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Yodo


¿Qué es?

El yodo es un elemento químico. El cuerpo necesita yodo, pero no lo puede hacer. El yodo que se necesita debe provenir de la dieta. Como regla general, hay muy poco yodo en los alimentos, a menos que haya sido añadido durante el procesamiento, lo que ahora pasa en el caso de la sal. La mayor parte del yodo que hay en el mundo se encuentra en el océano, adonde es concentrado por los organismos que hay en el mar, especialmente por las algas marinas.

La glándula de la tiroides necesita yodo para producir las hormonas. Si la tiroides no tiene suficiente yodo para hacer su trabajo, el cuerpo responde haciendo que la tiroides tenga que trabajar más duro. Esto puede producir un agrandamiento de la glándula de la tiroides (bocio), que se manifiesta como una inflamación del cuello.

Otras consecuencias de no tener suficiente yodo (carencia de yodo) también son graves. La deficiencia de yodo y el bajo nivel resultante de la hormona de la tiroides pueden hacer que las mujeres dejen de ovular, lo que lleva a la infertilidad. La deficiencia de yodo también puede conducir a una enfermedad autoinmune de la glándula de la tiroides y puede aumentar el riesgo de contraer cáncer de la tiroides. Algunos investigadores creen que la deficiencia de yodo también podría aumentar el riesgo de otros cánceres como el de próstata, de mama, del endometrio y cáncer de ovario.

La deficiencia de yodo durante el embarazo es grave tanto para la madre como para el bebé. Puede conducir a hipertensión arterial en la madre durante el embarazo y a retraso mental en el bebé. El yodo juega un papel importante en el desarrollo del sistema nervioso central. En casos extremos, la deficiencia de yodo puede producir cretinismo, un trastorno que implica un retraso grave en el crecimiento físico y mental.

La deficiencia de yodo es un problema común de salud en el mundo. El problemas más reconocido de deficiencia de yodo es el bocio. Se cree además que la carencia de yodo en todo el mundo es la causa más común del retraso mental que es prevenible. A principios del siglo XX, la carencia de yodo era muy común en los EE.UU. y Canadá, pero la adición de yodo a la sal ha mejorado la salud pública. La yodación de la sal es obligatoria en Canadá. En los EE.UU., sin embargo, la adición de yodo a la sal no es obligatoria pero la sal con yodo está ampliamente disponible. Los investigadores estiman que alrededor de la mitad de la población de los EE.UU. utiliza regularmente la sal con yodo.

El yodo se usa para prevenir la deficiencia de yodo y sus consecuencias, incluyendo el bocio. También se utiliza para tratar una enfermedad de la piel causada por un hongo (esporotricosis cutánea); para el tratamiento de la enfermedad fibroquística de las mamas; para la prevención del cáncer de mama; para enfermedades oculares; para la diabetes, enfermedades del corazón y derrame cerebral; y como un expectorante.

El yodo también se usa para tratar las situaciones de emergencia por exposición a radiación, para así proteger la glándula tiroides contra los yoduros radiactivos. Las tabletas de yoduro de potasio para uso en una emergencia por radiación, están disponibles como productos aprobados por la FDA (Thyro-Shield, Iosat) y en la Internet, como suplementos alimenticios. El yoduro de potasio sólo se debe utilizar en el caso de un accidente radiactivo y no antes de una emergencia, solo como prevención.

El yodo se aplica a la piel para eliminar los gérmenes, para evitar el dolor en el interior de la boca (mucositis) causado por la quimioterapia y para el tratamiento de las úlceras diabéticas.

El yodo también se utiliza para la purificación del agua.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • La deficiencia de yodo. El tomar suplementos de yodo es eficaz para prevenir y tratar las deficiencias de yodo incluyendo el bocio.
  • La exposición a radiación. El yodo por vía oral es eficaz para proteger contra la exposición a los yoduros radioactivos producidos en una emergencia radiológica.
  • Las enfermedades de la tiroides. El tomar yodo por vía oral puede mejorar la tormenta de la tiroides y el hipertiroidismo.

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Los problemas con el tejido fibroso de las mamas (enfermedad fibroquística de la mama), cuando se toma por vía oral.
  • La prevención del dolor e hinchazón en la boca, producida por los tratamientos de quimioterapia para el cáncer, cuando se aplica directamente a la zona afectada.
  • Las úlceras de los pies asociadas con la diabetes, cuando se aplica directamente a la zona afectada.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • El tratamiento de una enfermedad de la piel producida por un hongo (esporotricosis cutánea).
  • Otras condiciones.
Se necesitan más pruebas para evaluar la eficacia de yodo para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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El yodo reduce la hormona tiroidea y puede matar los hongos, las bacterias y otros microorganismos, como las amebas. Un tipo específico de yodo llamado yoduro de potasio, se utiliza también para tratar (pero no prevenir) los efectos de un accidente radiactivo.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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El yodo PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURO para la mayoría de la gente cuando se toma por vía oral en las cantidades recomendadas. En algunas personas el yodo puede producir efectos secundarios graves. Los efectos secundarios mas comunes incluyen nausea y dolor de estomago, secreción nasal, dolor de cabeza, gusto metálico y diarrea.

