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Ginkgo


¿Qué es?

El ginkgo es un arbusto. Para hacer los “extractos” que se usan como medicamentos se utilizan las hojas. Sin embargo, algunos medicamentos se fabrican a partir de las semillas, pero estas no han sido bien estudiadas.

A menudo se usa el ginkgo para los trastornos de memoria que ocurren por ejemplo en la enfermedad de Alzheimer. También se usa para aquellos trastornos que parecen ser el resultado de bajo flujo sanguíneo en el cerebro, especialmente en las personas de más edad. Estos trastornos incluyen pérdida de la memoria, dolor de cabeza, zumbido de oídos, vértigo, dificultad para concentrarse, cambios de humor, y trastornos auditivos. Algunas personas lo usan para otros problemas relacionados con un menor flujo de sangre en el cuerpo, incluyendo el dolor de piernas al caminar (claudicación) y el síndrome de Raynaud (una respuesta dolorosa al frío, especialmente en los dedos de las manos y de los pies).

La hoja del ginkgo también se usa para los trastornos cognitivos relacionados con la enfermedad de Lyme y la depresión.

Algunas personas usan el ginkgo para el tratamiento de problemas de rendimiento sexual. A veces se usa para eliminar los problemas de rendimiento sexual que acompañan el uso de los medicamentos antidepresivos llamados SSRIs.

El ginkgo ha sido probado para tratar problemas a los ojos como el glaucoma, la enfermedad a los ojos producida por la diabetes y la degeneración macular senil (DMS).

La lista de otros usos del ginkgo es muy larga. Esto se puede deber a que esta hierba ha existido por tanto tiempo. El ginkgo biloba es una de las especies de árboles más antigua en el mundo. Los árboles de ginkgo pueden vivir hasta mil años. El uso del ginkgo para el asma y la bronquitis fue descrito en el año 2600 AC.

En la industria manufacturera el extracto de ginkgo se utiliza en los cosméticos. En los alimentos, la semilla tostada de ginkgo, a la cual se le ha removido la pulpa, es considerada como un manjar comestible tanto en Japón como en China. Recuerde eso si, que la semilla entera PROBABLEMENTE NO ES SEGURA para comer.

El ginkgo interactúa con muchos medicamentos. Antes de tomarlo, converse con su proveedor de salud médica si está tomando algún medicamento.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • La enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras formas de demencia. Cierta evidencia muestra que el tomar extracto de hojas de ginkgo por vía oral mejora modestamente los síntomas de la enfermedad de Alzheimer y las demencias vasculares o mixtas. Sin embargo, hay preocupación de que muchos de los resultados de los estudios preliminares del ginkgo pueden no ser confiables. A pesar de que la mayoría de los estudios clínicos muestran que el ginkgo sirve de ayuda para tratar los síntomas de la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias, hay también algunos resultados conflictivos, lo que sugiere que puede ser difícil determinar a quienes puede beneficiar.
  • Mejorar los problemas cognitivos causados por la edad. El tomar extracto de hoja de ginkgo por vía oral parece mejorar la capacidad para pensar en las personas ancianas que tienen problemas leves o moderados de pérdida de memoria o problemas cognitivos. En las personas sin demencia pero con pérdida de memoria debido a la vejez, el extracto de hojas de ginkgo podría mejorar modestamente la memoria visual de corto plazo y la rapidez en el procesamiento mental.
  • Mejorar los problemas de concentración en los jóvenes. El tomar extracto de hojas de ginkgo por vía oral parece mejorar la habilidad para pensar tanto en la gente joven como en las de mediana edad. El ginkgo podría mejorar, en forma modesta, la memoria y la rapidez en el procesamiento mental en las personas que no han sufrido pérdida de la memoria. Cierta evidencia sugiere que la combinación del ginseng Panax y el ginkgo es eficaz para mejorar la memoria y que la combinación podría ser más eficaz que cada producto por separado.
  • La respuesta dolorosa al frío especialmente en los dedos de las manos y los pies (síndrome de Raynaud). El tomar extracto de hojas de ginkgo por vía oral parece disminuir el número de ataques de dolor semanales que sufren las personas con el síndrome de Raynaud.
  • El dolor en las piernas al caminar debido a la mala circulación de la sangre (claudicación, enfermedad vascular periférica). Algunas pruebas muestran que el tomar ginkgo parece aumentar la distancia que las personas, con poca circulación de sangre en sus piernas, pueden caminar sin sufrir dolor. El tomar ginkgo podría posiblemente disminuir la necesidad de requerir cirugía.
  • El vértigo y los mareos. El tomar hoja de ginkgo por vía oral parece mejorar significativamente los síntomas de mareo y trastornos de equilibrio.
  • Los síntomas del síndrome premenstrual (SPM). El tomar extracto de hojas de ginkgo por vía oral parece producir un alivio significativo en la sensibilidad de los pechos y los otros síntomas asociados con SPM cuando se empieza a tomar en el día 16 del ciclo menstrual y se continua hasta el quinto día del ciclo siguiente.
  • El glaucoma. El tomar extracto de hojas de ginkgo por vía oral parece mejorar el daño al campo visual que han sufrido las personas con glaucoma de tensión normal.
  • Mejorar la visión de color en las personas con diabetes. Hay cierta evidencia que el tomar extracto de hojas de ginkgo por vía oral durante seis meses puede mejorar significativamente la visión de color en las personas cuya retina ha sufrido daño debido a la diabetes.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • El zumbido de oídos (tinitos).
  • La depresión de invierno en personas con trastornos afectivos estacionales.
  • Los problemas sexuales relacionados con el uso de drogas antidepresivas.
  • Prevenir los síntomas de mal de alturas (de montaña) en escaladores.

