Facial trauma is an injury of the face and upper jaw bone (maxilla).
Facial injuries can affect upper jaw, lower jaw, cheek, nose, or forehead. They may be caused by blunt force or be the result of a wound.
Common causes of injury to the face include:
The doctor will perform a physical exam, which may show:
The following may suggest bone fractures:
A CT scan of the head and bones of the face may be done.
Surgery is done if the injury prevents normal functioning or causes a major deformity.
The goal of treatment is to:
Treatment should be done as soon as possible if the person is stable and does not have a neck fracture.
Most people do very well with proper treatment. More surgery may be needed in 6 - 12 months to correct changes in appearance.
Complications may include:
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have a severe injury to your face.
Wear seat belts while driving.
Use protective head gear when doing work or activities that could injure the face.
Maxillofacial injury; Midface trauma; Facial injury; LeFort injuries
Mayersak RJ. Facial trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2013:chap 42.
Hill JD, Hamilton III GS. Facial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2010:chap 22.
Updated by: Ashutosh Kacker, MD, BS, Associate Professor of Otolaryngology, Weill Cornell Medical College, and Associate Attending Otolaryngologist, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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