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Pycnogenol


¿Qué es?

El pycnogenol es la marca registrada en los Estados Unidos de un producto derivado de la corteza del árbol de pino conocido como Pinus pinaster. Los ingredientes activos presentes en el picnogenol también se pueden extraer de la piel de maní, de la semilla de uva y de la corteza del avellano de bruja.

El pycnogenol se utiliza para el tratamiento de los problemas de circulación, para la alergia, el asma, el zumbido de oídos, la presión arterial alta, el dolor muscular, el dolor, la osteoartritis, la diabetes, el trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), para una enfermedad del sistema reproductivo de las mujeres llamada endometriosis, para los síntomas de la menopausia, los periodos menstruales dolorosos, la disfunción eréctil (DE) y para una enfermedad ocular llamada retinopatía.

También se usa para prevenir trastornos del corazón y de los vasos sanguíneos que incluyen derrame cerebral, enfermedad del corazón y venas varicosas.

El pycnogenol se usa para retardar el proceso de envejecimiento, para mantener la piel sana, para aumentar la resistencia deportiva y para mejorar la fertilidad masculina.

Algunas personas usan cremas para la piel que contienen pycnogenol para contrarrestar “el envejecimiento.”

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Las alergias. Algunas investigaciones llevadas a cabo en personas con alergia al abedul muestran que el empezar a tomar pycnogenol antes que empiece la temporada de alergias podría disminuir los síntomas de la alergia.
  • Los problemas circulatorios. El tomar pycnogenol por vía oral parece reducir significativamente el dolor y la pesadez de las piernas, así como la retención de líquido en las personas que tienen problemas circulatorios. Algunas personas usan extracto de la semilla del castaño de Indias para el tratamiento de esta condición, pero el pycnogenol por si sólo parece ser más eficaz.
  • Enfermedad de la retina del ojo. El tomar pycnogenol diariamente por 2 meses parece retardar o prevenir el empeoramiento de las enfermedades de la retina producidas ya sea por la diabetes, la arterioesclerosis u otras enfermedades. Además parece mejorar la visión.
  • Mejorar la resistencia deportiva. Al parecer los jóvenes (de 20 a 35 años) pueden ejercitar por un tiempo más largo en una cinta andadora si han tomado pycnogenol diariamente por alrededor de un mes.
  • La presión arterial alta. El pycnogenol parece disminuir la presión sistólica (el primer número en una lectura de la presión) pero no baja en forma significativa la presión arterial diastólica (el segundo número).
  • El asma en los niños.
  • Las venas varicosas.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • El trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH).

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Coágulos de sangre en la vena (trombosis venosa profunda, TVP). Hay cierta evidencia que indica que el tomar un producto de una combinación específica (Flite Tabs) podría ayudar a prevenir TVP durante los viajes largos en avión. Este producto combina una mezcla de 150 mg de pycnogenol y nattokinasa. Se toman 2 cápsulas 2 horas antes del vuelo y luego 6 horas más tarde.
  • El colesterol alto. El pycnogenol parece bajar el “colesterol malo” (las lipoproteínas de baja densidad, LDL).
  • El dolor de pelvis en las mujeres. Hay evidencia preliminar que indica que el pycnogenol podría ayudar a disminuir el dolor de la pelvis en las mujeres con endometriosis o severos dolores menstruales.
  • El dolor en los últimos meses del embarazo. Investigaciones preliminares sugieren que el tomar 30 mg de pycnogenol diarios disminuye el dolor de espalda, el dolor de las articulaciones de la cadera, el dolor de la pelvis y el dolor debido a las venas varicosas o los calambres de las pantorrillas en los últimos tres meses de embarazo.
  • La disfunción eréctil (DE). Algunas investigaciones limitadas sugieren que el pycnogenol, sólo o en combinación con L-arginina, podría mejorar la disfunción sexual en los hombres con DE. Al parecer se necesita hasta tres meses de tratamiento para poder mostrar una mejoría importante.
  • El envejecimiento.
  • Las enfermedades del corazón.
  • La prevención de un derrame cerebral.
  • Los dolores musculares.
  • Los calambres en las piernas.
  • Los problemas de circulación debidos a la diabetes.
  • La osteoartritis.
  • Los síntomas de la menopausia.
  • El zumbido de oídos (tinitos).
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para aprobar al pycnogenol para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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El pycnogenol contiene sustancias que podrían mejorar el flujo de sangre. Podría además estimular el sistema inmune y tener efectos antioxidantes.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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El pycnogenol es POSIBLEMENTE SEGURO cuando se toma en dosis de 50 mg a 450 mg diarios por hasta 6 meses. El pycnogenol puede producir mareos, problemas del intestino, dolor de cabeza y úlceras en la boca.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: Investigaciones preliminares sugieren que el pycnogenol podría ser seguro en los últimos meses de embarazo. Pero hasta que no se tenga más información, las mujeres embarazadas y amamantando deberían evitar tomar pycnogenol.

