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Manganeso


¿Qué es?

El manganeso es un mineral que se encuentra en varios alimentos incluyendo las nueces, las legumbres, las semillas, el té, los cereales integrales y las verduras de hoja verde. Se considera un nutriente esencial, porque se requiere para el funcionamiento normal del cuerpo. La gente usa el manganeso como una medicina.

El manganeso se utiliza para la prevención y el tratamiento de la deficiencia de manganeso, una afección en la cual el cuerpo no tiene suficiente manganeso. También se utiliza para la debilidad de los huesos (osteoporosis), para un tipo de "sangre cansada" (anemia) y para los síntomas del síndrome premenstrual (SPM).

A veces se incluye el manganeso junto con clorhidrato de condroitina y clorhidrato de glucosamina en algunos productos con múltiples ingredientes que son promovidos para la osteoartritis.

Tenga cuidado cuando usa algunos suplementos, pues estos pueden contener manganeso. Ciertos suplementos, incluso aquellos de uso común para la osteoartritis (por ejemplo, CosaminDS), contienen manganeso. Al utilizar estos productos, es importante que siga las instrucciones de la etiqueta cuidadosamente. Con una dosis ligeramente superior a la dosis recomendada, estos productos proporcionan más que el límite superior tolerable (UL) para los adultos que es 11 mg de manganeso por día. El consumo de más de 11 mg por día de manganeso puede causar graves y perjudiciales efectos secundarios.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Eficaz para...

  • El tratamiento o la prevención de los bajos niveles de manganeso en el cuerpo (la deficiencia de manganeso).

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • La debilidad de los huesos (osteoporosis) cuando se utiliza con calcio, zinc y cobre. El tomar manganeso por vía oral en combinación con calcio, zinc y cobre parece ayudar a reducir la pérdida de hueso de la columna vertebral en las mujeres mayores.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • El síndrome premenstrual (SPM). Investigaciones en desarrollo sugieren que el tomar manganeso junto con calcio parece ayudar a mejorar los síntomas del síndrome premenstrual incluyendo el llanto, la sensación de soledad, la ansiedad, la inquietud, la irritabilidad, los cambios de humor, la depresión y la tensión. Los investigadores no están seguros si la mejoria se debe a el calcio o el manganeso.
  • La anemia.
  • La artritis (osteoartritis).
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesitan más pruebas para poder evaluar la eficacia del manganeso para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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El manganeso es un nutriente esencial que participa en muchos procesos químicos en el cuerpo, incluyendo el procesamiento del colesterol, de los carbohidratos y de las proteínas. También podría estar implicado en la formación de hueso.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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El manganeso PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURO para la mayoría de los adultos en cantidades de hasta 11 mg por día. Más de 11 mg al día podría no ser seguro. El exceso de manganeso puede causar efectos secundarios graves, incluyendo algunos síntomas similares a la enfermedad de Parkinson tales como los temblores. Las personas que tienen problemas para eliminar el manganeso del cuerpo, tales como las personas con enfermedad hepática, pueden experimentar efectos secundarios aún al tomar menos de 11 mg por día.

La cantidad de manganeso que es segura para los niños depende de la edad. Hable con su profesional de la salud antes de dar manganeso a los niños.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: El manganeso PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURO para las mujeres embarazadas o amamantando mayores de 19 años de edad cuando se utiliza en dosis de menos de 11 mg al día. Sin embargo las mujeres embarazadas o que están amamantando que son menores de 19 años deben limitar las dosis a menos de 9 mg por día. El manganeso POSIBLEMENTE NO ES SEGURO cuando se utiliza en dosis más altas. Dosis de más de 11 mg al día tienen más probabilidades de ser perjudiciales.

Enfermedad hepática crónica: Las personas con enfermedad hepática crónica tienen problemas para eliminar el manganeso. El manganeso se puede acumular en estas personas y causar temblores, problemas mentales como la psicosis y otros efectos secundarios. Si usted tiene una enfermedad hepática, tenga cuidado y no tome mucho manganeso.

