A glomus tympanum tumor is a tumor of the middle ear and bone behind the ear (mastoid).
A glomus tympanum tumor grows in the temporal bone of the skull, behind the ear drum (tympanic membrane).
This area contains nerve fibers (glomus bodies) that normally respond to changes in body temperature or blood pressure.
These tumors usually occur late in life, around age 60 or 70, but they can appear at any age.
The cause of a glomus tympanum tumor is unknown. Usually, there are no known risk factors. Glomus tumors have been associated with changes (mutations) in a gene responsible for the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDHD).
Glomus tympanum tumors are diagnosed by a physical examination. They may be seen in the ear or behind the ear drum.
Diagnosis also involves scans, including:
Glomus tympanum tumors are rarely cancerous and do not tend to spread to other parts of the body. However, treatment may be needed to relieve symptoms.
Patients who have surgery tend to do well. More than 90% of people with glomus tympanum tumors are cured.
The most common complication is hearing loss.
Nerve damage, which may be caused by the tumor itself or damage during surgery, rarely occurs. Nerve damage can lead to facial paralysis.
Call your health care provider if you notice:
Paraganglioma - glomus tympanum
Rucker JC. Cranial neuropathies. In: Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J. Neurology in Clinical Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 74.
Marsh M, Jenkins H. Temporal bone neoplasms and lateral cranial base surgery. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al. Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 4th ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby; 2005:chap 162.
Updated by: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Seth Schwartz, MD, MPH, Otolaryngologist, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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