Grandes cantidades o el uso a largo plazo de yodo, POSIBLEMENTE NO ES SEGURO. Los adultos deben evitar el uso prolongado de dosis superiores a 1100 mcg por día (el Nivel Máximo de Ingesta Tolerable (UL) sin supervisión médica adecuada. En los niños, la dosis no debe exceder a los 200 mcg por día para los niños de 1 a 3 años, 300 mcg por día para los niños de 4 a 8 años, 600 mcg por día para niños de 9 a 13 años de edad, y 900 mcg por día para los adolescentes. Estos son los Límites Máximos de Ingesta Tolerables (UL).

Existe la preocupación de que tanto en los niños como en los adultos el consumo más alto puede aumentar el riesgo de efectos secundarios tales como problemas de la tiroides. En cantidades altas el yodo puede producir sabor metálico, dolor de dientes y encías, ardor en la boca y la garganta, aumento de la salivación, inflamación de la garganta, malestar estomacal, diarrea, debilidad, depresión, problemas en la piel y muchos otros efectos secundarios.

Cuando el yodo se usa directamente sobre la piel, puede causar irritación de la piel, manchas, reacciones alérgicas y otros efectos secundarios. Tenga cuidado de no vendar o cubrir las áreas que han sido tratados con yodo para evitar una quemadura por yodo.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: El yodo PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURO cuando se toma por vía oral en las cantidades recomendadas. No tome más de 1100 mcg de yodo por día si es mayor de 18 años de edad; no tome más de 900 mcg de yodo por día si tiene entre 14 a 18 años de edad. Un consumo mayor podría producir problemas de la tiroides. El producto tópico (solución al 2%) PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURO para su uso en la piel.

Enfermedad tiroidea autoinmune: Las personas con enfermedad tiroidea autoinmune pueden ser especialmente sensibles a los efectos secundarios dañinos del yodo.

Erupción cutánea llamada dermatitis herpetiformis. El tomar yodo puede empeorar esta enfermedad.

Trastornos de la tiroides, como una alteración de la glándula de la tiroides que ocasiona una disminución de la producción de hormonas tiroideas (hipotiroidismo), una glándula de la tiroides agrandada (bocio), o un tumor en la tiroides: El uso prolongado o altas dosis de yodo podría empeorar estos trastornos.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Serias

No tome esta combinación

Medicamentos para la tiroides hiperactiva (Fármacos antitiroideos)
El yodo puede afectar a la tiroides. El tomar yodo junto con medicamentos para la hiperactividad de la tiroides podría disminuir demasiado la tiroides. No tome suplementos de yodo si está tomando medicamentos para una tiroides hiperactiva.

Algunos de estos medicamentos incluyen mandelato de metenamina (Methimazole), metimazol (Tapazole), yoduro de potasio (Thyro-Block) y otros.

Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Amiodarona (Cordarone)
La amiodarona (Cordarone) contiene yodo. La ingesta de suplementos de yodo junto con amiodarona (Cordarone) podría aumentar demasiado la cantidad de yodo en la sangre. Demasiado yodo en la sangre puede causar efectos secundarios que afectan la tiroides.

Litio
Grandes cantidades de yodo puede reducir el funcionamiento de la tiroides. El litio puede aumentar los efectos del yodo en la tiroides. El tomar yodo junto con litio podría disminuir demasiado el funcionamiento de la tiroides. No tome grandes cantidades de yodo si usted está tomando litio.

Medicamentos para la hipertensión arterial (Bloqueadores de los receptores de angiotensina (ARA-II))
Algunos medicamentos para la presión sanguínea alta puede disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo se deshace de potasio. La mayoría de suplementos de yodo contienen potasio. El tomar yoduro de potasio junto con algunos medicamentos para la presión arterial alta puede producir un exceso de potasio en el cuerpo. No tome yoduro de potasio si está tomando medicamentos para la presión arterial alta.

Los ARA-II incluyen al losartán (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), irbesartan (Avapro), candesartán (Atacand), telmisartán (Micardis) y eprosartán (Teveten).

