abstract.
  521. Koch, B. C., Nagtegaal, J. E., Kerkhof, G. A., and Ter Wee, P. M. Circadian sleep-wake rhythm disturbances in end-stage renal disease. Nat.Rev.Nephrol. 2009;5:407-416. View abstract.
  522. Assayed, M. E. and Abd El-Aty, A. M. Protection of rat chromosomes by melatonin against gamma radiation-induced damage. Mutat.Res. 2009;677(1-2):14-20. View abstract.
  523. Gingerich, S., Wang, X., Lee, P. K., Dhillon, S. S., Chalmers, J. A., Koletar, M. M., and Belsham, D. D. The generation of an array of clonal, immortalized cell models from the rat hypothalamus: analysis of melatonin effects on kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone neurons. Neuroscience 9-15-2009;162:1134-1140. View abstract.
  524. Radogna, F., Sestili, P., Martinelli, C., Paolillo, M., Paternoster, L., Albertini, M. C., Accorsi, A., Gualandi, G., and Ghibelli, L. Lipoxygenase-mediated pro-radical effect of melatonin via stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 7-15-2009;238:170-177. View abstract.
  525. Galli-Carminati, G., Deriaz, N., and Bertschy, G. Melatonin in treatment of chronic sleep disorders in adults with autism: a retrospective study. Swiss.Med.Wkly. 5-16-2009;139(19-20):293-296. View abstract.
  526. Reiter, R. J., Tan, D. X., Manchester, L. C., Paredes, S. D., Mayo, J. C., and Sainz, R. M. Melatonin and reproduction revisited. Biol.Reprod. 2009;81:445-456. View abstract.
  527. Jung-Hynes, B. and Ahmad, N. SIRT1 controls circadian clock circuitry and promotes cell survival: a connection with age-related neoplasms. FASEB J. 2009;23:2803-2809. View abstract.
  528. Tapias, V., Escames, G., Lopez, L. C., Lopez, A., Camacho, E., Carrion, M. D., Entrena, A., Gallo, M. A., Espinosa, A., and Acuna-Castroviejo, D. Melatonin and its brain metabolite N-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine prevent mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase induction in parkinsonian mice. J.Neurosci.Res. 2009;87:3002-3010. View abstract.
  529. Kulkarni, S. K. and Dhir, A. Current investigational drugs for major depression. Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2009;18:767-788. View abstract.
  530. Ramirez-Rodriguez, G., Klempin, F., Babu, H., Benitez-King, G., and Kempermann, G. Melatonin modulates cell survival of new neurons in the hippocampus of adult mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009;34:2180-2191. View abstract.
  531. Aladag, M. A., Turkoz, Y., Parlakpinar, H., Ozen, H., Egri, M., and Unal, S. C. Melatonin ameliorates cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoidal haemorrhage correcting imbalance of nitric oxide levels in rats. Neurochem.Res. 2009;34:1935-1944. View abstract.
  532. Baeza, I., Alvarado, C., Alvarez, P., Salazar, V., Castillo, C., Ariznavarreta, C., Fdez-Tresguerres, J. A., and De la Fuente, M. Improvement of leucocyte functions in ovariectomised aged rats after treatment with growth hormone, melatonin, oestrogens or phyto-oestrogens. J.Reprod.Immunol. 2009;80(1-2):70-79. View abstract.
  533. Kesik, V., Guven, A., Vurucu, S., Tunc, T., Uysal, B., Gundogdu, G., Oztas, E., and Korkmaz, A. Melatonin and 1400 W ameliorate both intestinal and remote organ injury following mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion. J.Surg.Res. 2009;157:e97-e105. View abstract.
  534. Rai, S., Haldar, C., and Singh, R. Modulation of immunity in young-adult and aged squirrel, Funambulus pennanti by melatonin and p-chlorophenylalanine. Immun.Ageing 2009;6:5. View abstract.
  535. Venkataraman, P., Krishnamoorthy, G., Selvakumar, K., and Arunakaran, J. Oxidative stress alters creatine kinase system in serum and brain regions of polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)-exposed rats: protective role of melatonin. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2009;105:92-97. View abstract.
  536. Wisessmith, W., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Govitrapong, P., and Chetsawang, B. Melatonin reduces induction of Bax, caspase and cell death in methamphetamine-treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cultured cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:433-440. View abstract.
  537. Sokullu, O., Sanioglu, S., Kurc, E., Sargin, M., Deniz, H., Tartan, Z., Aka, S. A., and Bilgen, F. Does the circadian rhythm of melatonin affect ischemia-reperfusion injury after coronary artery bypass grafting? Heart Surg.Forum 2009;12:E95-E99. View abstract.
  538. Braam, W., Smits, M. G., Didden, R., Korzilius, H., van Geijlswijk, I. M., and Curfs, L. M. Exogenous melatonin for sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability: a meta-analysis. Dev.Med.Child Neurol. 2009;51:340-349. View abstract.
  539. Guo, J. F. and Yao, B. Z. [Serum melatonin levels in children with epilepsy or febrile seizures]. Zhongguo Dang.Dai Er.Ke.Za Zhi. 2009;11:288-290. View abstract.
  540. Bekyarova, G., Tancheva, S., and Hristova, M. Protective effect of melatonin against oxidative hepatic injury after experimental thermal trauma. Methods Find.Exp.Clin.Pharmacol. 2009;31:11-14. View abstract.
  541. Limousin, N., Dehais, C., Gout, O., Heran, F., Oudiette, D., and Arnulf, I. A brainstem inflammatory lesion causing REM sleep behavior disorder and sleepwalking (parasomnia overlap disorder). Sleep Med. 2009;10:1059-1062. View abstract.
