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Vitamin E


What is it?

Vitamin E is a vitamin that dissolves in fat. It is found in many foods including vegetable oils, cereals, meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, vegetables, and wheat germ oil. It is also available as a supplement.

Vitamin E is used for treating vitamin E deficiency, which is rare, but can occur in people with certain genetic disorders and in very low-weight premature infants.

Some people use vitamin E for treating and preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels including hardening of the arteries, heart attack, chest pain, leg pain due to blocked arteries, and high blood pressure.

Vitamin E is also used for treating diabetes and its complications. It is used for preventing cancer, particularly lung and oral cancer in smokers; colorectal cancer and polyps; and gastric, prostate, and pancreatic cancer.

Some people use vitamin E for diseases of the brain and nervous system including Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, Parkinson’s disease, night cramps, restless leg syndrome, and for epilepsy, along with other medications. Vitamin E is also used for Huntington’s chorea, and other disorders involving nerves and muscles.

Women use vitamin E for preventing complications in late pregnancy due to high blood pressure (pre-eclampsia), premenstrual syndrome (PMS), painful periods, menopausal syndrome, hot flashes associated with breast cancer, and breast cysts.

Sometimes vitamin E is used to lessen the harmful effects of medical treatments such as dialysis and radiation. It is also used to reduce unwanted side effects of drugs such as hair loss in people taking doxorubicin and lung damage in people taking amiodarone.

Vitamin E is sometimes used for improving physical endurance, increasing energy, reducing muscle damage after exercise, and improving muscle strength.

Vitamin E is also used for cataracts, asthma, respiratory infections, skin disorders, aging skin, sunburns, cystic fibrosis, infertility, impotence, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), peptic ulcers, for certain inherited diseases and to prevent allergies.

Some people apply vitamin E to their skin to keep it from aging and to protect against the skin effects of chemicals used for cancer therapy (chemotherapy).

The American Heart Association recommends obtaining antioxidants, including vitamin E, by eating a well-balanced diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains rather than from supplements until more is known about the risks and benefits of taking supplements.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for VITAMIN E are as follows:

Effective for...

  • Movement disorder (ataxia) associated with vitamin E deficiency. The genetic movement disorder called ataxia causes severe vitamin E deficiency. Vitamin E supplements are used as part of the treatment for ataxia.
  • Vitamin E deficiency. Taking vitamin E by mouth is effective for preventing and treating vitamin E deficiency.

Possibly effective for...