Probablemente ineficaz para...

  • Las enfermedades del corazón. El tomar ginkgo no disminuye las posibilidades de las personas de más edad de sufrir un ataque cardiaco, dolor en el pecho o derrame cerebral.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...



EXTRACTO DE HOJAS DE GINKGO
  • La degeneración macular senil (DMS). Hay cierta evidencia preliminar que indica que el extracto de hojas de ginkgo podría mejorar los síntomas y la visión a distancia en las personas con DMS.
  • La ansiedad. Las investigaciones clínicas preliminares indican que un extracto de ginkgo específico (EGb 761, Tanakan) puede reducir los síntomas de ansiedad en los adultos con un trastorno de ansiedad generalizada o con un trastorno de adaptación con ansiedad.
  • El trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH). Hay cierta evidencia preliminar que muestra que un producto de una combinación específica (AD-fX, CV Technologies, Canadá) que contiene extracto de hojas de ginkgo y ginseng Americano (Panax quinquefolius), podría ayudar a mejorar los síntomas del TDAH tales como la ansiedad, la hiperactividad, y la impulsividad en los niños de 3 a 17 años.
  • Los derrames cerebrales. Hay evidencia contradictoria acerca de la eficacia del ginkgo para mejorar la recuperación de las personas que han sufrido un derrame cerebral debido a un coágulo.
  • La pérdida de la audición. Hay cierta evidencia que indica que el ginkgo podría ayudar cuando hay pérdida de audición debido a causas desconocidas. Sin embargo, muchas de estas personas recuperan la audición sin ninguna ayuda. Por lo tanto es difícil saber si el ginkgo tiene algún efecto.
  • La fibromialgia. Existen algunas investigaciones preliminares que sugieren que el tomar ginkgo con Coenzima Q-10 podría aumentar la percepción y sensación de bienestar general y la reducción del dolor.
  • Exposición a la radiación. Existen algunas investigaciones que sugieren que el tomar ginkgo podría disminuir algunos de los efectos negativos de la radiación sobre el cuerpo.
  • Vitiligo. Existen algunas investigaciones preliminares que sugieren que el tomar ginkgo podría disminuir el tamaño y la extensión de las lesiones cutáneas.
  • El colesterol alto.
  • El “endurecimiento de las arterias” (arterioesclerosis).
  • Los coágulos sanguíneos, las enfermedades cardíacas.
  • El cáncer del colon y recto.
  • El cáncer de los ovarios.
  • Los problemas cognitivos relacionados con la enfermedad de Lyme.
  • El síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC).
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para poder aprobar al extracto de hojas de ginkgo para estos usos.

LAS SEMILLAS DE GINKGO
  • La tos.
  • El asma.
  • La bronquitis.
  • Los problemas urinarios.
  • Los problemas digestivos.
  • La sarna.
  • Las heridas en la piel.
Se necesita más evidencia para poder aprobar las semillas de ginkgo para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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El ginkgo parece mejorar la circulación sanguínea, lo cual puede ayudar a que el cerebro, los ojos, los oídos, y las piernas funcionen mejor. Puede disminuir el avance de la enfermedad de Alzheimer al interferir con los cambios en el cerebro que interfieren con el pensamiento.

Las semillas de ginkgo contienen sustancias que pueden matar las bacterias y hongos que causan infecciones en el cuerpo. Las semillas también contienen una toxina que puede causar efectos secundarios como convulsiones y pérdida del conocimiento.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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El uso del EXTRACTO DE HOJAS de ginkgo es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO para la mayoría de las personas cuando se toma por vía oral. Puede causar efectos secundarios menores tales como molestias estomacales, dolor de cabeza, mareos, estreñimiento, latidos fuertes del corazón, y reacciones alérgicas en la piel.