  542. Makay, B., Makay, O., Yenisey, C., Icoz, G., Ozgen, G., Unsal, E., Akyildiz, M., and Yetkin, E. The interaction of oxidative stress response with cytokines in the thyrotoxic rat: is there a link? Mediators.Inflamm. 2009;2009:391682. View abstract.
  543. Benitez-King, G., Soto-Vega, E., and Ramirez-Rodriguez, G. Melatonin modulates microfilament phenotypes in epithelial cells: implications for adhesion and inhibition of cancer cell migration. Histol.Histopathol. 2009;24:789-799. View abstract.
  544. Kurcer, Z., Hekimoglu, A., Aral, F., Baba, F., and Sahna, E. Effect of melatonin on epididymal sperm quality after testicular ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Fertil.Steril. 3-15-2010;93:1545-1549. View abstract.
  545. Ritzenthaler, T., Nighoghossian, N., Berthiller, J., Schott, A. M., Cho, T. H., Derex, L., Brun, J., Trouillas, P., and Claustrat, B. Nocturnal urine melatonin and 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion at the acute stage of ischaemic stroke. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:349-352. View abstract.
  546. Kedziora-Kornatowska, K., Szewczyk-Golec, K., Kozakiewicz, M., Pawluk, H., Czuczejko, J., Kornatowski, T., Bartosz, G., and Kedziora, J. Melatonin improves oxidative stress parameters measured in the blood of elderly type 2 diabetic patients. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:333-337. View abstract.
  547. Gogenur, I., Kucukakin, B., Bisgaard, T., Kristiansen, V., Hjortso, N. C., Skene, D. J., and Rosenberg, J. The effect of melatonin on sleep quality after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Anesth.Analg. 2009;108:1152-1156. View abstract.
  548. Ismail, S. A. and Mowafi, H. A. Melatonin provides anxiolysis, enhances analgesia, decreases intraocular pressure, and promotes better operating conditions during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. Anesth.Analg. 2009;108:1146-1151. View abstract.
  549. Wang, X., Figueroa, B. E., Stavrovskaya, I. G., Zhang, Y., Sirianni, A. C., Zhu, S., Day, A. L., Kristal, B. S., and Friedlander, R. M. Methazolamide and melatonin inhibit mitochondrial cytochrome C release and are neuroprotective in experimental models of ischemic injury. Stroke 2009;40:1877-1885. View abstract.
  550. Vazquez, M. I., Forcada, F., Casao, A., Abecia, J. A., Sosa, C., and Palacin, I. Undernutrition and exogenous melatonin can affect the in vitro developmental competence of ovine oocytes on a seasonal basis. Reprod.Domest.Anim 2010;45:677-684. View abstract.
  551. Golnik, A. E. and Ireland, M. Complementary alternative medicine for children with autism: a physician survey. J.Autism Dev.Disord. 2009;39:996-1005. View abstract.
  552. Potter, M., Moses, A., and Wozniak, J. Alternative treatments in pediatric bipolar disorder. Child Adolesc.Psychiatr.Clin.N.Am. 2009;18:483-514, xi. View abstract.
  553. Kaji, H., Inukai, Y., Maiguma, T., Ono, H., Teshima, D., Hiramoto, K., and Makino, K. Radical scavenging activity of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids and traditional prophylactics against chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. J.Clin.Pharm.Ther. 2009;34:197-205. View abstract.
  554. Detanico, B. C., Piato, A. L., Freitas, J. J., Lhullier, F. L., Hidalgo, M. P., Caumo, W., and Elisabetsky, E. Antidepressant-like effects of melatonin in the mouse chronic mild stress model. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 4-1-2009;607(1-3):121-125. View abstract.
  555. Garzon, C., Guerrero, J. M., Aramburu, O., and Guzman, T. Effect of melatonin administration on sleep, behavioral disorders and hypnotic drug discontinuation in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aging Clin.Exp.Res. 2009;21:38-42. View abstract.
  556. Ambriz-Tututi, M., Rocha-Gonzalez, H. I., Cruz, S. L., and Granados-Soto, V. Melatonin: a hormone that modulates pain. Life Sci. 4-10-2009;84(15-16):489-498. View abstract.
  557. Maity, P., Bindu, S., Dey, S., Goyal, M., Alam, A., Pal, C., Reiter, R., and Bandyopadhyay, U. Melatonin reduces indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal cell apoptosis by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress and the activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:314-323. View abstract.
  558. Tamura, E. K., Cecon, E., Monteiro, A. W., Silva, C. L., and Markus, R. P. Melatonin inhibits LPS-induced NO production in rat endothelial cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:268-274. View abstract.
  559. Ersahin, M., Toklu, H. Z., Cetinel, S., Yuksel, M., Yegen, B. C., and Sener, G. Melatonin reduces experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced oxidative brain damage and neurological symptoms. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:324-332. View abstract.
  560. Paredes, S. D., Marchena, A. M., Bejarano, I., Espino, J., Barriga, C., Rial, R. V., Reiter, R. J., and Rodriguez, A. B. Melatonin and tryptophan affect the activity-rest rhythm, core and peripheral temperatures, and interleukin levels in the ringdove: changes with age. J.Gerontol.A Biol.Sci.Med.Sci. 2009;64:340-350. View abstract.
  561. Tajes, Orduna M., Pelegri, Gabalda C., Vilaplana, Hortensi J., Pallas, Lliberia M., and Camins, Espuny A. An evaluation of the neuroprotective effects of melatonin in an in vitro experimental model of age-induced neuronal apoptosis. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:262-267. View abstract.
