When you have assessed the patient's needs and selected the education materials and methods you will use, you will need to:
Try to involve the patient and support person when appropriate as partners in the health care team. The information and skills the patient learns will enhance the ability to make the best personal health choices.
Help the patient learn how to talk about personal health and medical issues and discuss what is needed to help manage the current condition and feel better. When the patient knows what to report, what to focus on, and how to ask questions when talking with a health care provider, he or she can become a more active partner in care.
After you develop your plan you are ready to begin teaching.
Keep in mind you will get the best results when you are meeting the patient's needs. This includes selecting the right time -- that teachable moment. If you teach only at a time that fits your schedule, your efforts may not be as effective.
It is unlikely that you will even have all the time you'd like for patient teaching. It may help to give your patient written or audiovisual resources before your meeting. This may help reduce the patient's anxiety and save you time. The option of providing resources ahead of time will depend on your patient's needs and the resources you have available.
Talk about all the topics that will be covered and set time frames. For example, you may say, "Over the next few days or visits we will cover these 5 topics, and we will start with this one." Your patient may agree, or the patient may express a strong desire to go out of order, based on a perceived or real concern.
Deliver patient teaching in small chunks. Avoid overloading your patient. If your patient is willing to try only 2 of the 4 lifestyle changes you suggest, leave the door open for further talks about the other changes.
If you are teaching certain skills to your patient, check for the patient's mastery of the first skill before you move on to the next one. And stay alert to barriers your patient may face in at home.
Talk about what to do if the patient's condition changes. This will help the patient feel more in control and feel a greater partnership in his or her own health care process.
Lastly, remember that small steps are better than none.
When teaching a new skill, ask your patient to demonstrate the new skill so you assess understanding and mastery.
Use the teach-back method to evaluate how you are doing as a teacher. This method is also called the show-me method, or closing the loop. It's a way to confirm that you have explained to your patient what they need to know in an understandable way. This method can also help you identify the strategies that are most helpful for patient understanding.
Keep in mind that teach-back is not a test of the patient's knowledge. It's a test of how well you explained or taught the information or skill. Use teach-back with every patient -- the one you feel certain has understood as well as the patient who appears to be struggling.
As you are teaching, provide reinforcement for learning.
Duffy FD. Counseling for behavioral change. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 13.
Falvo DR. Effective Patient Education: A Guide to Increased Adherence. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 2011: chap. 8.
Updated by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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