La fruta y la pulpa del ginkgo pueden producir severas reacciones alérgicas en la piel e irritación de las mucosas. El ginkgo podría causar una reacción alérgica en las personas que son alérgicas a la hiedra venenosa, el roble venenoso, el zumaque venenoso, la cáscara del mango, o el aceite de la cáscara de las castañas de cajú.

Hay un poco de preocupación de que el extracto de hojas de ginkgo podría aumentar el riesgo de sufrir hematomas y pérdida de sangre. El ginkgo adelgaza la sangre y disminuye la habilidad para formar coágulos. Algunas personas que han tomado ginkgo han tenido pérdida de sangre en los ojos y en el cerebro y pérdida excesiva de sangre después de una cirugía.

La semilla tostada de ginkgo o la planta de ginkgo cruda POSIBLEMENTE NO ES SEGURA de tomar por vía oral. El comer más de 10 semillas tostadas por día puede causar dificultad para respirar, pulso débil, convulsiones, pérdida de conciencia, y shock. La SEMILLA FRESCA es aún más peligrosa. Las semillas frescas son venenosas y el comerlas podría producir convulsiones, y muerte.

No se sabe lo suficiente sobre la seguridad del ginkgo cuando se aplica sobre la piel para determinar si es seguro.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y Lactancia: El ginkgo POSIBLEMENTE NO ES SEGURO cuando se usa durante el embarazo. Podría provocar un parto prematuro o más sangrado durante el parto si se utiliza cercano a la fecha de parto. No se sabe lo suficiente acerca de la seguridad de usar ginkgo durante la lactancia. No use ginkgo si está embarazada o amamantando.

Niños: El extracto de hojas de ginkgo es POSIBLEMENTE SEGURO. Algunas investigaciones sugieren que una combinación específica de extracto de hojas de ginkgo y ginseng Americano podría ser segura de usar en los niños cuando se usa a corto plazo. No deje que los niños coman las semillas de ginkgo. NO ES SEGURO.

Diabetes: El ginkgo podría interferir con el tratamiento de la diabetes. Si tiene diabetes controle de cerca su azúcar en la sangre.

Convulsiones: Hay preocupación de que el ginkgo podría producir convulsiones. No use ginkgo si alguna vez ha tenido una convulsión.

Infertilidad: El ginkgo podría interferir con la posibilidad de quedar embarazada. Si está tratando de quedar embarazada converse con su proveedor de salud médica acerca de uso del ginkgo.

Trastornos de sangrado: El ginkgo podría empeorar los trastornos de sangrado. No use ginkgo si tiene un trastorno de sangrado.

Cirugía: El ginkgo podría retardar la coagulación sanguínea. Podría producir más pérdida de sangre durante y después de una cirugía. Deje de tomar ginkgo por lo menos 2 semanas antes de tener un procedimiento quirúrgico.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Alprazolam (Xanax)
El tomar ginkgo junto con alprazolam podría disminuir los efectos del alprazolam.

Buspirona (BuSpar)
Al parecer el ginkgo afecta al cerebro. La buspirona (BuSpar) también afecta al cerebro. Una persona sufrió de hiperactividad y sobreexcitación al tomar ginkgo, buspirona (BuSpar) y otros medicamentos. No está claro si esta interacción fue causada por el ginkgo o los otros medicamentos.

Efavirenz (Sustiva)
El efavirenz (Sustiva) se utiliza para tratar la infección por el VIH. El tomar efavirenz (Sustiva) junto con extracto de ginkgo podría disminuir los efectos del efavirenz (Sustiva). Si está tomando medicamentos para el VIH, converse con su proveedor de atención médica antes de tomar ginkgo.

Fluoxetina (Prozac)
El tomar ginkgo junto con Hierba de San Juan, otras hierbas y fluoxetina (Prozac) podrían producir irritabilidad, nerviosismo, temblores, y excitación. Esto se llama hipomanía. No se sabe si esto es algo de que preocuparse cuando se toma ginkgo con solo fluoxetina (Prozac).

Ibuprofeno
El ginkgo podría retardar la coagulación de la sangre. El ibuprofeno puede también puede retardar la coagulación de la sangre. El tomar ginkgo con ibuprofeno puede retardar demasiado coagulación de la sangre y aumentar la posibilidad de sufrir hematomas y pérdida de sangre.

Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del Citocromo P450 1A2 (CYP1A2))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. El ginkgo podría disminuir la rapidez con que el hígado descompone algunos de los medicamentos. El tomar ginkgo junto con otros medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado podría aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Antes de tomar ginkgo hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que pueden ser modificados por el hígado.

Algunos de estos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado incluyen clozapina (Clozaril), ciclobenzaprina (Flexeril), fluvoxamina (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramina (Tofranil), Mexiletina (Mexitil), olanzapina (Zyprexa), pentazocina (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), Tacrina (Cognex), teofilina, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptano (Zomig), y otros.

Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del citocromo P450 2C19 (CYP2C19))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. El ginkgo puede aumentar la rapidez con que hígado descompone algunos medicamentos. El tomar ginkgo con estos medicamentos puede disminuir el efecto del medicamento. Antes de tomar ginkgo hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que pueden ser alterados por el hígado.

Algunos de estos medicamentos que pueden ser modificados por el hígado incluyen amitriptilina (Elavil), carisoprol (Soma), citalopram (Celexa), diazepam (Valium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), phenytoina (Dilantin), warfarina (Coumadin), y muchos otros.

Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del citocromo P450 2C9 (CYP2C9))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. El ginkgo podría disminuir la rapidez con que el hígado descompone algunos de los medicamentos. El tomar ginkgo junto con estos medicamentos que son alterados por el hígado podría aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Antes de tomar ginkgo hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que pueden ser alterados por el hígado.

Algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado incluyen amitriptilina (Elavil), diazepam (Valium), zileuton (Zyflo), celecoxib (Celebrex), dicloflenac (Voltaren), fluvastin (Lescol), glipizida (Glucotrol), ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), fenitoina (Dilantin), piroxicam (feldene), tamoxifeno (Nolvadex), tolbutamida (Tolinase), torsemida (Demadex), warfarina (Coumadin), y otros.

Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del citocromo P450 2D6 (CYP2D6))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. El ginkgo podría disminuir la rapidez con que el hígado descompone algunos de los medicamentos. El tomar ginkgo junto con otros medicamentos que son alterados por el hígado puede aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Antes de tomar ginkgo hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado.

Algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado incluyen amitriptilina (Elavil), clozapina (Clozaril), codeina, desipramina (Norpramin), donepezil (Aricept), fentanyl (Duragesic), flecainida (Tambocor), fluoxetina (Prozac), meperidina (Demerol), metadona (Dolophine), metoprolol (Lopressor, ToprolXL), olanzapina (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), tramadol (Ultram), trazodona (Desyrel), y otros.

Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del citocromo P450 3A4 (CYP3A4))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado.El ginkgo puede afectar la rapidez con que el hígado descompone algunos medicamentos y producir una variedad de efectos y efectos secundarios. Antes de tomar ginkgo hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado.

Algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado incluyen lovastatina (Mevacor), claritromicina (Biaxin), ciclosporina (Neoral, Sandimmune), diltiazem (Cardizem), estrógenos, indinavir (Crixivan), triazolam (Halcion), y otros.

Medicamentos para diabetes (Antidiabéticos)
Los medicamentos para la diabetes se usan para bajar el nivel de azúcar en la sangre. El ginkgo podría aumentar o disminuir la insulina y el azúcar en la sangre de las personas con diabetes de tipo dos. El tomar ginkgo junto con medicamentos para la diabetes puede disminuir lo bien que funciona su medicamento. Controle de cerca su nivel de azúcar en la sangre. La dosis de su medicamento para la diabetes puede necesitar ser cambiada.

Algunos de lo medicamentos usados para la diabetes incluyen glimipirida (Amaryl), gliburida (Diabeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulina, pioglitazona (Actos), rosiglitazona (Avandia), clorpropamida (Diabinese), glipizida (Glucotrol), tolbutamida (Orinase), y otros.

Medicamentos que aumentan la probabilidad de tener convulsiones (Medicamentos que bajan el umbral de los ataques)
Algunos medicamentos aumentan la posibilidad de sufrir convulsiones. El tomar ginkgo puede producir convulsiones en ciertas personas. El tomar esta combinación, podría aumentar la posibilidad de tener convulsiones. No tome ginkgo con medicamentos que aumentan las posibilidades de tener convulsiones.

Algunos medicamentos que aumentan la posibilidad de tener un ataque incluyen anestésicos (propofol, otros), antiarrítmicos (mexileteno), antibióticos (amphotericina, penicilina, cefalosporinas, imipenem), antidepresivos (bupriopon, otros), antihistamínicos (ciproheptadina, otros), agentes inmunosupresivos (ciclosporina), narcóticos (fentanyl, otros), estimulantes (metilfenidato), teofilina, y otros.