  • Alzheimer’s disease. Vitamin E might slow down the worsening of memory loss in people with moderately severe Alzheimer’s disease. Vitamin E might also delay the loss of independence and the need for caregiver assistance in people with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. However, vitamin E does not seem to prevent moving from mild memory problems to full-blown Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Anemia. Some research shows that that taking vitamin E improves the response to the drug erythropoietin, which affects red blood cell production, in adults and children on hemodialysis.
  • Blood disorder (beta-thalassemia). Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to benefit children with the blood disorder called beta-thalessemia and vitamin E deficiency.
  • Bladder cancer. Taking 200 IU of vitamin E by mouth for more than 10 years seems to help prevent death from bladder cancer.
  • Leakage of chemotherapy drug into surrounding tissue. Applying vitamin E to the skin together with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) seems to be effective for treating leakage of chemotherapy into surrounding tissues.
  • Chemotherapy-related nerve damage. Taking vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) before and after treatment with cisplatin chemotherapy might reduce the risk of nerve damage.
  • Dementia. Research suggests that men who consume vitamin E and vitamin C have a decreased risk of developing several forms dementia. However, it does not appear to reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s dementia.
  • Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea). Taking vitamin E for 2 days before and for 3 days after bleeding begins seems to decrease pain severity and duration, and reduce menstrual blood loss.
  • Movement and coordination disorder called dyspraxia. Taking vitamin E by mouth together with evening primrose oil, thyme oil, and fish oils seems to improve movement disorders in children with dyspraxia.
  • Kidney problems in children (glomerulosclerosis). There is some evidence that taking vitamin E by mouth might improve kidney function in children with glomerulosclerosis.
  • An inherited disorder called G6PD deficiency. Some research shows that taking vitamin E by mouth, alone or together with selenium, might benefit people with an inherited disorder called G6PD deficiency.
  • Healing a type of skin sore called granuloma annulare. Applying vitamin E to the skin seems to clear up skin sores called granuloma annulare.
  • Huntington’s disease. Natural vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol) can improve symptoms in people with early Huntington’s disease. However, it does not seem to help people with more advanced disease.
  • Male infertility. Taking vitamin E by mouth improves pregnancy rates for men with fertility problems. Taking high doses of vitamin E together with vitamin C does not seem to provide the same benefits.
  • Bleeding within the skull. Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to be effective for treating bleeding in the skull in premature infants.
  • Bleeding within the ventricular system of the brain. Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to be effective for treating bleeding within the ventricular system of the brain in premature infants.
  • Nitrate tolerance. There is some evidence that taking vitamin E daily can help prevent nitrate tolerance.
  • Liver disease called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Taking vitamin E daily seems to improve symptoms of NASH in adults and children.
  • Parkinson’s disease. Early evidence suggests that vitamin E intake in the diet might be linked with a decreased risk of Parkinson’s disease. However, taking all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) does not seem to have any benefit for people with Parkinson’s disease.
  • Laser eye surgery (photoreactive keratectomy). Taking high doses of vitamin A along with vitamin E (alpha-tocopheryl nicotinate) daily seems to improve healing and vision in people undergoing laser eye surgery.
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to reduce anxiety, craving, and depression in some women with PMS.
  • Physical performance. Research suggests that increasing vitamin E intake in the diet is linked with improved physical performance and muscle strength in older people.
  • Fibrosis caused by radiation. Taking vitamin E by mouth with the drug pentoxifylline seems to treat fibrosis caused by radiation. However, taking vitamin E alone does not seem to be effective.
  • An eye disease in newborns called retrolental fibroplasia. Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to be effective for treating an eye disease cause retrolental fibroplasia in newborns.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Vitamin E taken along with standard treatment is better than standard treatment alone for reducing pain in people with RA. However, this combination does not reduce swelling.
  • Sunburn. Taking high doses of vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol) by mouth together with vitamin C protects against skin inflammation after exposure to UV radiation. However, vitamin E alone does not provide the same benefit. Applying vitamin E to the skin, together with vitamin C and melatonin, provides some protection when used before UV exposure.
  • Movement disorder (tardive dyskinesia). Taking vitamin E by mouth seems to improve symptoms associated with the movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia. However, some other research suggests that it does not improve symptoms, but may prevent symptoms from worsening.
  • Swelling in the middle layer of the eye (uveitis). Taking vitamin E with vitamin C by mouth seems to improve vision, but does not reduce swelling, in people with uveitis.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Age-related vision loss (age-related macular degeneration). The majority of research suggests that taking vitamin E, alone or along with other antioxidants, is not effective for preventing or treating age-related vision loss.
  • Neurodegenerative disease called Lou Gherig’s disease (ALS). Research suggests that taking vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) along with conventional medication does not affect function or increase survival rates compared to conventional medication alone in people with Lou Gherig’s disease.
  • Chest pain (angina). Taking vitamin E by mouth might have some effect on the functioning of blood vessels, but does not appear to reduce chest pain.
  • Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Taking vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol) by mouth does not appear to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. However, there is some early evidence that taking vitamin E and vitamin C might help prevent the progression of atherosclerosis in men.
  • Red and itchy skin (eczema). Research suggests that taking vitamin E, alone or along with selenium, does not improve symptoms of eczema.
  • Hot flashes related to breast cancer. Taking vitamin E by mouth does not seem to reduce hot flashes in women who have had breast cancer.
  • Lung condition in infants (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Research shows that taking vitamin E by mouth does not benefit newborn infants with a lung condition called bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
  • Cancer. Taking a combination of vitamin E, vitamin C, beta carotene, selenium, and zinc does not seem to lower overall cancer risk. However, it might reduce the risk of cancer in men, although evidence is conflicting.
  • Colorectal cancer. Most evidence suggests that taking vitamin E does not prevent the occurrence of colorectal cancer or the development of non-cancerous colorectal tumors, which are considered precursors to colon cancer.
  • Heart failure. Taking vitamin E by mouth for 12 weeks does not seem to improve heart function in people with heart failure.
  • Muscle disease called Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Research shows that taking vitamin E with the drug penicillamine does not slow the progression of the muscle disease called Duchene muscular dystrophy.
  • Head and neck cancer. Taking vitamin E (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) daily during radiation therapy and for 3 years after the end of therapy does not seem to reduce the risk of head and neck cancer recurrence. There is some concern that taking vitamin E might actually increase the risk of tumor recurrence. People with head and neck cancer should avoid daily vitamin E supplements in doses over 400 IU daily.
  • Abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia). Giving vitamin E to premature infants does not have a beneficial effect on the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells.
  • High blood pressure. Taking vitamin E by mouth does not seem to lower blood pressure in people already taking blood pressure medications.
  • Liver disease. Taking vitamin E does not reduce the risk of death in people with liver disease.
  • An inherited muscle disorder called myotonic dystrophy. Taking vitamin E and selenium by mouth does not slow the progression of an inherited muscle disorder called myotonic dystrophy.
  • Mouth sores (oral musosal lesions). Most research shows that taking vitamin E (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) for up to 7 years does not reduce the risk for mouth sores in men who smoke.
  • Osteoarthritis. Taking vitamin E does not seem to decrease pain or stiffness in people with osteoarthritis. Vitamin E also does not seem to prevent the condition from becoming worse.
  • Pancreatic cancer. Taking vitamin E, alone or together with other antioxidants such as beta-carotene and vitamin C, does not seem to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
  • Pharyngeal cancer. Research shows that people with diabetes who take vitamin E (RRR-alpha-tocopherol) by mouth do not have a reduce risk of developing mouth or pharyngeal cancer.
  • High blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia). Most evidence suggests that taking a combination of vitamins E and C does not reduce the risk of high blood pressure during pregnancy. However, some research suggests that taking a combination of vitamins E and C daily reduces the risk of high blood pressure in high risk women when started in weeks 16 to 22 of pregnancy.
  • Prostate cancer. Research on the effects of vitamin E on prostate cancer risk has been inconsistent. Overall, research suggests that taking vitamin E supplements does not reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer, and might actually increase the risk.
  • Respiratory tract infections. Taking vitamin E by mouth, alone or as a multivitamin, does not appear to decrease the risk of respiratory tract infections or the severity of symptoms once an infection develops.
  • An eye condition called retinitis pigmentosa. Taking vitamin E (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) by mouth does not appear to slow vision loss, and might actually increase vision loss, in people with a condition called retinitis pigmentosa.
  • Scarring. Some research shows that applying vitamin E to the skin does not reduce scarring after surgery.