Medicamentos para la hipertensión arterial (Inhibidores de la ECA)
Algunos medicamentos para la presión sanguínea alta puede disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo se deshace del potasio. La mayoría de los suplementos de yodo contienen potasio. El tomar yoduro de potasio junto con algunos medicamentos para la presión arterial alta puede producir un exceso de potasio en el cuerpo. No tome yoduro de potasio si está tomando medicamentos para la presión arterial alta.

Algunos medicamentos para la presión arterial alta incluyen captoprila (Capoten), enalaprila (Vasotec), lisinoprila (Prinivil, Zestril), ramiprila (Altace) y otros.

Píldoras de agua (Diuréticos ahorradores de potasio)
La mayoría de los suplementos de yodo contienen potasio. Algunos "píldoras de agua" podrían aumentar el potasio en el cuerpo. El tomar yoduro de potasio junto con algunas "píldoras de agua" podría producir un exceso de potasio en el cuerpo. No tome yoduro de potasio si está tomando "píldoras de agua" que aumentan el potasio en el cuerpo.

Algunos "píldoras de agua" que aumentan el potasio en el cuerpo incluyen espironolactona (Aldactone), triamtereno (Dyrenium) y amilorida (Midamor).

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con hierbas y suplementos.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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Las siguientes dosis se han estudiado en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • En el caso de una emergencia por exposición a radiación: Se debe tomar yoduro de potasio (KI) justo antes, o tan pronto como sea posible después de la exposición. La radiación es más perjudicial para las mujeres embarazadas o amamantando y para los niños, por lo que el KI es dosificado de acuerdo a la cantidad de la exposición a la radiación y a la edad. La exposición a la radiación se mide en centigrays (cGy). Para los infantes, bebés, niños, adolescentes y mujeres embarazadas o en período de lactancia, se da KI sólo si la exposición a la radiación es de 5 centigrays (cGy) o más. Las tabletas se pueden triturar y mezclar con jugo de fruta, mermelada, leche, etc.
    • Desde el nacimiento hasta 1 mes de edad, la dosis es de 16 mg de KI;
    • Para los bebés y niños de 1 mes a 3 años, 32 mg;
    • Para los niños de 3 a 12 años, 65 mg;
    • Para los adolescentes de 12 a 18 años, 65 mg o 120 mg si el adolescente se acerca al tamaño de un adulto;
    • Para las mujeres embarazadas o amamantando, 120 mg.
    • Para los adultos de 18 a 40 años con una exposición de 10 cGy o más, se da 130 mg de KI.
    • Para los adultos mayores de 40 años con una exposición de 500 cGy o más, se da 130 mg de KI.
El Instituto Nacional de Medicina ha establecido el Nivel de Consumo Adecuado (AI) de yodo. Para los niños: de 0 a 6 meses, 110 mcg/día; de 7 a 12 meses, 130 mcg/día.

Para los niños y adultos, se ha establecido La Ingesta Diaria Recomendada (RDA): Para los niños de 1 a 8 años, 90 mcg/día; de 9 a 13 años, 120 mcg/día; para las personas mayores de 14 años, 150 mcg/día. Para las mujeres embarazadas, la RDA es de 209 mcg/día y para las mujeres amamantando, 290 mcg/día.

El Nivel Máximo de Ingesta Tolerable (UL), el más alto nivel de ingesta que probablemente no produce efectos secundarios no deseados, ha sido establecido para el yodo. Para los niños de 1 a 3 años, 200 mcg/día; de 4 a 8 años, 300 mcg/día; de 9 a 13 años, 600 mcg/día; de 14 a 18 años (incluyendo el embarazo y la lactancia), 900 mcg/día. Para los adultos mayores de 19 años de edad incluyendo las mujeres embarazadas y amamantando el nivel máximo de ingesta tolerable es de 1100 mcg/día.

Otros nombres

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Atomic number 53, Cadexomer Iodine, Diatomic Iodine, I2, Iode, Iode de Cadexomer, Iode Diatomique, Iode Moléculaire, Iode Mono-atomique, Iode de Povidone, Iode de Sodium, Iodide, Iodized Salt, Iodure, Iodure de Potassium, Iodure de Potassium en Solution Saturée, Iodure de Sodium, KI, Lugol’s Solution, Molecular Iodine, Monoatomic Iodine, Numéro atomique 53, Periodate de Sodium, Potassium Iodide, Povidone Iodine, Saturated Solution Potassium Iodide, Sel Iodé, Sodium Iodide, Sodium Iodine, Sodium Periodate, Solution de Lugol, SSKI.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Yodo, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/35.html.
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Página actualizada 08 septiembre 2014