  562. Regodon, S., del Prado, Miguez M., Jardin, I., Lopez, J. J., Ramos, A., Paredes, S. D., and Rosado, J. A. Melatonin, as an adjuvant-like agent, enhances platelet responsiveness. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:275-285. View abstract.
  563. Sung, J. H., Cho, E. H., Kim, M. O., and Koh, P. O. Identification of proteins differentially expressed by melatonin treatment in cerebral ischemic injury--a proteomics approach. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:300-306. View abstract.
  564. Grant, S. G., Melan, M. A., Latimer, J. J., and Witt-Enderby, P. A. Melatonin and breast cancer: cellular mechanisms, clinical studies and future perspectives. Expert.Rev.Mol.Med. 2009;11:e5. View abstract.
  565. Diez, E. R., Prados, L. V., Carrion, A., Ponce, Z. A., and Miatello, R. M. A novel electrophysiologic effect of melatonin on ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in isolated rat hearts. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:155-160. View abstract.
  566. Cucina, A., Proietti, S., D'Anselmi, F., Coluccia, P., Dinicola, S., Frati, L., and Bizzarri, M. Evidence for a biphasic apoptotic pathway induced by melatonin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:172-180. View abstract.
  567. Regodon, S., Ramos, A., Morgado, S., Tarazona, R., Martin-Palomino, P., Rosado, J. A., and Miguez, Mdel P. Melatonin enhances the immune response to vaccination against A1 and C strains of Dichelobacter nodosus. Vaccine 3-4-2009;27:1566-1570. View abstract.
  568. Bharti, V. K. and Srivastava, R. S. Fluoride-induced oxidative stress in rat's brain and its amelioration by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins and melatonin. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2009;130:131-140. View abstract.
  569. Gehrman, P. R., Connor, D. J., Martin, J. L., Shochat, T., Corey-Bloom, J., and Ancoli-Israel, S. Melatonin fails to improve sleep or agitation in double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of institutionalized patients with Alzheimer disease. Am.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 2009;17:166-169. View abstract.
  570. Maldonado, M. D., Perez-San-Gregorio, M. A., and Reiter, R. J. The role of melatonin in the immuno-neuro-psychology of mental disorders. Recent Pat CNS.Drug Discov. 2009;4:61-69. View abstract.
  571. Takasaki, A., Tamura, H., Taniguchi, K., Asada, H., Taketani, T., Matsuoka, A., Yamagata, Y., Shimamura, K., Morioka, H., and Sugino, N. Luteal blood flow and luteal function. J.Ovarian.Res. 2009;2:1. View abstract.
  572. Chen, Z., Chua, C. C., Gao, J., Chua, K. W., Ho, Y. S., Hamdy, R. C., and Chua, B. H. Prevention of ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiac apoptosis and injury by melatonin is independent of glutathione peroxdiase 1. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:235-241. View abstract.
  573. Signorini, C., Ciccoli, L., Leoncini, S., Carloni, S., Perrone, S., Comporti, M., Balduini, W., and Buonocore, G. Free iron, total F-isoprostanes and total F-neuroprostanes in a model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: neuroprotective effect of melatonin. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:148-154. View abstract.
  574. Solmaz, I., Gurkanlar, D., Gokcil, Z., Goksoy, C., Ozkan, M., and Erdogan, E. Antiepileptic activity of melatonin in guinea pigs with pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. Neurol.Res. 2009;31:989-995. View abstract.
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  577. Esposito, E., Genovese, T., Caminiti, R., Bramanti, P., Meli, R., and Cuzzocrea, S. Melatonin reduces stress-activated/mitogen-activated protein kinases in spinal cord injury. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:79-86. View abstract.
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  590. Rimmele, U., Spillmann, M., Bartschi, C., Wolf, O. T., Weber, C. S., Ehlert, U., and Wirtz, P. H. Melatonin improves memory acquisition under stress independent of stress hormone release. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2009;202:663-672. View abstract.
  591. Greenlee, H., Hershman, D. L., and Jacobson, J. S. Use of antioxidant supplements during breast cancer treatment: a comprehensive review. Breast Cancer Res.Treat. 2009;115:437-452. View abstract.
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  607. Baykara, B., Tekmen, I., Pekcetin, C., Ulukus, C., Tuncel, P., Sagol, O., Ormen, M., and Ozogul, C. The protective effects of carnosine and melatonin in ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat liver. Acta Histochem. 2009;111:42-51. View abstract.
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  632. Peles, E., Hetzroni, T., Bar-Hamburger, R., Adelson, M., and Schreiber, S. Melatonin for perceived sleep disturbances associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal among patients in methadone maintenance treatment: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Addiction 2007;102:1947-1953. View abstract.
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  635. Vissers, F. H., Knipschild, P. G., and Crebolder, H. F. Is melatonin helpful in stopping the long-term use of hypnotics? A discontinuation trial. Pharm.World Sci. 2007;29:641-646. View abstract.
  636. Schmidt, C. M., Knief, A., Deuster, D., Matulat, P., and am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, A. G. Melatonin is a useful alternative to sedation in children undergoing brainstem audiometry with an age dependent success rate--a field report of 250 investigations. Neuropediatrics 2007;38:2-4. View abstract.
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  639. Forrest, C. M., Mackay, G. M., Stoy, N., Stone, T. W., and Darlington, L. G. Inflammatory status and kynurenine metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis treated with melatonin. Br.J Clin Pharmacol 2007;64:517-526. View abstract.
