Dirección de esta página: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/1001.html

Vitamina C (ácido ascórbico)

¿Qué es?

La vitamina C es una vitamina. Algunos animales pueden hacer su propia vitamina C, pero la gente debe obtener esta vitamina de los alimentos y otras fuentes. Las frutas frescas, especialmente las frutas cítricas, y las verduras son una buena fuente de vitamina C. La vitamina C se puede hacer también en el laboratorio.

La mayoría de los expertos recomiendan obtener la vitamina C de una dieta rica en frutas y verduras en lugar de tomar suplementos. El jugo de naranja recién exprimido o el concentrado congelado fresco es una mejor elección que el jugo de naranja que se vende listo para beber. El jugo fresco contiene más vitamina C activa. Para obtener un mayor beneficio beba el jugo de naranja, hecho a partir del concentrado congelado, dentro de una semana después de su reconstitución. Si prefiere el jugo que se vende listo para beber, cómprelo 3 o 4 semanas antes de la fecha de expiración pero una vez que lo abra debe beberlo dentro de una semana.

Años atrás, se usó la vitamina C para la prevención y el tratamiento del escorbuto. El escorbuto es ahora relativamente poco común. Años atrás fue muy común entre los marineros, piratas, y otros individuos que pasaban embarcados por largos períodos. Cuando los viajes duraban más tiempo que el suministro de frutas y verduras, los marineros empezaban a sufrir de deficiencia de vitamina C, lo que llevaba al escorbuto.

Ahora en día la vitamina C se usa para la prevención y el tratamiento del resfrío común. Algunas personas la usan para infecciones de las encías, el acné, otras infecciones de la piel, la bronquitis, para la enfermedad causada por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), para las úlceras estomacales causadas por la bacteria llamada Helicobacter Pylori, para la tuberculosis, la disentería (una infección del intestino inferior) y para las infecciones de la piel que producen furúnculos (furonculosis). Se usa también para infecciones de la vejiga y de la próstata.

Algunas personas usan la vitamina C para la depresión, la inhabilidad para pensar, la demencia, la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el estrés físico y mental, la fatiga, y el trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH).

Se usa también para aumentar la absorción de hierro de los alimentos y para corregir un desequilibrio de las proteínas que ocurre en algunos recién nacidos (tirosinemia).

Se piensa también que la vitamina C podría ayudar al corazón y los vasos sanguíneos. Se usa para el endurecimiento de las arterias, para prevenir los coágulos en las venas y las arterias, los ataques al corazón, el derrame cerebral, la presión arterial alta, y el colesterol alto.

La vitamin C se usa también para el glaucoma, para prevenir las cataratas , para prevenir la enfermedad de la vesícula, para las caries dentales, el estreñimiento, la enfermedad de Lyme, para aumentar el sistema inmunológico, para el golpe de calor, la fiebre del heno, el asma, la bronquitis, la fibrosis cística, la infertilidad, la diabetes, el síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC), el autismo, los trastornos de colágeno, la artritis y la bursitis, para el dolor de espalda y la hinchazón de los discos, el cáncer, y la osteoporosis.

También se utiliza para mejorar de la resistencia física, retardar el progreso del envejecimiento, para contrarrestar los efectos secundarios del uso de cortisona y medicamentos relacionados, y para ayudar con los síntomas de desintoxicación en el tratamiento de la adicción a la droga.

A veces, la gente se aplica vitamina C sobre su piel para protejerla del sol, de los contaminantes ambientales y de otros peligros del medio ambiente. La vitamina C también se aplica a la piel como ayuda para el daño causado por la terapia de radiación.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Eficaz para...

  • Carencia de vitamina C. La ingesta o inyección de vitamina C previene y trata la carencia de vitamina C, incluido el escorbuto. Además, la ingesta de vitamina C puede reducir los problemas asociados con el escorbuto.

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • Absorción de hierro. Administrar vitamina C junto con hierro puede aumentar la cantidad de hierro que el cuerpo absorbe en adultos y niños.
  • Un trastorno genético en recien nacidos llamado tirosinemia. La ingesta de vitamina C como inyección mejora el trastorno genético en recién nacidos en el que los niveles del aminoácido tirosinia son demasiado elevados.