Likely ineffective for...

  • Benign breast disease. Taking vitamin E supplements does not seem to be effective for treating benign breast disease.
  • Breast cancer. Although having higher blood levels of vitamin E might be linked with a reduced risk of breast cancer, increasing vitamin E intake from the diet or supplements does not reduce the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Heart disease. Most research suggests that taking vitamin E supplements does not prevent heart disease. However, some evidence suggests that increasing vitamin E intake in the diet might be beneficial.
  • Lung cancer. Taking all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) for up to 8 years does not reduce the risk of developing lung cancer in men who smoke. Also, taking vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) for up to 10 years does not prevent lung cancer or reduce the risk of death from lung cancer.
  • Death from any cause. Research suggests that taking vitamin E daily or every other day for up to 10 years does not reduce the risk of death from any cause. Furthermore, some research suggests that regularly taking high doses of vitamin E might increase the risk of death.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Asthma. There is inconsistent evidence about the role of vitamin E in asthma. Some research suggests that consuming more vitamin E in the diet seems to prevent asthma. However, taking vitamin E supplements does not have the same benefit.
  • Cataracts. Some evidence suggests that taking vitamin E, alone or together with other vitamins or antioxidants, does not prevent the development or progression of cataracts. However, other evidence suggests that vitamin E might help reduce the risk of developing cataracts.
  • Infections related to chemotherapy. Research suggests that higher intake of vitamin E in the diet might reduce the risk of infection in children undergoing chemotherapy.
  • Diabetes. Vitamin E might be beneficial for people with diabetes. Some research suggests that vitamin E improves blood sugar control. Other research suggests that higher vitamin E intake in the diet is linked to a reduced risk of diabetes.
  • Stomach cancer. Taking vitamin E plus beta-carotene or vitamin C and beta-carotene does not seem to prevent stomach cancer. However, there is limited evidence that consuming more vitamin E from the diet might slow the progression of stomach cancer.
  • High cholesterol. Some early research suggests that taking vitamin E with vitamin C might benefit children with high cholesterol.
  • Kidney disease (IgA nephropathy). Early research suggests that taking vitamin E can improve kidney function in children with a kidney disease called IgA nephropathy.
  • Difficulty walking due to poor blood flow in the legs (intermittent claudication). Taking all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) alone or together with beta-carotene by mouth does not appear to improve poor blood flow in the legs. However, other research suggests that taking vitamin E daily for 18 months reduces symptoms of intermittent claudication.
  • Tissue damage after a blood clot (ischemic reperfusion injury). Taking vitamin E by mouth with vitamin C and conventional medication two days before bypass surgery and one day after surgery appears to reduce complications. However, vitamin E does not appear to be beneficial when taken alone.
  • Stroke caused by a clot (ischemic stroke). There is some evidence that all-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) might help prevent stroke in male smokers who have high blood pressure and diabetes. However, other research suggests that it might not reduce the risk of stroke.
  • Live transplant. Taking vitamin E (tocopheryl succinate polyethylene glycol) might reduce the dose of immunosuppressant needed after a liver transplant.
  • Skin cancer (melanoma). Some evidence suggests that taking vitamin E (RR-alpha-tocopherol) daily does not reduce the risk of developing skin cancer.
  • Nighttime leg cramps. Early evidence suggests that vitamin E might reduce nighttime leg cramps. However, other evidence suggests otherwise.
  • Sickle cell disease. Early evidence suggests that taking vitamin E with aged garlic extract and vitamin C might be useful for sickle cell anemia.
  • Skin disorders.
  • Allergies.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Epilepsy.
  • Common cold.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate vitamin E for these uses.