  640. Melke, J., Goubran, Botros H., Chaste, P., Betancur, C., Nygren, G., Anckarsater, H., Rastam, M., Stahlberg, O., Gillberg, I. C., Delorme, R., Chabane, N., Mouren-Simeoni, M. C., Fauchereau, F., Durand, C. M., Chevalier, F., Drouot, X., Collet, C., Launay, J. M., Leboyer, M., Gillberg, C., and Bourgeron, T. Abnormal melatonin synthesis in autism spectrum disorders. Mol.Psychiatry 2008;13:90-98. View abstract.
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  642. Lissoni, P. Biochemotherapy with standard chemotherapies plus the pineal hormone melatonin in the treatment of advanced solid neoplasms. Pathol.Biol.(Paris) 2007;55(3-4):201-204. View abstract.
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  644. Berk, L., Berkey, B., Rich, T., Hrushesky, W., Blask, D., Gallagher, M., Kudrimoti, M., McGarry, R. C., Suh, J., and Mehta, M. Randomized phase II trial of high-dose melatonin and radiation therapy for RPA class 2 patients with brain metastases (RTOG 0119). Int.J Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys. 7-1-2007;68:852-857. View abstract.
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  646. Block, K. I., Koch, A. C., Mead, M. N., Tothy, P. K., Newman, R. A., and Gyllenhaal, C. Impact of antioxidant supplementation on chemotherapeutic efficacy: a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Cancer Treat.Rev. 2007;33:407-418. View abstract.
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  648. Komarov, F. I., Raikhlin, N. T., Rapoport, S. I., Malinovskaia, N. K., Voznesenskaia, L. A., and Rumiantseva, A. I. [Irritated bowel syndrome: clinicomorphological aspects of treatment with melaxen]. Klin.Med.(Mosk) 2006;84:30-36. View abstract.
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  650. Ernst, E., Schmidt, K., and Baum, M. Complementary/Alternative therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials and a critique of current terminology. Breast J 2006;12:526-530. View abstract.
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  654. Todisco, M. Relapse of high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after autologous stem cell transplantation: a case successfully treated with cyclophosphamide plus somatostatin, bromocriptine, melatonin, retinoids, and ACTH. Am J Ther 2006;13:556-557. View abstract.
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  659. Howes, R. A., Halliday, G. M., and Damian, D. L. Effect of topical melatonin on ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of Mantoux reactions in humans. Photodermatol.Photoimmunol.Photomed. 2006;22:267-269. View abstract.
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  663. Kocher, L., Brun, J., Borson-Chazot, F., Gonnaud, P. M., and Claustrat, B. Increased REM sleep associated with melatonin deficiency after pinealectomy: a case study. Chronobiol.Int. 2006;23:889-901. View abstract.
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  667. Weekley, L. B. Melatonin-induced relaxation of rat aorta: interaction with adrenergic agonists. J Pineal Res 1991;11:28-34. View abstract.
  668. Capuzzo, M., Zanardi, B., Schiffino, E., Buccoliero, C., Gragnaniello, D., Bianchi, S., and Alvisi, R. Melatonin does not reduce anxiety more than placebo in the elderly undergoing surgery. Anesth.Analg. 2006;103:121-3, table. View abstract.
  669. Sury, M. R. and Fairweather, K. The effect of melatonin on sedation of children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Br.J Anaesth. 2006;97:220-225. View abstract.
  670. Wyatt, J. K., Dijk, D. J., Ritz-de Cecco, A., Ronda, J. M., and Czeisler, C. A. Sleep-facilitating effect of exogenous melatonin in healthy young men and women is circadian-phase dependent. Sleep 5-1-2006;29:609-618. View abstract.
  671. Gubin, D. G., Gubin, G. D., Waterhouse, J., and Weinert, D. The circadian body temperature rhythm in the elderly: effect of single daily melatonin dosing. Chronobiol.Int. 2006;23:639-658. View abstract.
  672. Miller, S. C., Pandi-Perumal, S. R., Esquifino, A. I., Cardinali, D. P., and Maestroni, G. J. The role of melatonin in immuno-enhancement: potential application in cancer. Int.J Exp Pathol. 2006;87:81-87. View abstract.
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  674. Peres, M. F., Masruha, M. R., Zukerman, E., Moreira-Filho, C. A., and Cavalheiro, E. A. Potential therapeutic use of melatonin in migraine and other headache disorders. Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2006;15:367-375. View abstract.
  675. Mero, A. A., Vahalummukka, M., Hulmi, J. J., Kallio, P., and von Wright, A. Effects of resistance exercise session after oral ingestion of melatonin on physiological and performance responses of adult men. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2006;96:729-739. View abstract.
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  778. Jonage-Canonico, M. B., Lenoir, V., Martin, A., Scholler, R., and Kerdelhue, B. Long term inhibition by Estradiol or Progesterone of Melatonin secretion after administration of a mammary carcinogen, the dimethyl benz(a)anthracene, in Sprague-Dawley female rat; inhibitory effect of Melatonin on mammary carcinogenesis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003;79:365-377. View abstract.
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  787. Bizzarri, M., Cucina, A., Valente, M. G., Tagliaferri, F., Borrelli, V., Stipa, F., and Cavallaro, A. Melatonin and vitamin D3 increase TGF-beta1 release and induce growth inhibition in breast cancer cell cultures. J Surg Res 2003;110:332-337. View abstract.
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  791. Leppamaki, S., Partonen, T., Vakkuri, O., Lonnqvist, J., Partinen, M., and Laudon, M. Effect of controlled-release melatonin on sleep quality, mood, and quality of life in subjects with seasonal or weather-associated changes in mood and behaviour. Eur.Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003;13:137-145. View abstract.