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Pérdida de visión relacionada con la edad (degeneración macular relacionada con la visión, DMRE). La ingesta diría de vitamina C junto con cinc, vitamina E y betacaroteno parece ayudar a prevenir la pérdida de visión o a detener el empeoramiento de la DMRE. No existe suficiente evidencia para saber si esta combinación ayuda a las personas con enfermedad macular avanzada leve o si previene esta enfermedad. El uso de vitamina C con otros antioxidantes, pero sin cinc, no parece tener efecto sobre la DMRE.
  • Disminución de proteína en la orina (albuminuria). La ingesta de vitamina C más vitamina E puede disminuir la proteína en la orina en personas con diabetes.
  • Endurecimiento de las arterias (ateroesclerosis). La ingesta de vitamina C parece disminuir el riesgo de endurecimiento de las arterias. La vitamina C también parece disminuir la tasa de empeoramiento de endurecimiento de las arterias. Se necesita más investigación para comprender los efectos de la ingesta de vitamina C en la dieta o en los suplementos para tratar esta condición una vez que ha comenzado.
  • Cáncer. El consumo de vitamina C en le dieta podría disminuir el riesgo de desarrollar cánceres de boca y otros cánceres. Cierta investigación sugiere que aumentar la ingesta de vitamina C comiendo frutas y vegetales disminuye el riesgo de cáncer. Sin embargo, la ingesta de suplementos con vitamina C no parece reducir el riesgo de cáncer.
  • Resfrío común. Es contradictoria la evidencia sobre la efectividad de la vitamina C para tratar el resfrío común. Sin embargo, la mayoría de la evidencia muestra que la ingesta de altas dosis de vitamina C podría acortar la duración del resfrío en uno a un día y medio en ciertos pacientes. La ingesta de vitamina C no es efectiva para prevenir el resfrío común.
  • Condición llamada dolor crónico (síndrome de dolor regional complejo). La ingesta de vitamina C después de una fractura de muñeca parece disminuir el riesgo de desarrollar un dolor crónico llamado síndrome de dolor regional complejo.
  • Problemas renales relacionados con un medio de contraste durante un examen de diagnóstico llamado angiografía. La ingesta de vitamina C antes y después de una angiografía parece disminuir el riesgo de desarrollar problemas renales.
  • Enrojecimiento (eritema) después de un procedimiento cosmético en la piel. Existe cierta evidencia de que el uso de una crema especial para el rostro con vitamina C puede disminuir la duración del enrojecimiento en la piel después de rejuvenecimiento facial por láser para tratar cicatrices y arrugas.
  • Infección pulmonar causada por ejercicio físico pesado. El uso de vitamina C antes del ejercicio físico intenso, como correr una maratón, podría prevenir las infecciones respiratorias superiores que a veces son consecuencia del ejercicio físico intenso.
  • Enfermedad de la vesícula biliar. Existe cierta evidencia de que la ingesta de vitamin C podría ayudar a prevenir la enfermedad de la vesícula biliar en mujeres. Sin embargo, la vitamina C no parece tener este efecto en los hombres.
  • Úlceras en el estómago causadas por la bacteria llamada H. pylori. La ingesta de vitamina C parece disminuir ciertos efectos secundarios causados por el tratamiento para las infecciones por H. pylori. Una vez eliminada la bacteria H. pylori, la vitamina C parece disminuir el desarrollo de las lesiones precancerosas en el estómago. Sin embargo, otra investigación sugiere que la vitamina C no mejora la curación de la infección por H. pylori.
  • Destrucción anormal de los glóbulos rojos (anemia hemolítica). El tratamiento con vitamina C puede mejorar la anemia hemolítica.
  • Hipertensión arterial. La ingesta de vitamina C junto con medicamentos hipotensores convencionales parece disminuir levemente la presión arterial sistólica (el número mayor en la medición de la presión arterial), pero no parece disminuir la presión diastólica (el número menor). La ingesta de vitamina C sola no parece afectar la presión arterial.
  • Saturnismo. El consumo de vitamina C en la dieta parece reducir las concentraciones de plomo en la sangre.
  • Medicamentos de apoyo usados para el dolor de pecho que funcionan durante más tiempo. La ingesta de vitamin C parece extender el efecto de las medicinas usadas para el dolor de pecho, como la nitroglicerina.
  • Artrosis. La ingesta de vitamina C de fuentes dietarias o de suplementos de ascorbato de calcio parece prevenir la pérdida de cartílago y el empeoramiento de síntomas en personas con artrosis.
  • Rendimiento físico. La ingesta de más vitamina C como parte de la dieta podría mejorar el rendimiento físico u la fuerza muscular en personas mayores. Además, la ingesta de suplementos de vitamina C podría mejorar la ingesta de oxígeno durante el ejercicio en varones adolescentes.
  • Quemaduras solares. La ingesta vitamina C junto con vitamina E parece prevenir las quemaduras de sol. Sin embargo, la ingesta de vitamina C sola no parece prevenir las quemaduras de sol.
  • Arrugas en la piel. La cremas para el rostro que contienen vitamina C o con vitamina C y acetil tirosina, sulfato de cinc, hialuronato de sodio y bioflavonoides (Cellex-C High Potency Serum) parecen mejorar las arrugas en la piel de la cara envejecida por la exposición al sol.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • Bronquitis. La ingesta de vitamin C no parece tener efectos sobre la bronquitis.
  • Enfermedad de Alzheimer. La vitamina C, como parte de la dieta, como suplemento o junto con vitamina E, no parece disminuir el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad de Alzheimer o demencia. Sin embargo, cierta investigación sugiere qu el uso prolongado de altas dosis de suplementos de vitamina C y E está asociado con una disminución del riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad de Alzheimer.