Anemia ferropénica: Las personas con anemia ferropénica parecen absorber más manganeso que las demás personas. Si usted tiene esta afección, tenga cuidado de no consumir mucho manganeso.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Antibióticos (Antibióticos de quinolonas)
El manganeso podría disminuir la cantidad de antibióticos que el cuerpo absorbe. El tomar manganeso junto con algunos antibióticos puede disminuir la eficacia de algunos antibióticos. Para evitar esta interacción, tome los suplementos de manganeso por lo menos una hora después de los antibióticos.

Algunos de estos antibióticos que pueden interactuar con el manganeso son ciprofloxacina (Cipro), enoxacina (Penetrex), norfloxacina (Chibroxin, Noroxin), esparfloxacina (Zagam), trovafloxacina (Trovan) y grepafloxacina (Raxar).

Antibióticos (Antibióticos de tetraciclina)
El manganeso se puede unir a las tetraciclinas en el estómago. Esto disminuye la cantidad de tetraciclinas que pueden ser absorbidas. El tomar manganeso junto con tetraciclinas puede disminuir la eficacia de las tetraciclinas. Para evitar esta interacción, tome el manganeso dos horas antes o cuatro horas después de tomar las tetraciclinas.

Algunas tetraciclinas incluyen demeclociclina (Declomycin), minociclina (Minocin) y tetraciclina (Achromycin).

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Calcio, hierro, zinc
El tomar calcio junto con cualquiera de estos minerales puede disminuir la cantidad de manganeso que el cuerpo puede absorber.

IP-6 (Ácido fítico)
El IP-6 que se encuentra en alimentos como cereales, nueces y frijoles y que se encuentra en suplementos puede disminuir la cantidad de manganeso que el cuerpo absorbe. Tome el manganeso por lo menos dos horas antes o bien dos horas después de comer alimentos que contienen IP-6.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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Las siguientes dosis han sido estudiadas en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para la debilidad de los huesos (osteoporosis): 5 mg de manganeso por día en combinación con 1000 mg de calcio elemental, 15 mg de zinc y 2,5 mg de cobre.
  • No se ha establecido una ingesta diaria recomendada (RDA) para el manganeso. Cuando no hay una RDA para un nutriente, se utiliza como guía la ingesta diaria adecuada (AI). La AI es la cantidad aproximada de un nutriente que es utilizada por un grupo de personas sanas y que se supone es la cantidad adecuada. La ingesta diaria adecuada (AI) de manganeso es: para los recién nacidos y hasta los 6 meses, 3 mcg; para los infantes de 7 a 12 meses, 600 mcg; para los niños de 1 a 3 años, 1,2 mg; de 4 a 8 años 1,5 mg; para los niños de 9 a 13 años, 1,9 mg; para los varones de 14 a 18 años, 2,2 mg; para las niñas de 9 a 18 años, 1,6 mg; para los hombres de 19 años y mayores, 2,3 mg; para las mujeres mayores de 19 años, 1,8 mg; para las mujeres embarazadas de 14 a 50 años, 2 mg; para las mujeres amamantando 2,6 mg.
  • El nivel máximo de ingesta tolerable (UL) - el más alto nivel de consumo con el que no se esperan efectos secundarios no deseados - ha sido establecido para el manganeso. Los ULS diarios de manganeso son: para niños de 1 a 3 años, 2 mg; de 4 a 8 años, 3 mg; de 9 a 13 años, 6 mg; de 14 a 18 años (incluyendo mujeres embarazadas y amamantando), 9 mg; para los adultos mayores de 19 más años (incluyendo las mujeres embarazadas y amamantando), 11 mg.

Otros nombres

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Aminoate de Manganèse, Ascorbate de Manganèse, Chlorure de Manganèse, Citrate de Manganèse, Complexe Aspartate de Manganèse, Dioxyde de Manganèse, Gluconate de Manganèse, Glycérophosphate de Manganèse, Manganèse, Manganese Amino Acid Chelate, Manganese Aminoate, Manganese Ascorbate, Manganese Aspartate Complex, Manganese Chloride, Manganese Chloridetetrahydrate, Manganese Citrate, Manganese Dioxide, Manganese Gluconate, Manganese Glycerophosphate, Manganese Sulfate, Manganese Sulfate Monohydrate, Manganese Sulfate Tetrahydrate, Manganum, Mn, Monohydrate de Sulfate de Manganèse, Sulfate de Manganèse.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Manganeso, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/182.html.
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