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  795. Kocak, G., Erbil, K. M., Ozdemir, I., Aydemir, S., Sunar, B., Tuncel, M., and Atalay, S. The protective effect of melatonin on adriamycin-induced acute cardiac injury. Can J Cardiol. 2003;19:535-541. View abstract.
  796. Abilio, V. C., Vera, J. A., Jr., Ferreira, L. S., Duarte, C. R., Martins, C. R., Torres-Leite, D., Ribeiro, Rde A., and Frussa-Filho, R. Effects of melatonin on behavioral dopaminergic supersensitivity. Life Sci. 5-16-2003;72:3003-3015. View abstract.
  797. Zhou, M. O., Jiao, S., Liu, Z., Zhang, Z. H., and Mei, Y. A. Luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist, inhibits the transient outward K+ current in rat cerebellar granule cells. Brain Res 4-25-2003;970(1-2):169-177. View abstract.
  798. Arias, J., Melean, E., Valero, N., Pons, H., Chacin-Bonilla, L., Larreal, Y., and Bonilla, E. [Effect of melatonin on lymphocyte proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in mice splenocytes]. Invest Clin 2003;44:41-50. View abstract.
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  800. Sener, G., Tosun, O., Sehirli, A. O., Kacmaz, A., Arbak, S., Ersoy, Y., and Ayanoglu-Dulger, G. Melatonin and N-acetylcysteine have beneficial effects during hepatic ischemia and reperfusion. Life Sci. 5-2-2003;72:2707-2718. View abstract.
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  803. Karasek, M., Gruszka, A., Lawnicka, H., Kunert-Radek, J., and Pawlikowski, M. Melatonin inhibits growth of diethylstilbestrol-induced prolactin-secreting pituitary tumor in vitro: possible involvement of nuclear RZR/ROR receptors. J Pineal Res 2003;34:294-296. View abstract.
  804. Gulcin, I., Buyukokuroglu, M. E., and Kufrevioglu, O. I. Metal chelating and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effects of melatonin. J Pineal Res 2003;34:278-281. View abstract.
  805. Lopez-Burillo, S., Tan, D. X., Mayo, J. C., Sainz, R. M., Manchester, L. C., and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin, xanthurenic acid, resveratrol, EGCG, vitamin C and alpha-lipoic acid differentially reduce oxidative DNA damage induced by Fenton reagents: a study of their individual and synergistic actions. J Pineal Res 2003;34:269-277. View abstract.
  806. Chen, J. C., Ng, C. J., Chiu, T. F., and Chen, H. M. Altered neutrophil apoptosis activity is reversed by melatonin in liver ischemia-reperfusion. J Pineal Res 2003;34:260-264. View abstract.
  807. Tan, D. X., Hardeland, R., Manchester, L. C., Poeggeler, B., Lopez-Burillo, S., Mayo, J. C., Sainz, R. M., and Reiter, R. J. Mechanistic and comparative studies of melatonin and classic antioxidants in terms of their interactions with the ABTS cation radical. J Pineal Res 2003;34:249-259. View abstract.
  808. Vachharajani, N. N., Yeleswaram, K., and Boulton, D. W. Preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of BMS-214778, a novel melatonin receptor agonist. J Pharm Sci. 2003;92:760-772. View abstract.
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  810. Todisco, M., Casaccia, P., and Rossi, N. Severe bleeding symptoms in refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a case successfully treated with melatonin. Am.J Ther 2003;10:135-136. View abstract.
  811. Delagrange, P., Atkinson, J., Boutin, J. A., Casteilla, L., Lesieur, D., Misslin, R., Pellissier, S., Penicaud, L., and Renard, P. Therapeutic perspectives for melatonin agonists and antagonists. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:442-448. View abstract.
  812. Baskett, J. J., Broad, J. B., Wood, P. C., Duncan, J. R., Pledger, M. J., English, J., and Arendt, J. Does melatonin improve sleep in older people? A randomised crossover trial. Age Ageing 2003;32:164-170. View abstract.
  813. Sainz, R. M., Mayo, J. C., Tan, D. X., Lopez-Burillo, S., Natarajan, M., and Reiter, R. J. Antioxidant activity of melatonin in Chinese hamster ovarian cells: changes in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 3-14-2003;302:625-634. View abstract.
  814. Sener, G., Sehirli, A. O., Paskaloglu, K., Dulger, G. A., and Alican, I. Melatonin treatment protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced functional and biochemical changes in rat urinary bladder. J Pineal Res 2003;34:226-230. View abstract.
  815. Pei, Z. and Cheung, R. T. Melatonin protects SHSY5Y neuronal cells but not cultured astrocytes from ischemia due to oxygen and glucose deprivation. J Pineal Res 2003;34:194-201. View abstract.
  816. Taysi, S., Koc, M., Buyukokuroglu, M. E., Altinkaynak, K., and Sahin, Y. N. Melatonin reduces lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide during irradiation-induced oxidative injury in the rat liver. J Pineal Res 2003;34:173-177. View abstract.
  817. Cheung, R. T. The utility of melatonin in reducing cerebral damage resulting from ischemia and reperfusion. J Pineal Res 2003;34:153-160. View abstract.
  818. Dericks-Tan, J. S., Schwinn, P., and Hildt, C. Dose-dependent stimulation of melatonin secretion after administration of agnus castus. Exp.Clin Endocrinol.Diabetes 2003;111:44-46. View abstract.