  • Enfermedad ocular asociada con una medicina llamada interferona. La ingesta diaria de vitamina C no parece disminuir el riesgo de enfermedad ocular asociada on el tratamiento con interferona en personas con enfermedad hepática.
  • Cáncer de pulmón. La investigación sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C sola o en combinación con vitamina C, no parece disminuir el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de pulmón o muerte por cáncer de pulmón.
  • Muerte por cualquier causa. Cierta investigación sugiere que los altos niveles de vitamina C en sangre están asociados a un menor riesgo de muerte por cualquier causa. Sin embargo, otra investigación muestra que la ingesta diaria de vitamina C junto con vitamina E, betacaroteno, selenio y cinc no disminuye el riesgo de muerte. En general, la mayoría de la investigación sugiere que los suplementos de vitamina C no disminuyen el riesgo de muerte.
  • Cáncer de páncreas. La investigación muestra que la vitamina C junto con betacaroteno y vitamina E no disminuye el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de páncreas.
  • Hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo (preeclampsia). Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C junto con vitamina E parece prevenir la hipertensión arterial durante los embarazos de alto riesgo. Sin embargo, la mayoría de la investigación muestra que la ingesta de vitamina C y vitamina E no disminuye el riesgo de desarrollar hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo.
  • Complicaciones durante el embarazo. La investigación sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C, sola o con vitamina E, no disminuye el riesgo de sufrir complicaciones durante el embarazo.
  • Cáncer de próstata. La investigación muestra que la ingesta de una combinación de vitamina C, vitamina E, betacaroteno, selenio y cinc no disminuye el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de páncreas. En general, la mayoría de la evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de suplementos de vitamina C no disminuye el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de próstata.
  • Problemas en la piel relacionados con tratamientos por radiación para el cáncer. La aplicación sobre la piel de una solución con vitamina C no previene los problemas en la piel causados por los tratamientos por radiación.
  • Accidente cerebrovascular. La mayoría de la investigación sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C no disminuye el riesgo de ACV.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Hay fever (allergic rhinitis). There is conflicting evidence about the effects of vitamin C for improving symptoms of hay fever. Taking vitamin C does not seem to prevent hay fever.
  • Daño cardiaco causado por el medicamento anticancerígeno antraciclina. La investigación sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C, sola o con vitamina E y otros ingredientes, no disminuye el riesgo de daño cardiaco causado por el medicamento anticancerígeno antraciclina.
  • Lesión en el estómago causada por la aspirina. Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C podría prevenir la lesión en el estómago causada por la aspirina.
  • Asma. Existe cierta evidencia que las personas con asma podrían tener niveles más bajos de vitamina C. Sin embargo, la investigación sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C no disminuye el riesgo de desarrollar asma o de reducir los síntomas del asma.
  • Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH). Cierta evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de altas dosis de vitamina C no reduce los síntomas del TDAH. Otra investigación sugiere que la ingesta de bajas dosis de vitamina C podría reducir ciertos síntomas como el nerviosismo y mejora el autocontrol en niños con ADHD.
  • Autismo. Cierta evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C disminuye la gravedad de los síntomas de autismo en niños.
  • Cáncer de vejiga. La ingesta de vitamina C sola no parece mejorar la supervivencia en pacientes con cáncer vejiga.
  • Cáncer de mama. Es contradictoria la investigación sobre los efectos de la vitamina C para tratar el cáncer de vejiga. Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta de altas dosis de vitamina C en la dieta disminuye el riesgo de cáncer de mama, mientras que otra investigación sugiere que no existe tal efecto. No existe evidencia que muestre que la ingesta de suplementos de vitamina C disminuye el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de mama.
  • Quemaduras. Cierta evidencia sugiere que el uso de una infusión con vitamina C dentro de las primeras 24hs de haber sufrido una quemadura grave disminuye la inflamación de la herida.
  • Cardiopatía. No es clara la investigación sobre el uso de la vitamina C para la cardiopatia: Se necesita más investigación sobre el uso de los suplementos de vitamina C para prevenir la cardiopatia: Sin embargo, podría resultar beneficio aumentar la ingesta de vitamina C en la dieta.
  • Cataratas. Hay información contradictoria acerca del uso de la vitamina C para prevenir las cataratas. La vitamina C más vitamina E y betacaroteno no parece tener un efecto significativo en la pérdida de visión relacionada con la edad en las personas bien nutridas que toman el suplemento a largo plazo (por un promedio de 6.3 años). Por otra parte, otras investigaciones sugieren que el tomar una multivitamina que contiene vitamina C por 10 años parece prevenir las cataratas. El uso de suplementos por períodos más cortos no parece funcionar.
  • Cáncer de cuello de útero. Cierta información limitada sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C disminuye el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de mama.
  • Lesión en el colon debido a la exposición a la radiación (proctitis crónica por radiación). La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C y vitamina E podría mejorar ciertos síntomas de proctitis crónica por radiación.