Enfermedades “auto-inmunes” tales como esclerosis múltiple (EM), lupus (lupus sistémico eritematoso, LSE), artritis reumática (AR) u otras condiciones: El pycnogenol podría aumentar la actividad del sistema inmunológico, y esto podría aumentar los síntomas de las enfermedades auto-inmunes. Si usted tiene una de estas condiciones, es mejor evitar el uso de pycnogenol.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Medicamentos que debilitan el sistema inmunológico (Inmunosupresores)
El pycnogenol parece aumentar la actividad del sistema inmunológico. Al aumentar la actividad del sistema inmune el pycnogenol podría disminuir la eficacia de los medicamentos que debilitan el sistema inmunológico.

Algunos de los medicamentos que debilitan el sistema inmunológico incluyen azatioprina (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), ciclosporina (Neoral,Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), micofenolato (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisona (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroides (glucocorticoids) y otros.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con hierbas y suplementos.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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Las siguientes dosis han sido estudiadas en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para las alergias: 50 mg dos veces al día.
  • Para el asma en los niños: se da 1 mg por libra de peso en 2 dosis divididas.
  • Para la mala circulación de la sangre: se dan 45-360 mg al día, o 100 mg tres veces al día.
  • Para enfermedades de la retina, incluyendo aquellas asociadas con la diabetes: se da 50 mg tres veces al día.
  • Para la presión arterial levemente elevada: se dan 200 mg de pycnogenol diarios.
  • Para mejorar la capacidad para ejercitar en los atletas: se dan 200 mg diarios.