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  823. Zhou, Y. H., Huo, Z. Y., and Qiu, X. C. [Inhibitory effect of melatonin on morphine withdrawal syndromes and the content of NO in plasma and brain tissue in morphine dependent mice]. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 2002;37:175-177. View abstract.
  824. Buxton, O. M., Lee, C. W., L'Hermite-Baleriaux, M., Turek, F. W., and Van Cauter, E. Exercise elicits phase shifts and acute alterations of melatonin that vary with circadian phase. Am.J Physiol Regul.Integr.Comp Physiol 2003;284:R714-R724. View abstract.
  825. Zhang, Z. and Yu, C. X. [Effect of melatonin on learning and memory impairment induced by aluminum chloride and its mechanism]. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 2002;37:682-686. View abstract.
  826. Pei, Z., Fung, P. C., and Cheung, R. T. Melatonin reduces nitric oxide level during ischemia but not blood-brain barrier breakdown during reperfusion in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model. J Pineal Res 2003;34:110-118. View abstract.
  827. Chung, S. Y. and Han, S. H. Melatonin attenuates kainic acid-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration and oxidative stress through microglial inhibition. J Pineal Res 2003;34:95-102. View abstract.
  828. Cardinali, D. P., Ladizesky, M. G., Boggio, V., Cutrera, R. A., and Mautalen, C. Melatonin effects on bone: experimental facts and clinical perspectives. J Pineal Res 2003;34:81-87. View abstract.
  829. Naidu, P. S., Singh, A., Kaur, P., Sandhir, R., and Kulkarni, S. K. Possible mechanism of action in melatonin attenuation of haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav 2003;74:641-648. View abstract.
  830. Wang, F., Li, J., Wu, C., Yang, J., Xu, F., and Zhao, Q. The GABA(A) receptor mediates the hypnotic activity of melatonin in rats. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav 2003;74:573-578. View abstract.
  831. Doyle, S. E., Grace, M. S., McIvor, W., and Menaker, M. Circadian rhythms of dopamine in mouse retina: the role of melatonin. Vis.Neurosci. 2002;19:593-601. View abstract.
  832. Singh, P., Bhargava, V. K., and Garg, S. K. Effect of melatonin and beta-carotene on indomethacin induced gastric mucosal injury. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;46:229-234. View abstract.
  833. Fowler, G., Daroszewska, M., and Ingold, K. U. Melatonin does not "directly scavenge hydrogen peroxide": demise of another myth. Free Radic.Biol.Med 1-1-2003;34:77-83. View abstract.
  834. Reiter, R. J. and Tan, D. X. What constitutes a physiological concentration of melatonin? J Pineal Res 2003;34:79-80. View abstract.
  835. Tan, D. X., Manchester, L. C., Hardeland, R., Lopez-Burillo, S., Mayo, J. C., Sainz, R. M., and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin: a hormone, a tissue factor, an autocoid, a paracoid, and an antioxidant vitamin. J Pineal Res 2003;34:75-78. View abstract.
  836. Kaptanoglu, E., Palaoglu, S., Demirpence, E., Akbiyik, F., Solaroglu, I., and Kilinc, A. Different responsiveness of central nervous system tissues to oxidative conditions and to the antioxidant effect of melatonin. J Pineal Res 2003;34:32-35. View abstract.
  837. Gwayi, N. and Bernard, R. T. The effects of melatonin on sperm motility in vitro in Wistar rats. Andrologia 2002;34:391-396. View abstract.
  838. Serfaty, M., Kennell-Webb, S., Warner, J., Blizard, R., and Raven, P. Double blind randomised placebo controlled trial of low dose melatonin for sleep disorders in dementia. Int J Geriatr.Psychiatry 2002;17:1120-1127. View abstract.
  839. Todisco, M. and Rossi, N. Melatonin for refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a report of 3 cases. Am.J Ther 2002;9:524-526. View abstract.
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  842. Bothorel, B., Barassin, S., Saboureau, M., Perreau, S., Vivien-Roels, B., Malan, A., and Pevet, P. In the rat, exogenous melatonin increases the amplitude of pineal melatonin secretion by a direct action on the circadian clock. Eur.J Neurosci. 2002;16:1090-1098. View abstract.
  843. Rufo-Campos, M. [Melatonin and epilepsy]. Rev Neurol. 2002;35 Suppl 1:S51-S58. View abstract.
  844. Montilla-Lopez, P., Munoz-Agueda, M. C., Feijoo, Lopez M., Munoz-Castaneda, J. R., Bujalance-Arenas, I., and Tunez-Finana, I. Comparison of melatonin versus vitamin C on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in Alzheimer's disease induced by okadaic acid in neuroblastoma cells. Eur.J Pharmacol. 9-20-2002;451:237-243. View abstract.
  845. Fischer, T. W., Scholz, G., Knoll, B., Hipler, U. C., and Elsner, P. Melatonin suppresses reactive oxygen species in UV-irradiated leukocytes more than vitamin C and trolox. Skin Pharmacol.Appl.Skin Physiol 2002;15:367-373. View abstract.
  846. Adams, J. D., Jr., Yang, J., Mishra, L. C., and Singh, B. B. Effects of ashwagandha in a rat model of stroke. Altern Ther Health Med 2002;8:18-19. View abstract.
  847. Bilici, D., Akpinar, E., and Kiziltunc, A. Protective effect of melatonin in carrageenan-induced acute local inflammation. Pharmacol.Res 2002;46:133-139. View abstract.