Medicamentos que retardan la coagulación sanguínea (Anticoagulantes / fármacos Antiplaquetarios)
El ginkgo podría retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El tomar ginkgo junto con medicamentos que también retardan la coagulación puede aumentar la posibilidad de sufrir hematomas y pérdida de sangre.

Algunos medicamentos que retardan la coagulación sanguínea incluyen aspirina, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, otros), ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin, otros), naproxeno (Anaprox, Naprosyn, otros), dalteparina (Fragmin), enoxaparina (Lovenox), heparina, warfarina (Coumadin), y otros.

Medicamentos usados para prevenir convulsiones (Anticonvulsivos)
Los medicamentos que se usan para prevenir las convulsiones afectan sustancias químicas en el cerebro. El ginkgo también puede afectar las sustancias químicas en el cerebro de una manera que posiblemente podría disminuir la eficacia de los medicamentos que se usan para prevenir las convulsiones.

Algunos medicamentos usados para prevenir las convulsiones incluyen fenobarbital, primidona (Mysoline), acido valproico (Depakene), gabapentina (Neurontin), carbamazepina (Tegretol), fenitoina (Dilantin), y otros.

Trazodona (Desyrel)
La trazodona (Desyrel) afecta sustancias químicas en el cerebro. El ginkgo tambien puede afectar las sustancias químicas en el cerebro. El tomar ginkgo junto con trazodona podría causar serios efectos en el cerebro. Una persona que tomó trazodona y ginkgo sufrió un coma. No tome ginkgo si está tomando trazodona (Desyrel).

Warfarina (Coumadin)
Warfarina (Coumadin) se usa para retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El ginkgo también podría retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El tomar ginkgo junto con warfarina podría aumentar las posibilidades de sufrir de hematomas y pérdida de sangre. Asegúrese de controlar su sangre periódicamente. Puede ser necesario cambiar su dosis de warfarina.

Menores

Preste atención a esta combinación

Hidroclorotiazida
La hidroclorotiazida se usa para ayudar a disminuir la hinchazón y para controlar la presión sanguínea. El tomar hidroclorotiazida junto con ginkgo podría aumentar la presión sanguínea. Antes de tomar ginkgo converse con su profesional de la salud si está tomando medicamentos para la presión.

Omeprazole (Prilosec)
El omeprazole (Prilosec) es modificado y descompuesto por el hígado. El ginkgo puede aumentar la rapidez con que el hígado descompone el omeprazole. El tomar ginkgo con omeprazole (Prilosec) puede disminuir lo bien que funciona el omeprazole (Prilosec).

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Hierbas y suplementos que aumentan el riesgo de sufrir una convulsión
Las semillas de ginkgo contienen una sustancia química que en altas dosis puede producir convulsiones. Las personas que ya están tomando suplementos que pueden aumentar el riesgo de convulsiones podrían tener un riesgo más alto si también toman ginkgo. Convulsiones después de usar extracto de hojas de ginkgo han sido reportadas tanto en las personas con no historial de convulsiones como en las personas con epilepsia bien controlada.

Es mejor evitar tomar ginkgo junto con hierbas s suplementos que pueden aumentar el riesgo de convulsiones. Estas hierbas y suplementos incluyen butanediol (BD), hoja de cedro, musgo chino, EDTA, ácido fólico, gama butirolactona (GBL), gama hidroxibutirato (GBH), glutamina, huperzina A, sulfato de hidracina, aceite de hisopo, junípero, l-carnitina, melatonina, romero, salvia, ajenjo, y otras.

Hierbas y suplementos que pueden retardar la coagulacion sanguinea
En algunas personas el usar hierbas y suplementos que retardan la coagulación sanguínea junto con ginkgo puede aumentar el riesgo de sangrado. Esto se debe a que el ginkgo también podría retardar la coagulación sanguínea. Otras hierbas de este tipo incluyen la angélica, el clavo de olor, la salvia miltiorrhiza, el ajo, el jengibre, el ginseng Panax, y otras.