How does it work?

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Vitamin E is an important vitamin required for the proper function of many organs in the body. It is also an antioxidant. This means it helps to slow down processes that damage cells.

Are there safety concerns?

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Vitamin E is LIKELY SAFE for most healthy people when taken by mouth or applied to the skin. Most people do not experience any side effects when taking the recommended daily dose, which is 15 mg.

Vitamin E is POSSIBLY UNSAFE if taken by mouth in high doses. If you have a condition such as heart disease or diabetes, do not take doses of 400 IU/day or more. Some research suggests that high doses might increase the chance of death and possibly cause other serious side effects. The higher the dose, the greater the risk of serious side effects.

There is some concern that vitamin E might increase the chance of having a serious stroke called hemorrhagic stroke, which is bleeding into the brain. Some research shows that taking vitamin E in doses of 300-800 IU each day might increase the chance of this kind of stroke by 22%. However, in contrast, vitamin E might decrease the chance of having a less severe stroke called an ischemic stroke.

There is contradictory information about the effect of vitamin E on the chance of developing prostate cancer. Some research suggests that taking large amounts of a multivitamin plus a separate vitamin E supplement might actually increase the chance of developing prostate cancer in some men.

High doses can also cause nausea, diarrhea, stomach cramps, fatigue, weakness, headache, blurred vision, rash, and bruising and bleeding.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy: When used in the recommended daily amount, vitamin E is POSSIBLY SAFE for pregnant women. There has been some concern that taking vitamin E supplements might be harmful to the fetus when taken in early pregnancy. However, it is too soon to know if this is an important concern. Until more is known, do not take vitamin E supplements during early pregnancy without talking with your healthcare provider.

Breast-feeding: Vitamin E is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in recommended daily amounts during breast-feeding.

Infants and children: Vitamin E is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. The maximum amounts of vitamin E that are considered safe for children are based on age. Less than 200 mg daily is safe for children 1 to 3 years old. Less than 300 mg daily is safe for children 4 to 8 years old. Less than 600 mg daily is safe for children 9 to 13 years old. Less than 800 mg daily is safe for children ages 14 to 18 years old. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when given intravenously (by IV) to premature infants in high doses.

Angioplasty, a heart procedure: Avoid taking supplements containing vitamin E or other antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C) immediately before and following angioplasty without the supervision of a health care professional. These vitamins seem to interfere with proper healing.

Diabetes: Vitamin E might increase the risk for heart failure in people with diabetes. People with diabetes should avoid high doses of vitamin E.

Heart attack: Vitamin E might increase the risk for death in people with a history of heart attack. People with a history of heart attack should avoid high doses of vitamin E.

Low levels of vitamin K (vitamin K deficiency): Vitamin E might worsen clotting problems in people whose levels of vitamin K are too low.

An eye condition called retinitis pigmentosa: All-rac-alpha-tocopherol (synthetic vitamin E) 400 IU seems to speed vision loss in people with retinitis pigmentosa. However, much lower amounts (3 IU) do not seem to produce this effect. If you have this condition, it is best to avoid vitamin E.

Bleeding disorders: Vitamin E might make bleeding disorders worse. If you have a bleeding disorder, avoid taking vitamin E supplements.

Head and neck cancer: Do not take vitamin E supplements in doses of 400 IU/day or more. Vitamin E might increase the chance that cancer will return.