  • Cáncer colorrectal. La ingesta de vitamina C sola o junto con vitamin E y betacaroteno no parece disminuir el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer colorectal. La ingesta de vitamina C de la dieta además no parece estar asociada con el riesgo de sufrir cáncer colorectal.
  • Mala circulación en las piernas (insuficiencia venosa crónica). La investigación sugiere que la ingesta de un producto específico (Cyclo 3 Fort) que contiene extracto de escoba de carnicero, hesperidina metil chalcona y vitamina C disminuye el dolor, los calambres y otros síntomas en personas con mala circulación en las piernas.
  • Placa dental. Masticar goma que contiene vitamina C parece disminuir la placa dental.
  • Diabetes. Cierta evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de vitamin C disminuye los niveles de azúcar en la sangre en personas con diabetes. Sin embargo, otra investigación sugiere que la vitamina C no mejora los niveles de azúcar en la sangre en personas con diabetes. La vitamina C no parece disminuir el riesgo de desarrollar diabetes.
  • Cáncer de endometrio. Otra investigación sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C en la dieta disminuye levemente el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de endometrio.
  • Cáncer de esófago. La ingesta de vitamina C junto con betacaroteno y vitamina E no disminuye el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de esófago. Sin embargo, la ingesta de altas dosis de vitamina C en la dieta parece estar asociada con un menor riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de esófago.
  • Cáncer de estómago. No toda la investigación concuerda respecto de si la ingesta de suplementos de vitamina C o de dosis más altas de vitamina C en la dieta puede prevenir el cáncer de estómago. La ingesta de suplementos de vitamina C junto con betacaroteno o betacaroteno y vitamin E no parece disminuir el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer colorectal. Sin embargo, cierta evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C sola podrida impedir que las ampollas precancerosas en el estómago deriven en cáncer en personas con alto riesgo de sufrir cáncer de estómago.
  • Gota. La investigación muestra que la ingesta de vitamina C en la dieta está vinculada con un menor riesgo de desarrollar gota en los hombres.
  • VIH / SIDA. La ingesta diaria de vitamina C junto con vitamina A, betacaroteno, vitamina E, selenio y coenzima Q-10 parece tener ciertos beneficios en personas con VIH / SIDA. Sin embargo, ni las altas ni las bajas dosis de vitamina C afectan la cantidad de virus activo en el cuerpo.
  • Trasmisión de VIH. La ingesta de vitamina C junto con vitamin B y vitamina D durante el embarazo y la lactancia parece disminuir el riesgo de transmitir el VIH a los bebés.
  • Colesterol alto. la ingesta de vitamina C diariamente no parece bajar el colesterol en personas con niveles de colesterol normales. Sin embargo, la investigación sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C disminuye el colesterol de lipoproteína (LDL o “malo”) de baja densidad en personas con colesterol alto.
  • Infertilidad. Existe cierta evidencia de que podría ser positivo el efecto de la ingesta diaria de vitamina C en mujeres con ciertos problemas de fertilidad.
  • Leucemia. Existe cierta evidencia de que la vitamina C podría mejorar los efectos del medicamento trióxido de arsénico (Trisenox) en leucemia.
  • Problemas mentales. Evidencia limitada sugiere que la vitamina C podría reducir la presión arterial y los síntomas durante tiempos de estrés.
  • Enfermedad hepática (esteatohepatitis no alcohólica). La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C junto con vitamina E podría mejorar ciertos aspectos de la función hepática en personas con cierta enfermedad hepática llamada esteatohepatitis no alcohólica. Sin embargo, no parece disminuir la inflamación hepática en personas con esta condición.
  • Osteoporosis. Cierta evidencia sugiere que la vitamina C podría mejorar la fuerza ósea. Sin embargo, los altos niveles de vitamina C en la sangre en mujeres posmenopáusicas están vinculados a una menor densidad mineral ósea. Se necesita más información sobre los efectos de la vitamina C para tratar la densidad mineral ósea.
  • Cáncer de ovarios. La ingesta de vitamin C en la dieta no parece afectar el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de ovarios.
  • Enfermedad de Parkinson. La investigación sugiere que una mayor ingesta de vitamina C en la dieta no reduce el riesgo de desarrollar la enfermedad Parkinson.
  • Neumonía. Cierta investigación sugiere que la vitamina C podría disminuir el riesgo de neumonía y la duración de la neumonía una vez que se manifiesta.
  • Úlceras de decúbito (úlceras por presión). Cierta evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C no mejora la cicatrización de las heridas en personas con úlceras por presión. Sin embargo, cierta información sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C disminuye el tamaño de las úlceras por presión.
  • Anemia drepanocítica. La ingesta de vitamina C con extracto de ajo añejo y vitamina E podría ser beneficioso en personas con anemia drepanocítica.
  • Infección bacteriana en el sistema nervioso (tétano). Cierta evidencia sugiere que la ingesta diaria de vitamina C junto con un tratamiento convencional disminuye el riesgo de muestre en niños con tétano.
  • Infección de las vías urinarias (IVU). La investigación sugiere que la ingesta de vitamina C no previene la UVI en los ancianos.
  • Enfermedad renal.
  • Enfermedad del hígado.
  • Fibrosis cística.
  • Enfermedad de Lyme.
  • Síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC).
  • Heridas.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Caries dentales.
  • Estreñimiento.
  • Acné.
  • Otras condiciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para aprobar la vitamina C para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