La Hierba de San Juan
El ginkgo en combinación con buspirona (BusSpar), fluoxetina (Prozac), melatonina e hierba de San Juan podría causar síntomas de manía en las personas con depresión. Nadie sabe si el ginkgo solo o en combinación con la hierba de San Juan puede causar estos síntomas.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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La siguiente dosis se ha estudiado en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para los síndromes de demencia: se usa una dosis de 120-240 mg de extracto de hojas de ginkgo por día dividida en 2 o 3 dosis.
  • Para mejorar la función cognitiva en la gente joven y sana: se usan dosis de 120-600 mg por día.
  • Para la enfermedad de Raynaud: se usa una dosis de 360 mg por día extracto de hojas de ginkgo dividida en 3 dosis.
  • Para aliviar el dolor al caminar en las personas con mala circulación de la sangre (claudicación, enfermedad vascular periférica): se usa una dosis diaria de 120-240 mg de extracto de hojas de ginkgo, dividida en 2 o 3 dosis; sin embargo, la dosis más alta puede ser más eficaz.
  • Para el vértigo: se usan dosis de 120-160 mg diarias de extracto de hojas de ginkgo, dividida en 2 o 3 dosis.
  • Para el síndrome premenstrual (SPM): se usa 80 mg dos veces al día, empezando el día 16 del ciclo menstrual y continuando hasta el quinto día del ciclo siguiente.
  • Para el tratamiento del glaucoma de tensión normal: se usa 40 mg de extracto de hojas de ginkgo tres veces al día por hasta 4 semanas.
Para todos los usos, empiece con una dosis no mayor de 120 mg al día para evitar problemas gastrointestinales (GI). Aumente a las dosis más altas indicadas a medida que sea necesario. La dosis puede variar dependiendo de la formulación específica que se usa. La mayoría de los investigadores usaron un extracto específico de hojas de ginkgo estandarizado. Algunas personas toman 0.5 ml de una tintura estándar de 1:5 de hojas de ginkgo sin tratar tres veces al día.

Debe evitarse el uso de las partes de la planta del ginkgo sin tratar. Estas pueden tener niveles peligrosos de las sustancias químicas que se encuentran en las semillas y otras partes de la planta. Estas sustancias químicas pueden producir reacciones alérgicas severas.

Otros nombres

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Abricot Argenté Japonais, Adiantifolia, Arbre aux Écus, Arbre aux Quarante Écus, Arbre du Ciel, Arbre Fossile, Bai Guo Ye, Baiguo, Extrait de Feuille de Ginkgo, Extrait de Ginkgo, Fossil Tree, Ginkgo biloba, Ginkgo Biloba Leaf, Ginkgo Extract, Ginkgo Folium, Ginkgo Leaf Extact, Ginkgo Seed, Graine de Ginkgo, Herba Ginkgo Biloba, Japanese Silver Apricot, Kew Tree, Maidenhair Tree, Noyer du Japon, Pei Go Su Ye, Salisburia Adiantifolia, Yen Xing, Yinhsing.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Ginkgo, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/333.html.
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  244. Brinkley, T. E., Lovato, J. F., Arnold, A. M., Furberg, C. D., Kuller, L. H., Burke, G. L., Nahin, R. L., Lopez, O. L., Yasar, S., and Williamson, J. D. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on blood pressure and incidence of hypertension in elderly men and women. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:528-533. View abstract.
  245. Sena, D. F., Ramchand, K., and Lindsley, K. Neuroprotection for treatment of glaucoma in adults. Cochrane Database Syst.Rev. 2010;:CD006539.

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  250. Canis, M., Olzowy, B., Welz, C., Suckfull, M., and Stelter, K. Simvastatin and Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of subacute tinnitus: a retrospective study of 94 patients. Am J Otolaryngol. 2011;32:19-23.

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  251. Kim, T. E., Kim, B. H., Kim, J., Kim, K. P., Yi, S., Shin, H. S., Lee, Y. O., Lee, K. H., Shin, S. G., Jang, I. J., and Yu, K. S. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of ticlopidine between administration of a combined fixed-dose tablet formulation of ticlopidine 250 mg/ginkgo extract 80 mg, and concomitant administration of ticlopidine 250-mg and ginkgo extract 80-mg tablets: an open-label, two-treatment, single-dose, randomized-sequence crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers. Clin Ther 2009;31:2249-2257. View abstract.
  252. Seo, B. S., Lee, H. J., Mo, J. H., Lee, C. H., Rhee, C. S., and Kim, J. W. Treatment of postviral olfactory loss with glucocorticoids, Ginkgo biloba, and mometasone nasal spray. Arch Otolaryngol.Head Neck Surg. 2009;135:1000-1004. View abstract.
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  257. Xie, Z. Q., Liang, G., Zhang, L., Wang, Q., Qu, Y., Gao, Y., Lin, L. B., Ye, S., Zhang, J., Wang, H., Zhao, G. P., and Zhang, Q. H. Molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in hepatocytes: a comparative study with lovastatin. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:1262-1275. View abstract.
  258. Ozgoli, G., Selselei, E. A., Mojab, F., and Majd, H. A. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndrome. J Altern.Complement Med 2009;15:845-851. View abstract.
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  262. van, Middelkoop M., Huisstede, B. M., Glerum, S., and Koes, B. W. Effectiveness of interventions of specific complaints of the arm, neck, or shoulder (CANS): musculoskeletal disorders of the hand. Clin J Pain 2009;25:537-552.

