Life Stage Group
|Infants 0 to 6 months||*||**|
|Infants 6 to 12 months||*||**|
|1 - 3 years old||700||**|
|4 - 8 years old||1,000||600|
|9 - 13 years old||1,300||600|
|14 - 18 years old||1,300||600|
|19 - 30 years old||1,000||600|
|31 - 50 years old||1,000||600|
|51 - 70 years old||1,000||600|
|51 - 70 year old females||1,200||600|
|71+ years old||1,200||800|
|14 - 18 years old, pregnant/lactating||1,300||600|
|19 - 50 years old, pregnant/lactating||1,000||600|
*For infants, adequate intake is 200 mg/day for 0 to 6 months of age and 260 mg/day for 6 to 12 months of age.
**For infants, adequate intake is 400 IU/day for 0 to 6 months of age and 400 IU/day for 6 to 12 months of age.
—Source: Institute of Medicine, December 2010
There are many risk factors for bone loss and osteoporosis. Some of these things you cannot change and others you can.
Risk factors you cannot change include:
- Gender: Women develop osteoporosis more often than men.
- Age: The older you are, the greater your risk of osteoporosis.
- Body size: Small, thin women are at greater risk.
- Ethnicity: White and Asian women are at highest risk. Black and Hispanic women have a lower risk.
- Family history: Osteoporosis tends to run in families. If a family member has osteoporosis or breaks a bone, there is a greater chance that you will, too.
Risk factors you can change include lifestyle activities, eating habits, and hormonal levels that can change with age. Work with your health professional to find out how best to prevent the following risk factors:
- Sex hormones: Low estrogen levels due to missing menstrual periods or to menopause can cause osteoporosis in women. Low testosterone levels can bring on osteoporosis in men.
- Anorexia nervosa: This eating disorder can lead to osteoporosis.
- Calcium and vitamin D intake: A diet low in calcium and vitamin D makes you more prone to bone loss.
- Medication use: Some medicines increase the risk of osteoporosis.
- Activity level: Lack of exercise or long-term bed rest can cause weak bones.
- Smoking: Tobacco is bad for the bones, heart, and lungs.
- Drinking alcohol: Too much alcohol can cause bone loss and broken bones.