Prostate cancer: There is concern that taking vitamin E might increase the chance of developing prostate cancer. The effect of vitamin E in men who currently have prostate cancer is not clear. However, in theory, taking vitamin E supplements might worsen prostate cancer in men who already have it.

Stroke: Vitamin E might increase the risk for death in people with a history of stroke. People with a history of stroke should avoid high doses of vitamin E.

Surgery: Vitamin E might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using vitamin E at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

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Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)
Taking large amounts of vitamin E along with cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might increase how much cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) the body absorbs. By increasing how much cyclosporine the body absorbs, vitamin E might increase the effects and side effects of cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune).

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Vitamin E might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking vitamin E along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can decrease the effectiveness of some medications. Before taking vitamin E, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Medications for cancer (Chemotherapy)
Vitamin E is an antioxidant. There is some concern that antioxidants might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for cancers. But it is too soon to know if the interaction occurs.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Vitamin E might slow blood clotting. Taking vitamin E along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Medications used for lowering cholesterol (Statins)
Taking vitamin E, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and selenium together might decrease the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol. It is not known if taking vitamin E alone decreases the effectiveness of some medications used for lowering cholesterol.

Some medications used for lowering cholesterol include atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), and pravastatin (Pravachol).

Niacin
Taking vitamin E along with beta-carotene, vitamin C, and selenium might decrease some of the beneficial effects of niacin. Niacin can increase the good cholesterol. Taking vitamin E along with these other vitamins might decrease the good cholesterol.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Vitamin E can also slow blood clotting. Taking vitamin E along with warfarin (Coumadin) can increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

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Beta-carotene
Some evidence suggests that vitamin E might reduce absorption of beta-carotene. The body needs beta-carotene to make vitamin A. Taking vitamin E 800 units daily seems to reduce blood levels of beta-carotene by 20%. Higher doses of vitamin E may reduce beta-carotene even more.

Herbs and supplements that slow blood clotting
Vitamin E slows blood clotting. Using vitamin E along with other herbs and supplements that slow blood clotting could increase the risk of bleeding in some people. These herbs include angelica, asafoetida, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, horse chestnut, meadowsweet, poplar, quassia, red clover, willow, and others.

Iron
There is a concern that large doses of vitamin E (>10 units/kg/day) might slow the uptake of iron supplements in severely anemic infants. Avoid high doses of vitamin E in infants. It isn't known whether this interaction occurs in adults.

Omega-6 fatty acids
Taking omega-6 fatty acids, especially in high doses, may increase the mount of vitamin E that the body needs.

Vitamin A
Vitamin E may affect how vitamin A acts in the body.

Vitamin K
Taking doses of vitamin E of 800 IU/day or more can decrease the effects of vitamin K. This might increase the risk of bleeding in people taking warfarin or other medicines that slow blood clotting. People with low vitamin K levels might be at especially high risk.

Are there interactions with foods?

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Fatty foods
The body needs fat to be able to use vitamin E. However, it isn't necessary to increase dietary fat to make sure vitamin E can be used by the body.

What dose is used?

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The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:
  • For vitamin E deficiency: a typical dose in adults is RRR-alpha tocopherol (natural vitamin E) 60-75 IU per day.
  • For the movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia: RRR-alpha-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) 1600 IU daily.
  • For improving male fertility: vitamin E 200-600 IU daily.
  • For Alzheimer’s disease: up to 2000 IU daily. Combination therapy of donepezil (Aricept) 5 mg and vitamin E 1000 IU per day has been used for slowing memory decline in people with Alzheimer’s disease.
  • For liver disease called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: 800 IU daily in adults has been used; 400-1200 IU daily has been used in children.
  • For early Huntington’s chorea: RRR-alpha-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) 3000 IU.
  • For rheumatoid arthritis pain: vitamin E 600 IU twice daily.
  • For preventing nerve damage caused by cisplatin: vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 300 mg daily with each chemotherapy treatment and for up to 3 months after stopping cisplatin therapy.
  • For improving effectiveness of nitrates used for heart disease: vitamin E 200 mg three times daily.
  • To reduce protein in the urine of children with a kidney disease called focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: vitamin E 200 IU.
  • For G6PD deficiency: vitamin E 800 IU daily.
  • For premenstrual syndrome (PMS): RRR-alpha-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) 400 IU daily.
  • For painful menstrual periods: vitamin E 200 IU twice or 500 IU daily starting 2 days before the menstrual period and continuing through the first 3 days of bleeding.
  • For healing the eyes after a surgery called keratectomy: 230 mg vitamin E (alpha-tocopheryl nicotinate) and vitamin A (retinol palmitate) 25,000 units have been used 3 times daily for 30 days, followed by twice daily for 2 months.
  • For fibrosis caused by radiation: vitamin E 1000 IU daily in combination with pentoxifylline 800 mg.
  • For beta-thalassemia: vitamin E 750 IU daily.
  • For preventing sunburn: RRR-alpha-tocopherol (natural vitamin E) 1000 IU in combination with 2 grams of ascorbic acid.
  • For preventing high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia) in high risk women: vitamin E 400 IU with vitamin C 1000 mg daily.
For the most benefit, it’s best to take vitamin E that has been made in a lab (all-rac-alpha-tocopherol) with food.