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  264. Hao, Y., Sun, Y., Xu, C., Jiang, X., Sun, H., Wu, Q., Yan, C., and Gu, S. Improvement of contractile function in isolated cardiomyocytes from ischemia-reperfusion rats by ginkgolide B pretreatment. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 2009;54:3-9. View abstract.
  265. Szabo, M. E., Droy-Lefaix, M. T., Doly, M., and Braquet, P. Free radical-mediated effects in reperfusion injury: a histologic study with superoxide dismutase and EGB 761 in rat retina. Ophthalmic Res 1991;23:225-234. View abstract.
  266. Kim, Y. S., Park, H. J., Kim, T. K., Moon, D. E., and Lee, H. J. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on mechanical and cold allodynia in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Anesth.Analg. 2009;108:1958-1963. View abstract.
  267. Fan, L., Tao, G. Y., Wang, G., Chen, Y., Zhang, W., He, Y. J., Li, Q., Lei, H. P., Jiang, F., Hu, D. L., Huang, Y. F., and Zhou, H. H. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract ingestion on the pharmacokinetics of talinolol in healthy Chinese volunteers. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43:944-949. View abstract.
  268. Russo, V., Stella, A., Appezzati, L., Barone, A., Stagni, E., Roszkowska, A., and Delle, Noci N. Clinical efficacy of a Ginkgo biloba extract in the topical treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:331-336. View abstract.
  269. Nicolai, S. P., Kruidenier, L. M., Bendermacher, B. L., Prins, M. H., and Teijink, J. A. Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication. Cochrane Database Syst.Rev. 2009;:CD006888. View abstract.
  270. Leadbetter, G., Keyes, L. E., Maakestad, K. M., Olson, S., Tissot van Patot, M. C., and Hackett, P. H. Ginkgo biloba does--and does not--prevent acute mountain sickness. Wilderness.Environ.Med 2009;20:66-71. View abstract.
  271. Yancheva, S., Ihl, R., Nikolova, G., Panayotov, P., Schlaefke, S., and Hoerr, R. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R), donepezil or both combined in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease with neuropsychiatric features: a randomised, double-blind, exploratory trial. Aging Ment.Health 2009;13:183-190. View abstract.
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  273. Lei, H. P., Wang, G., Wang, L. S., Ou-yang, D. S., Chen, H., Li, Q., Zhang, W., Tan, Z. R., Fan, L., He, Y. J., and Zhou, H. H. Lack of effect of Ginkgo biloba on voriconazole pharmacokinetics in Chinese volunteers identified as CYP2C19 poor and extensive metabolizers. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43:726-731. View abstract.
  274. Napryeyenko, O., Sonnik, G., and Tartakovsky, I. Efficacy and tolerability of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 by type of dementia: analyses of a randomised controlled trial. J Neurol.Sci 8-15-2009;283(1-2):224-229. View abstract.
  275. Niederhofer, H. First preliminary results of an observation of Ginkgo Biloba treating patients with autistic disorder. Phytother.Res 2009;23:1645-1646. View abstract.
  276. Li, X. S., Zheng, W. Y., Lou, S. X., Lu, X. W., and Ye, S. H. Effect of Ginkgo leaf extract on vascular endothelial function in patients with early stage diabetic nephropathy. Chin J Integr Med 2009;15:26-29. View abstract.
  277. Zenico, T., Cicero, A. F., Valmorri, L., Mercuriali, M., and Bercovich, E. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Andrologia 2009;41:95-99.

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  279. Choi, W. S., Choi, C. J., Kim, K. S., Lee, J. H., Song, C. H., Chung, J. H., Ock, S. M., Lee, J. B., and Kim, C. M. To compare the efficacy and safety of nifedipine sustained release with Ginkgo biloba extract to treat patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon in South Korea; Korean Raynaud study (KOARA study). Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28:553-559. View abstract.
  280. Li, L., Stanton, J. D., Tolson, A. H., Luo, Y., and Wang, H. Bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba extract induce the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes through pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathways. Pharm.Res 2009;26:872-882. View abstract.
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  282. Whitton, M. E., Ashcroft, D. M., and Gonzalez, U. Therapeutic interventions for vitiligo. J Am Acad.Dermatol. 2008;59:713-717.