La vitamina C es necesaria para el desarrollo y funcionamiento normal de muchas partes del cuerpo. Juega también un papel importante en la mantención del funcionamiento normal del sistema inmunológico.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

La vitamina C es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURA para la mayoría de las personas, cuando se la inyecta en el músculo y cuando se inyecta por vía intravenosa (VI) de manera apropiada. En algunas personas, la vitamina C podría producir náusea, vómitos, acidez, retorcijones de estómago, dolor de cabeza, y otros efectos secundarios. Las probabilidades de tener estos efectos secundarios aumentan si aumenta el consumo de vitamina C. Dosis mayor de 2000 mg por día POSIBLEMENTE NO SON SEGURAS y pueden producir muchos efectos secundarios, incluyendo cálculos renales y diarrea severa. En las personas que han tenido un cálculo renal, las dosis mayores de 1000 mg al día aumentan mucho el riesgo de una reaparición de los cálculos renales.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: La vitamina C es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURA para las mujeres que están embarazadas o amamantando si se ingiere en cantidades no mayores a 2000 mg por día en mujeres mayores a 19 años y 1800 mg en mujeres de 14-18 años o cuando se lo administra por via intravenosa (VI) o vía intramuscular y de manera apropiada. Una ingesta elevada de vitamina C durante el embarazo puede causar problemas para el bebé recién nacido. La vitamina C NO ES POSIBLEMENTE SEGURA cuando se lo ingiere en altas dosis.

