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Biotina


¿Qué es?

La biotina es una vitamina que se encuentra en pequeñas cantidades en numerosos alimentos.

La biotina se usa para prevenir y tratar la deficiencia de biotina asociada con el embarazo, con la alimentación por sonda a largo plazo, la desnutrición y la pérdida rápida de peso. También se usa por vía oral para la pérdida de cabello, las uñas quebradizas, la erupción de la piel en bebés (dermatitis seborreica), la diabetes y para la depresión leve.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • El tratamiento y prevención de deficiencia de biotina. Los síntomas de deficiencia incluyen pérdida de cabello (a menudo con pérdida de color), y erupciones rojas y escamosas alrededor de los ojos, nariz y boca. Otros síntomas incluyen depresión, apatía, alucinaciones y hormigueo en los brazos y piernas.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • Las erupciones en la piel de bebés.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • La pérdida de cabello. Hay evidencia preliminar que indica que se puede disminuir la caída de cabello tomando biotina por vía oral en combinación con zinc y al mismo tiempo aplicando a la piel una crema que contiene el compuesto químico propionato de clobetasol (Flux, Temovate).
  • La diabetes. La biotina por si sola no parece afectar los niveles de azúcar en la sangre en las personas con diabetes de tipo 2. Sin embargo, hay cierta evidencia que indica que una combinación de biotina y cromo (Diachrome, Nutrition 21) podría disminuir el azúcar en la sangre en aquella personas cuya diabetes no está bien controlada con medicamentos de venta con receta médica.
  • El dolor de nervio relacionado con la diabetes. Hay cierta evidencia que indica que la biotina podría disminuir el dolor de nervio en las personas con diabetes.
  • Las uñas quebradizas de las manos y los pies. La biotina podría aumentar el espesor de las uñas de las manos y los pies en las personas que tienen las uñas quebradizas.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesitan más pruebas para poder evaluar la eficacia de la biotina para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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La biotina es un componente importante de enzimas en el cuerpo que descomponen ciertas sustancias como las grasas, carbohidratos y otras.

No hay una buena prueba de laboratorio para detectar la deficiencia de biotina, de manera que este trastorno es generalmente identificado por sus síntomas, que incluyen: pérdida de cabello (a menudo con pérdida de color), y erupciones rojas y escamosas alrededor de los ojos, nariz y boca. Síntomas del sistema nervioso incluyen depresión, cansancio, alucinaciones y hormigueo en los brazos y piernas. Hay cierta evidencia de que el sufrir de diabetes podría resultar en deficiencia de biotina.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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La biotina POSIBLEMENTE ES SEGURA para la mayoría de las personas si se toma en forma apropiada y por vía oral. La biotina es bien tolerada cuando se utiliza en las dosis recomendadas.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: La biotina POSIBLEMENTE ES SEGURA durante el embarazo y la lactancia si se utiliza en las cantidades recomendadas.

Diálisis de riñón: Las personas que se están haciendo diálisis podrían necesitar tomar biotina adicional. Converse con su proveedor de atención médica.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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No se sabe si este producto interactúa con algún medicamento.

Si está tomando medicamentos, converse con su proveedor de atención médica antes de empezar a tomar este producto.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con hierbas y suplementos.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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Claras de huevo
Las claras de huevo crudas contienen una sustancia que liga la biotina en el intestino y previene su absorción. El comer 2 o más claras de huevo crudas diariamente por varios meses ha producido deficiencia de biotina que es suficientemente grave como para producir síntomas.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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La dosis apropiada de biotina depende de muchos factores tales como la edad de la persona, el estado de salud y varias otras condiciones. En este momento no hay suficiente información científica para determinar un rango de dosis apropiado para el uso de la biotina. Tenga en cuenta que los productos naturales no son siempre necesariamente seguros y las dosis pueden ser importantes. Asegúrese de seguir las instrucciones en las etiquetas de los productos y consulte con su farmacéutico, doctor u otro proveedor de salud médica antes de usarlos.

No se ha establecido una cantidad diaria recomendada en la dieta alimenticia para la biotina. La ingestión adecuada de biotina es 7 mcg para bebés de 0-12 meses, 8 mcg para niños de 1-3 años, 12 mcg para niños de 4-8 años, 20 mcg para niños de 9-14 años, 25 mcg para adolescentes de 14-18 años, 30 mcg para adultos mayores de 18 años y mujeres embarazadas y 35 mcg para mujeres que están amamantando.

Otros nombres

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Biotine, Biotine-D, Coenzyme R, D-Biotin, Vitamin B7, Vitamin H, Vitamine B7, Vitamine H, W Factor, Cis-hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4-d]-imidazole-4-valeric Acid.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Biotina, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/313.html.
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Página actualizada 27 octubre 2014