  848. Gulcin, I., Buyukokuroglu, M. E., Oktay, M., and Kufrevioglu, O. I. On the in vitro antioxidative properties of melatonin. J Pineal Res 2002;33:167-171. View abstract.
  849. Dillon, D. C., Easley, S. E., Asch, B. B., Cheney, R. T., Brydon, L., Jockers, R., Winston, J. S., Brooks, J. S., Hurd, T., and Asch, H. L. Differential expression of high-affinity melatonin receptors (MT1) in normal and malignant human breast tissue. Am.J Clin Pathol. 2002;118:451-458. View abstract.
  850. Edwards, R. B., Manzana, E. J., and Chen, W. J. Melatonin (an antioxidant) does not ameliorate alcohol-induced Purkinje cell loss in the developing cerebellum. Alcohol Clin Exp.Res 2002;26:1003-1009. View abstract.
  851. Blask, D. E., Dauchy, R. T., Sauer, L. A., Krause, J. A., and Brainard, G. C. Light during darkness, melatonin suppression and cancer progression. Neuroendocrinol.Lett. 2002;23 Suppl 2:52-56. View abstract.
  852. Bonnefont-Rousselot, D., Cheve, G., Gozzo, A., Tailleux, A., Guilloz, V., Caisey, S., Teissier, E., Fruchart, J. C., Delattre, J., Jore, D., Lesieur, D., Duriez, P., and Gardes-Albert, M. Melatonin related compounds inhibit lipid peroxidation during copper or free radical-induced LDL oxidation. J Pineal Res 2002;33:109-117. View abstract.
  853. Dziegiel, P., Suder, E., Surowiak, P., Jethon, Z., Rabczynski, J., Januszewska, L., Sopel, M., and Zabel, M. Role of exogenous melatonin in reducing the nephrotoxic effect of daunorubicin and doxorubicin in the rat. J Pineal Res 2002;33:95-100. View abstract.
  854. Lee, Y. M., Chen, H. R., Hsiao, G., Sheu, J. R., Wang, J. J., and Yen, M. H. Protective effects of melatonin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo. J Pineal Res 2002;33:72-80. View abstract.
  855. Valenti, S. and Giusti, M. Melatonin participates in the control of testosterone secretion from rat testis: an overview of our experience. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2002;966:284-289. View abstract.
  856. Antolin, I., Mayo, J. C., Sainz, R. M., del Brio, Mde L., Herrera, F., Martin, V., and Rodriguez, C. Protective effect of melatonin in a chronic experimental model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res 7-12-2002;943:163-173. View abstract.
  857. Koyama, H., Nakade, O., Takada, Y., Kaku, T., and Lau, K. H. Melatonin at pharmacologic doses increases bone mass by suppressing resorption through down-regulation of the RANKL-mediated osteoclast formation and activation. J Bone Miner.Res 2002;17:1219-1229. View abstract.
  858. Srivastava, A. K., Gupta, S. K., Jain, S., and Gupta, Y. K. Effect of melatonin and phenytoin on an intracortical ferric chloride model of posttraumatic seizures in rats. Methods Find.Exp.Clin Pharmacol. 2002;24:145-149. View abstract.
  859. Reiter, R. J. and Tan, D. X. Melatonin: an antioxidant in edible plants. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2002;957:341-344. View abstract.
  860. Sahna, E., Olmez, E., and Acet, A. Effects of physiological and pharmacological concentrations of melatonin on ischemia-reperfusion arrhythmias in rats: can the incidence of sudden cardiac death be reduced? J Pineal Res 2002;32:194-198. View abstract.
  861. Allegra, M., Gentile, C., Tesoriere, L., and Livrea, M. A. Protective effect of melatonin against cytotoxic actions of malondialdehyde: an in vitro study on human erythrocytes. J Pineal Res 2002;32:187-193. View abstract.
  862. Pita, M. L., Hoyos, M., Martin-Lacave, I., Osuna, C., Fernandez-Santos, J. M., and Guerrero, J. M. Long-term melatonin administration increases polyunsaturated fatty acid percentage in plasma lipids of hypercholesterolemic rats. J Pineal Res 2002;32:179-186. View abstract.
  863. Pei, Z., Pang, S. F., and Cheung, R. T. Pretreatment with melatonin reduces volume of cerebral infarction in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model. J Pineal Res 2002;32:168-172. View abstract.
  864. Pappolla, M. A., Simovich, M. J., Bryant-Thomas, T., Chyan, Y. J., Poeggeler, B., Dubocovich, M., Bick, R., Perry, G., Cruz-Sanchez, F., and Smith, M. A. The neuroprotective activities of melatonin against the Alzheimer beta- protein are not mediated by melatonin membrane receptors. J Pineal Res 2002;32:135-142. View abstract.
  865. Abilio, V. C., Vera, J. A., Jr., Ferreira, L. S., Duarte, C. R., Carvalho, R. C., Grassl, C., Martins, C. R., Torres-Leite, D., Bignotto, M., Tufik, S., Ribeiro, Rde A., and Frussa-Filho, R. Effects of melatonin on orofacial movements in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002;161:340-347. View abstract.
  866. Johnson, K., Page, A., Williams, H., Wassemer, E., and Whitehouse, W. The use of melatonin as an alternative to sedation in uncooperative children undergoing an MRI examination. Clin Radiol. 2002;57:502-506. View abstract.
  867. Lewy, A. J., Emens, J. S., Sack, R. L., Hasler, B. P., and Bernert, R. A. Low, but not high, doses of melatonin entrained a free-running blind person with a long circadian period. Chronobiol.Int 2002;19:649-658. View abstract.