Bebés y niños: La vitamina C es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURA cuando se la ingiere de manera apropiada. La vitamina C es NO ES PROBABLEMENTE SEGURA cuando se la ingiere en cantidades mayores a 400 mg por día en niños de 1-3 años, 650 mg por día en niños de 4-8 años, 1200 mg por día en niños de 9-13 años y 1800 mg por día en adolescentes de 14-18 años.

Después de someterse a un procedimiento llamado angioplastia: Inmediatamente antes y después de una angioplastia evite tomar suplementos que contienen vitamina C u otras vitaminas antioxidantes (betacaroteno, vitamina E) sin la supervisión de un profesional de la salud. Estas vitaminas parecen interferir con su recuperación.

Cáncer: Las células cancerosas concentran gran cantidad de vitamina C. Hasta que no se tenga más información, use dosis altas de vitamina C solo bajo la dirección de su oncólogo.

Diabetes: La vitamina C podría aumentar el azúcar en la sangre. En las mujeres de más edad con diabetes, dosis más altas de 300 mg por día aumenta el riesgo de muerte debido a enfermedades del corazón. No tome vitamina C en dosis mayores de las que se encuentra en las multivitaminas básicas.

Trastornos relacionados con el hierro en la sangre, que incluyen las afecciones llamadas “talasemia y hemocromatosis”: La vitamina C puede aumentar la absorción de hierro, lo que puede empeorar estas afecciones. Evite tomar grandes cantidades de vitamina C.

Cálculos renales, o un historial de cálculos renales: Grandes cantidades de vitamina C puede aumentar la probabilidad de tener cálculos renales. No tome vitamina C en dosis mayores de las que se encuentra en las multivitaminas básicas.

Infarto de miocardio: Los niveles de vitamina C disminuyen durante un infarto de miocardio. Sin embargo, la vitamina C no ha sido vinculada con un mayor aumento de infarto de miocardio.

Una carencia metabólica llamada deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa (G6PDD): En las personas con esta enfermedad el consumo de grandes cantidades de vitamina C puede producir ruptura de los glóbulos rojos. Evite el consumo de grandes cantidades de vitamina C.

Un trastorno de la sangre llamado “enfermedad de células falciformes”: La vitamina C puede empeorar esta afección. Evite el consumo de grandes cantidades de vitamina C.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Aluminio
El aluminio se encuentra presente en la mayoría de los antiácidos. La vitamina C puede aumentar la cantidad de aluminio que el cuerpo absorbe. Sin embargo, no está claro si esta interacción debe causar una gran preocupación. Tome vitamina C dos horas antes o cuatro horas después de tomar antiácidos.
Estrógenos
El cuerpo descompone los estrógenos para eliminarlos. La vitamina C podría disminuir la rapidez con qué el cuerpo elimina los estrógenos. El tomar vitamina C junto con estrógenos podría aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de los estrógenos.
Flufenazina (Prolixin)
Grandes cantidades de vitamina C podrían disminuir la cantidad de flufenazina (Prolixin) en el cuerpo. El tomar vitamina C junto con flufenazina (Prolixin) podría disminuir la eficacia de la flufenazina (Prolixin).
Medicamentos para el cáncer (Quimioterapia)
La vitamina C es un antioxidante. Hay un poco de preocupación de que los antioxidantes podrían disminuir la eficacia de algunos medicamentos que se usan para el cáncer. Pero es demasiado pronto para saber si esta interacción ocurre.
Medicamentos para el VIH/SIDA
El tomar grandes dosis de vitamina C podría desminuir la cantidad que permanece en el cuerpo de los medicamentos que se usan para el VIH/SIDA. Esto podría disminuir la eficacia de algunos medicamentos que se usan para el VIH/SIDA.

Algunos de los medicamentos que se usan para el VIH/SIDA incluyen amprenavir (Agenerase), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir), y saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase).
Medicamentos que se usan para bajar el colesterol (Estatinas)
El tomar vitamina C, betacaroteno, selenio y vitamina E juntos podría disminuir la eficacia de algunos medicamentos que se usan para bajar el colesterol. No se sabe si la vitamina C, si se toma sola, disminuye la eficacia de algunos medicamentos que se usan para bajar el colesterol.