Otros nombres

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Condensed Tannins, Écorce de Pin, Écorce de Pin Maritime, Extrait d’Écorce de Pin, French Marine Pine Bark Extract, French Maritime Pine Bark Extract, Leucoanthocyanidins, Maritime Bark Extract, Oligomères de Procyanidine, Oligomères Procyanidoliques, Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins, OPC, OPCs, PCO, PCOs, Pine Bark, Pine Bark Extract, Pinus pinaster, Pinus maritima, Proanthocyanidines Oligomériques, Procyanidin Oligomers, Procyanodolic Oligomers, Pycnogénol, Pygenol, Tannins Condensés.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Pycnogenol, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/1019.html.
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  2. Roseff SJ, Gulati R. Improvement of sperm quality by pycnogenol. Eur Bull Drug Res 1999;7:33-36.
  3. Durackova, B. Trebatický V. Novotný I. Žit®anová J. Breza. Lipid metabolism and erectile function improvement by Pycnogenol®, extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction - a pilot study. Nutrition Research 2003;23:1189-1198.
  4. Hosseini S, Pishnamazi S Sadrzadeh SMH Farid F Farid R Watson RR. Pycnogenol in the management of asthma. J Medicinal Food 2001;4:201-209.
  5. Rohdewald P. Bioavailability and metabolism of pycnogenol. Eur Bull Drug Res 1999;7:5-7.
  6. Rohdewald P. Reducing the risk for stroke and heart infarction with pycnogenol. Eur Bull Drug Res 1999;7:14-18.
  7. Jialal I, Devaraj S Hirany S et al. The effect of pycnogenol supplementation on markers of inflammation. Alternative Therapies 2001;7:S17.
  8. Durackova, Z., Trebaticky, B., Novotny, V., Zitnanova, A., and Breza, J. Lipid metabolism and erectile dysfunction improvement by Pycnogenol(R), extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction -- a pilot study. Nutr.Res. 2003;23:1189-1198.
  9. Kohama T, Negami M. Effect of Low-dose French Maritime Pine Bark Extract on Climacteric Syndrome in 170 Perimenopausal Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial. J Reproductive Med 2013;58:39-47.
  10. Schmidtke I, Schoop W. Pycnogenol: stasis oedema and its medical treatment. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur GanzheitsMedizin 1995;3:114-115.
  1. Hosseini, S., Lee, J., Sepulveda, R. T., Fagan, T., Rohdewald, P., and Watson, R. R. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, prospective 16 week crossover study to determine the role of Pycnogenol(R) in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients. Nutr.Res. 2001;21:67-76.
  2. Wang S, Tan D Zhao Y et al. The effect of pycnogenol on the microcirculation, platelet function and ischemic myocardium in patients with coronary artery diseases. Eur Bull Drug Res 1999;7:19-25.
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  12. Schoonees, A., Visser, J., Musekiwa, A., and Volmink, J. Pycnogenol((R)) for the treatment of chronic disorders. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;2:CD008294. View abstract.
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  15. Enseleit, F., Sudano, I., Periat, D., Winnik, S., Wolfrum, M., Flammer, A. J., Frohlich, G. M., Kaiser, P., Hirt, A., Haile, S. R., Krasniqi, N., Matter, C. M., Uhlenhut, K., Hogger, P., Neidhart, M., Luscher, T. F., Ruschitzka, F., and Noll, G. Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Eur.Heart J. 2012;33:1589-1597. View abstract.
  16. Luzzi, R., Belcaro, G., Zulli, C., Cesarone, M. R., Cornelli, U., Dugall, M., Hosoi, M., and Feragalli, B. Pycnogenol(R) supplementation improves cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3 Suppl 1):75-82. View abstract.
  17. Errichi, S., Bottari, A., Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Hosoi, M., Cornelli, U., Dugall, M., Ledda, A., and Feragalli, B. Supplementation with Pycnogenol(R) improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3 Suppl 1):65-70. View abstract.
  18. Belcaro, G., Luzzi, R., Cesinaro Di, Rocco P., Cesarone, M. R., Dugall, M., Feragalli, B., Errichi, B. M., Ippolito, E., Grossi, M. G., Hosoi, M., Errichi, S., Cornelli, U., Ledda, A., and Gizzi, G. Pycnogenol(R) improvements in asthma management. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3 Suppl 1):57-64. View abstract.
  19. Errichi, B. M., Belcaro, G., Hosoi, M., Cesarone, M. R., Dugall, M., Feragalli, B., Bavera, P., Hosoi, M., Zulli, C., Corsi, M., Ledda, A., Luzzi, R., and Ricci, A. Prevention of post thrombotic syndrome with Pycnogenol(R) in a twelve month study. Panminerva Med. 2011;53(3 Suppl 1):21-27. View abstract.
  20. Aoki, H., Nagao, J., Ueda, T., Strong, J. M., Schonlau, F., Yu-Jing, S., Lu, Y., and Horie, S. Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol(R) and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. Phytother.Res. 2012;26:204-207. View abstract.
  21. Ohkita, M., Kiso, Y., and Matsumura, Y. Pharmacology in health foods: improvement of vascular endothelial function by French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol). J.Pharmacol.Sci. 2011;115:461-465. View abstract.
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  25. Drieling, R. L., Gardner, C. D., Ma, J., Ahn, D. K., and Stafford, R. S. No beneficial effects of pine bark extract on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Arch.Intern.Med. 9-27-2010;170:1541-1547. View abstract.
  26. Reuter, J., Wolfle, U., Korting, H. C., and Schempp, C. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications. J.Dtsch.Dermatol.Ges. 2010;8:866-873. View abstract.
  27. Grossi, M. G., Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Dugall, M., Hosoi, M., Cacchio, M., Ippolito, E., and Bavera, P. Improvement in cochlear flow with Pycnogenol(R) in patients with tinnitus: a pilot evaluation. Panminerva Med. 2010;52(2 Suppl 1):63-67. View abstract.
  28. Stuard, S., Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Ricci, A., Dugall, M., Cornelli, U., Gizzi, G., Pellegrini, L., and Rohdewald, P. J. Kidney function in metabolic syndrome may be improved with Pycnogenol(R). Panminerva Med. 2010;52(2 Suppl 1):27-32. View abstract.
  29. Cesarone, M. R., Belcaro, G., Rohdewald, P., Pellegrini, L., Ledda, A., Vinciguerra, G., Ricci, A., Ippolito, E., Fano, F., Dugall, M., Cacchio, M., Di, Renzo A., Hosoi, M., Stuard, S., and Corsi, M. Improvement of signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency and microangiopathy with Pycnogenol: a prospective, controlled study. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:835-839. View abstract.
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  33. Steigerwalt, R., Belcaro, G., Cesarone, M. R., Di, Renzo A., Grossi, M. G., Ricci, A., Dugall, M., Cacchio, M., and Schonlau, F. Pycnogenol improves microcirculation, retinal edema, and visual acuity in early diabetic retinopathy. J.Ocul.Pharmacol.Ther. 2009;25:537-540. View abstract.
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Página actualizada 27 octubre 2014