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  284. May, B. H., Yang, A. W., Zhang, A. L., Owens, M. D., Bennett, L., Head, R., Cobiac, L., Li, C. G., Hugel, H., Story, D. F., and Xue, C. C. Chinese herbal medicine for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Age Associated Memory Impairment: a review of randomised controlled trials. Biogerontology. 2009;10:109-123. View abstract.
  285. Andrieu, S., Ousset, P. J., Coley, N., Ouzid, M., Mathiex-Fortunet, H., and Vellas, B. GuidAge study: a 5-year double blind, randomised trial of EGb 761 for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease in elderly subjects with memory complaints. i. rationale, design and baseline data. Curr Alzheimer Res 2008;5:406-415. View abstract.
  286. Rhone, M. and Basu, A. Phytochemicals and age-related eye diseases. Nutr.Rev. 2008;66:465-472. View abstract.
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  292. Penzak, S. R., Busse, K. H., Robertson, S. M., Formentini, E., Alfaro, R. M., and Davey, R. T., Jr. Limitations of using a single postdose midazolam concentration to predict CYP3A-mediated drug interactions. J Clin Pharmacol 2008;48:671-680. View abstract.
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  294. Batysheva, T. T., Bagir', L. V., Kostenko, E. V., Artemova, I. I., Vdovichenko, T. V., Ganzhula, P. A., Zhuravleva, E. I., Ismailov, A. M., Lisenker, L. N., Nesterova, O. V., Otcheskaia, O. V., Rotor, L. D., Khozova, A. A., and Boiko, A. N. [The use of the drug ginos in the treatment of out-patients with chronic progressive brain disorders]. Zh.Nevrol.Psikhiatr.Im S.S.Korsakova 2007;107:55-59. View abstract.
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  298. Lacour, M., Ez-Zaher, L., and Raymond, J. Plasticity mechanisms in vestibular compensation in the cat are improved by an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761). Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991;40:367-379.

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  301. Lin, Y. Y., Chu, S. J., and Tsai, S. H. Association between priapism and concurrent use of risperidone and Ginkgo biloba. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82:1289-1290. View abstract.
  302. Dardano, A., Ballardin, M., Ferdeghini, M., Lazzeri, E., Traino, C., Caraccio, N., Mariani, G., Barale, R., and Monzani, F. Anticlastogenic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in Graves' disease patients receiving radioiodine therapy. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 2007;92:4286-4289. View abstract.
  303. Scripnikov, A., Khomenko, A., and Napryeyenko, O. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: findings from a randomised controlled trial. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2007;157(13-14):295-300. View abstract.
  304. Wang, J., Zhou, S., Bronks, R., Graham, J., and Myers, S. Supervised exercise training combined with ginkgo biloba treatment for patients with peripheral arterial disease. Clin Rehabil. 2007;21:579-586. View abstract.
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  306. Wu, Y., Li, S., Cui, W., Zu, X., Wang, F., and Du, J. Ginkgo biloba extract improves coronary blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease: role of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Planta Med 2007;73:624-628. View abstract.
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  311. Thomas, M., Sheran, J., Smith, N., Fonseca, S., and Lee, A. J. AKL1, a botanical mixture for the treatment of asthma: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. BMC.Pulm.Med 2007;7:4. View abstract.
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  315. Iakhno, N. N., Zakharov, V. V., Lokshina, A. B., Gavrilova, S. I., Fedorova, IaB, Gustov, A. V., Korshunova, IuA, Dziak, L. A., Miziakina, E. V., Odinak, M. M., Emelin, A. I., PilipenkoP, I., and Vostrikova, E. V. [Tanakan (EGb 761) in the therapy of mild cognitive impairment]. Zh.Nevrol.Psikhiatr.Im S.S.Korsakova 2006;106:41-46. View abstract.
  316. Jiang, Z. M. and Cao, J. D. The impact of micronized purified flavonoid fraction on the treatment of acute haemorrhoidal episodes. Curr Med Res Opin 2006;22:1141-1147. View abstract.
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  321. Heinen-Kammerer, V. T., Motzkat, K., Daniel, D., Gertz, H. J., Koller, M., Lorenz, W., Pilartz, H., Zimmer, B., Habs, M., von, den Driesch, V, and Rychlik, R. [The situation of patients with dementia may be rectified by Gingko Biloba]. MMW.Fortschr.Med. 10-20-2005;147:51. View abstract.
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  324. Kim, S. H., Lee, E. K., Chang, J. W., Min, W. K., Chi, H. S., and Kim, S. B. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on haemostatic factors and inflammation in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. Phytother Res 2005;19:546-548. View abstract.
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Página actualizada 27 octubre 2014