Algunos de los medicamentos que se usan para bajar el colesterol incluyen a atorvastatina (Lipitor), fluvastatina (Lescol), lovastatina (Mevacor), y pravastatina (Pravachol).
Niacina
El tomar vitamina C junto con vitamina E, betacaroteno y selenio juntos podría disminuir algunos de los efectos beneficiosos de la niacina. La niacina puede aumentar el colesterol bueno. El tomar vitamina C juntos con estas otras vitaminas podría disminuir la eficacia de la niacina para aumentar el colesterol bueno.
Pentobarbital
La ingesta de vitamina C con pentobarbital podría aumentar los efectos sedativos del pentobarbital.
Warfarina (Coumadin)
La warfarina (Coumadin) se usa para retardar la coagulación sanguínea.

Grandes cantidades de vitamina C podrían disminuir la eficacia de la warfarina (Coumadin). Al disminuir la eficacia de la warfarina (Coumadin) podría aumentar el riesgo de producir coágulos. Asegúrese de controlar su sangre periodicamente. Su dosis de warfarina (Coumadin) podría necesitar ser cambiada.
Menores
Preste atención a esta combinación
Acetaminofeno (Tylenol, otros)
El cuerpo descompone el acetaminofeno (Tylenol, otros) para eliminarlo. Grandes cantidades de vitamina C puede disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone el acetaminofeno. No está claro exactamente cuando es importante esta interacción o si esta interacción debe preocupar.
Aspirina
La aspirina es eliminada por el cuerpo a través de los riñones y en la orina. Algunos científicos han expresado preocupación de que la vitamina C podría disminuir la manera en que el cuerpo elimina la aspirina y podría aumentar la cantidad de aspirina en el cuerpo. Existe la preocupación de que esto podría aumentar el riesgo de efectos secundarios relacionados con la aspirina. Sin embargo, algunos estudios sugieren que esta no es una preocupación importante y que la vitamina C no interacciona de manera significativa con la aspirina. Algunas investigaciones sugieren que en realidad tomar vitamina C con aspirina tamponada podría disminuir la irritación del estómago causada por la aspirina. Se necesitan más pruebas sobre este posible beneficio.
Nicardipina (Cardene)
La vitamina C es absorbida por las células. El tomar nicardipina (Cardene) junto con vitamina C puede disminuir la cantidad de vitamina C que es absorbida por las células. Se desconoce el significado de esta interacción.
Nifedipina
La vitamina C es absorbida por las células. El tomar nifedipina (Adalat, Procardia) junto con vitamina C puede disminuir la cantidad de vitamina C que es absorbida por las células. Se desconoce el significado de esta interacción.
Salsalato (Disalcid)
La vitamina C podría disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo elimina el salsalato (Disalcid). El tomar vitamina C junto con salsalato (Disalcid) podría aumentar la cantidad de salsalato (Disalcid) en el cuerpo y aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios del salsalato.
Trisalicilato de colina y magnesio (Trilisato)
La vitamina C podría disminuir la rapidez de la eliminación del trisalicilato de colina y magnesio (Trilisato). Pero no está claro si esta interacción debe causar una gran preocupación.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Acerola
La acerola contiene altos niveles de vitamina C. No tome grandes cantidades de acerola junto con vitamina C. Ello le puede proporcionar mucha vitamina C. Los adultos no deberían tomar más de 2000 mg de vitamina C por día.
Cobre
Dosis altas de vitamina C (1500 mg al día) pueden disminuir los niveles de cobre en los hombres jóvenes. Los investigadores no saben porque pasa esto, pero podría ser que el ácido en la vitamina C convierte el cobre a una forma que no pasa facilmente de la comida en el intestino a la corriente sanguínea. O puede ser que la vitamina C, de alguna manera, hace que el cuerpo use todo el cobre en la sangre. Probablemente esta interacción no es importante excepto en la gente que tiene una dieta baja en cobre.
Cromo
Hay cierta información que sugiere que la vitamina C aumenta la absorción del cromo. No tome grandes cantidades de cromo y vitamina C juntos. No se sabe si separando las dosis por varias horas se puede evitar esta interacción.
Hierro
La vitamina C aumenta la absorción del hierro si se toman al mismo tiempo. Para la mayoría de las personas probablemente no es necesario que tomen suplementos de vitamina C para mejorar la absorción de hierro, ya sea de la dieta o de los suplementos, especialmente si la dieta contiene bastante vitamina C.