Dosing for vitamin E can be confusing. Current guidelines show recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and upper tolerable limits (UTL) for vitamin E in milligrams. However, most products are still labeled in International Units (IUs).

Other names

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Acétate d’Alpha Tocophérol, Acétate d’Alpha Tocophéryl, Acétate de D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Acétate de DL-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Acétate de Tocophérol, Acétate de Tocophéryl, Acétate de Vitamine E, All Rac-Alpha-Tocopherol, All-Rac-Alpha-Tocophérol, Alpha-Tocophérol, Alpha Tocopherol Acetate, Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate, Alpha tocotrienol, Alpha tocotriénol, Alpha-tocopherol, Alpha-Tocophérol, Beta tocotrienol, Bêta-tocotriénol, Beta-tocopherol, Bêta-tocophérol, Concentré de Tocotriénol, D-Alpha Tocopherol, D-Alpha Tocophérol, D-Alpha Tocopheryl Succinate, D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate, D-Alpha Tocotrienol, D-Alpha Tocotriénol, D-Alpha-Tocopherol, D-Alpha-Tocophérol, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acid Succinate, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl Succinate, D-Alpha-Tocopheryl, D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, D-Beta-Tocopherol, D-Bêta-Tocophérol, D-Delta-Tocopherol, D-Delta-Tocophérol, Delta Tocotrienol, Delta-Tocotriénol, Delta-tocopherol, Delta-tocophérol, D-Gamma Tocotrienol, D-Gamma-Tocotriénol, D-Gamma-Tocopherol, D-Gamma-Tocophérol, DL-Alpha-Tocopherol, DL-Alpha-Tocophérol, DL-Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate, DL-Alpha-Tocopheryl, DL-Alpha-Tocophéryl, DL-Tocopherol, DL-Tocophérol, D-Tocopherol, D-Tocophérol, D-Tocopheryl Acetate, Fat-Soluble Vitamin, Gamma tocotrienol, Gamma-tocotriénol, Gamma-tocopherol, Gamma-tocophérol, Mixed Tocopherols, Mixed Tocotrienols, Palm Tocotrienols, Rice Tocotrienols, RRR-Alpha-Tocopherol, RRR-Alpha-Tocophérol, Succinate Acide de D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Succinate Acide de Tocophéryl, Succinate de D-Alpha-Tocophéryl, Succinate de Tocophéryl, Succinate de Vitamine E, Tocopherol Acetate, Tocopherol, Tocophérol, Tocophérols Mixtes, Tocotriénols de Palme, Tocotriénols de Riz, Tocotriénols Mixtes, Tocopheryl Acetate, Tocopheryl Acid Succinate, Tocopheryl Succinate, Tocotrienol, Tocotriénol, Tocotrienol Concentrate, Tocotrienols, Tocotriénols, Vitamin E Acetate, Vitamin E Succinate, Vitamina E, Vitamine E, Vitamine Liposoluble, Vitamine Soluble dans les Graisses.

Methodology

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To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

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To see all references for the Vitamin E page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/954.html.

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  2. Mortality in DATATOP: a multicenter trial in early Parkinson's disease. Parkinson Study Group. Ann.Neurol. 1998;43:318-325. View abstract.
  3. Jun, M., Venkataraman, V., Razavian, M., Cooper, B., Zoungas, S., Ninomiya, T., Webster, A. C., and Perkovic, V. Antioxidants for chronic kidney disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;10:CD008176. View abstract.
  4. Vardi, M., Blum, S., and Levy, A. P. Haptoglobin genotype and cardiovascular outcomes in diabetes mellitus - natural history of the disease and the effect of vitamin E treatment. Meta-analysis of the medical literature. Eur.J.Intern.Med. 2012;23:628-632. View abstract.
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Page last updated: 10 December 2014