  868. Luboshitzky, R., Shen-Orr, Z., Nave, R., Lavi, S., and Lavie, P. Melatonin administration alters semen quality in healthy men. J Androl 2002;23:572-578. View abstract.
  869. Tailleux, A., Torpier, G., Bonnefont-Rousselot, D., Lestavel, S., Lemdani, M., Caudeville, B., Furman, C., Foricher, R., Gardes-Albert, M., Lesieur, D., Rolando, C., Teissier, E., Fruchart, J. C., Clavey, V., Fievet, C., and Duriez, P. Daily melatonin supplementation in mice increases atherosclerosis in proximal aorta. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 5-10-2002;293:1114-1123. View abstract.
  870. Ross, C., Davies, P., and Whitehouse, W. Melatonin treatment for sleep disorders in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: an observational study. Dev Med Child Neurol 2002;44:339-344. View abstract.
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  872. Celebi, S., Dilsiz, N., Yilmaz, T., and Kukner, A. S. Effects of melatonin, vitamin E and octreotide on lipid peroxidation during ischemia-reperfusion in the guinea pig retina. Eur.J Ophthalmol. 2002;12:77-83. View abstract.
  873. Sewerynek, E. Melatonin and the cardiovascular system. Neuroendocrinol.Lett 2002;23 Suppl 1:79-83. View abstract.
  874. Lewinski, A. and Karbownik, M. REVIEW. Melatonin and the thyroid gland. Neuroendocrinol.Lett 2002;23 Suppl 1:73-78. View abstract.
  875. Cardinali, D. P., Brusco, L. I., Liberczuk, C., and Furio, A. M. The use of melatonin in Alzheimer's disease. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2002;23 Suppl 1:20-23. View abstract.
  876. Kvetnoy, I. M., Ingel, I. E., Kvetnaia, T. V., Malinovskaya, N. K., Rapoport, S. I., Raikhlin, N. T., Trofimov, A. V., and Yuzhakov, V. V. Gastrointestinal melatonin: cellular identification and biological role. Neuroendocrinol.Lett. 2002;23:121-132. View abstract.
  877. Holmes, A. L., Gilbert, S. S., and Dawson, D. Melatonin and zopiclone: the relationship between sleep propensity and body temperature. Sleep 5-1-2002;25:301-306. View abstract.
  878. Bhattacharya, S. K., Bhattacharya, D., Sairam, K., and Ghosal, S. Effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides on a rat model of tardive dyskinesia. Phytomedicine. 2002;9:167-170. View abstract.
  879. Bilici, D., Suleyman, H., Banoglu, Z. N., Kiziltunc, A., Avci, B., Ciftcioglu, A., and Bilici, S. Melatonin prevents ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage possibly due to its antioxidant effect. Dig.Dis.Sci. 2002;47:856-861. View abstract.
  880. Gupta, Y. K., Chaudhary, G., and Sinha, K. Enhanced protection by melatonin and meloxicam combination in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of acute ischemic stroke in rat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;80:210-217. View abstract.
  881. Calvo, J. R., Guerrero, J. M., Osuna, C., Molinero, P., and Carrillo-Vico, A. Melatonin triggers Crohn's disease symptoms. J Pineal Res 2002;32:277-278. View abstract.
  882. Munoz-Hoyos, A., Heredia, F., Moreno, F., Garcia, J. J., Molina-Carballo, A., Escames, G., and Acuna-Castroviejo, D. Evaluation of plasma levels of melatonin after midazolam or sodium thiopental anesthesia in children. J Pineal Res 2002;32:253-256. View abstract.
  883. Reiter, R. J., Tan, D. X., Manchester, L. C., and El Sawi, M. R. Melatonin reduces oxidant damage and promotes mitochondrial respiration: implications for aging. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci 2002;959:238-250. View abstract.
  884. Feng, Y., Zhang, L. X., and Chao, D. M. [Role of melatonin in spatial learning and memory in rats and its mechanism]. Sheng Li Xue.Bao. 2-25-2002;54:65-70. View abstract.
  885. Dziegiel, P., Jethon, Z., Suder, E., Sopel, M., Rabczynski, J., Surowiak, P., and Zabel, M. Role of exogenous melatonin in reducing the cardiotoxic effect of daunorubicin and doxorubicin in the rat. Exp.Toxicol.Pathol. 2002;53:433-439. View abstract.
  886. Cuzzocrea, S. and Reiter, R. J. Pharmacological actions of melatonin in acute and chronic inflammation. Curr.Top.Med Chem. 2002;2:153-165. View abstract.
  887. Acuna, C. D., Escames, G., Carazo, A., Leon, J., Khaldy, H., and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin, mitochondrial homeostasis and mitochondrial-related diseases. Curr.Top.Med Chem. 2002;2:133-151. View abstract.
  888. Blask, D. E., Sauer, L. A., and Dauchy, R. T. Melatonin as a chronobiotic/anticancer agent: cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of action and their implications for circadian-based cancer therapy. Curr.Top.Med Chem. 2002;2:113-132. View abstract.
  889. Awney, H. A., Attih, A. M., Habib, S. L., and Mostafa, M. H. Effect of melatonin on the production of microsomal hydrogen peroxide and cytochrome P-450 content in rat treated with aflatoxin B. Toxicology 3-20-2002;172:143-148. View abstract.
  890. Mohanan, P. V. and Yamamoto, H. A. Preventive effect of melatonin against brain mitochondria DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and seizures induced by kainic acid. Toxicol.Lett. 3-24-2002;129(1-2):99-105. View abstract.
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Last reviewed - 06/20/2014




Page last updated: 08 September 2014