Rosa mosqueta
La rosa mosqueta contiene altos niveles de vitamina C. No tome grandes cantidades de rosa mosqueta junto con vitamina C. Ello le puede proporcionar mucha vitamina C. Los adultos no deberían tomar más de 2000 mg de vitamina C por día.
Rosa mosqueta Cherokee
La rosa mosqueta Cherokee contiene altos niveles de vitamina C. No tome grandes cantidades de rosa mosqueta Cherokee junto con vitamina C. Ello le puede proporcionar mucha vitamina C. Los adultos no deberían tomar más de 2000 mg de vitamina C por día.
Uvas
Hay evidencia que muestra que las personas con presión arterial alta que toman 500 mg/día de vitamina C junto con 1000 mg de polifenoles de semillas de uva experimentan un alza significativa de la presión arterial. Los investigadores no saben a que se debe esto.
Vitamina B12
Las primeras investigaciones sugieren que los suplementos de vitamina C pueden descomponer la vitamina B12 que está presente en la dieta. Sin embargo, otros ingredientes en los alimentos, tales como el hierro y los nitratos, pueden contrarrestar este efecto. Los investigadores no están seguros de la importancia de esta interacción, pero probablemente puede evitarse si se toman los suplementos de vitamina C por lo menos 2 horas después de las comidas.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para el escorbuto: 100-250 mg una o dos veces al día por varios días.
  • Para el tratamiento del resfrío común: 1-3 gramos al día.
  • Para prevenir daño a los riñones relacionado con el medio de contraste que se usa durante las pruebas de diagnóstico: Se dan 3 gramos de vitamina C antes de la angiografía coronaria y después del procedimiento se dan 2 gramos en la noche y 2 gramos a la mañana siguiente.
  • Para retardar la progresión del endurecimiento de las arterias: 250 mg de vitamina C de liberación lenta en combinación con 91 mg (136 IU) de vitamina E dos veces al día por hasta 6 años.
  • Para la tirosinemia en infantes prematuros con una dieta alta en proteínas: 100 mg de vitamina C.
  • Para disminuir la cantidad de proteínas en la orina en los pacientes con diabetes de tipo 2: 1250 mg de vitamina C junto con 680 IU de vitamina E diarios por 4 semanas.
  • Para prevenir el síndrome complejo de dolor regional en pacientes con fracturas de muñeca: 500 mg de vitamina C diarios por 50 días.
La ingesta diaria recomendada (RDAs) es : para los infantes de 0 a 12 meses: el contenido en la leche materna (recomendaciones antiguas especificaban 30-35 mg); para Niños de 1-3 años: 15 mg; para Niños de 4-8 años: 25 mg; para Niños de 9-13 años: 45 mg; para Adolecentes de 14-18 años: 75 mg para los niños y 65 mg para las niñas; para Adultos mayores de 19 años: 90 mg para los hombres y 75 mg para las mujeres; para el Embarazo y Lactancia: menores de 18 años: 115 mg, de 19 a 50 años:120 mg. Las personas que usan tabaco deberían tomar 35 mg adicionales al día.
No tome más que las siguientes cantidades de vitamina C: 400 mg por día para los niños de 1 a 3 años, 650 mg por día para los niños de 4 a 8 años, 1200 mg por día para los niños de 9 a 13 años, 1800 mg por día para los adolescentes y mujeres embarazadas y amamantando de 14 a 18 años: y 2000 mg al día para los adultos y mujeres embarazadas y amamantando.

APLICADA A LA PIEL:
  • La mayoría de las preparaciones tópicas que se usan para la piel envejecida o arrugada se aplican diariamente. Algunos estudios han usado cremas que contienen 5% a 10 % de vitamina C. En un estudio se usó una formulación específica de vitamina C (Cellex-C High Potency Serum) y se aplicaron 3 gotas al día a áreas en la piel de la cara. No se aplique preparaciones de vitamina C a los ojos o los párpados. Evite también el contacto con el pelo o la ropa. Puede causar descoloración.

Otros nombres

Acide Ascorbique, Acide Cévitamique, Acide Iso-Ascorbique, Acide L-Ascorbique, Antiscorbutic Vitamin, Ascorbate, Ascorbate de Calcium, Ascorbate de Sodium, Ascorbic acid, Ascorbyl Palmitate, Calcium Ascorbate, Cevitamic Acid, Iso-Ascorbic Acid, L-Ascorbic Acid, Magnesium Ascorbate, Palmitate d'Ascorbyl, Selenium Ascorbate, Sodium Ascorbate, Vitamine Antiscorbutique, Vitamine C.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

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Documento revisado - 03/17/2015