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Propóleos


¿Qué es?

El propóleos es un material tipo resina que se obtiene de los brotes del álamo y de las coníferas - los árboles que producen conos. El propóleos raramente se encuentra disponible en su forma pura. Por lo general se obtiene de las colmenas y contiene productos de las abejas.

El propóleos tiene una larga historia de uso medicinal, que data de 350 AC, la época de Aristóteles. Los Griegos han utilizado el propóleos para los abscesos; los Asirios lo han utilizado para curar heridas y tumores; y los Egipcios lo han utilizado para la momificación. Todavía tiene muchos usos medicinales, aunque su eficacia sólo se ha demostrado para un par de ellos.

El propóleos se utiliza para las infecciones producidas por bacterias (incluyendo la tuberculosis), por virus (incluyendo la gripe, la gripe porcina H1N1 y el resfriado común), por hongos y por los organismos unicelulares llamados protozoos. El propóleos también se usa para el cáncer de la nariz y de la garganta; para estimular el sistema inmunológico; y para el tratamiento de los problemas gastrointestinales (GI), incluyendo la infección por Helicobacter pylori en la úlcera péptica. El propóleos también se utiliza como un antioxidante y un agente antiinflamatorio.

La gente a veces se aplica propóleos directamente sobre la piel para la limpieza de las heridas y para el herpes genital; lo usan como un enjuague bucal para acelerar la curación después de una cirugía oral; y para el tratamiento de las quemaduras leves.

En la industria manufacturera, el propóleos se utiliza como un ingrediente en los cosméticos.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • El herpes labial. La aplicación de una pomada de 3% de propóleos (Herstat or ColdSore-FX) podría ayudar a curar más rápido el herpes labial y disminuir el dolor.
  • El herpes genital. La aplicación de una pomada de 3% de propóleos (Herstat or ColdSore-FX) podría mejorar la cicatrización de las lesiones genitales recurrentes causadas por el virus herpes simplex tipo 2 (VHS-2). Los resultados de algunas investigaciones sugieren de que podría curar las lesiones de manera más rápida y más completa que el tratamiento convencional que usa un ungüento de 5% de aciclovir.
  • Mejorar la cicatrización y reducir el dolor y la inflamación después de una cirugía oral.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Heridas de cáncer.
  • La tuberculosis.
  • Las infecciones.
  • El cáncer de nariz y garganta.
  • Mejorar la respuesta del sistema inmune.
  • Las úlceras.
  • Los trastornos estomacales e intestinales.
  • El resfriado común.
  • Las heridas.
  • La inflamación.
  • Las quemaduras menores.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesitan más pruebas para evaluar la eficacia del propóleos para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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El propóleos parece tener actividad contra las bacterias, los virus y los hongos. También podría tener efectos anti-inflamatorios en la piel y ayudar a la piel a sanar.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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No hay suficiente información para saber si el propóleos es seguro. Puede causar reacciones alérgicas, especialmente en las personas que son alérgicas a las abejas o a los productos apícolas. Las pastillas que contienen propóleos pueden producir irritación y úlceras en la boca.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: No se tiene suficiente información sobre el uso del propóleos durante el embarazo y la lactancia. Sea precavida y evite su uso.

Asma: Algunos expertos creen que algunas sustancias en el propóleos puede empeorar el asma. Evite el uso de propóleos si usted tiene asma.

Alergias: No utilice propóleos si usted es alérgico a los productos de las abejas, como la miel, a las coníferas, a los álamos, al bálsamo del Perú y a los salicilatos.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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No se sabe si este producto interactúa con algún medicamento.

Si está tomando medicamentos, converse con su proveedor de atención médica antes de empezar a tomar este producto.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con hierbas y suplementos.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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La siguiente dosis ha sido estudiada en investigaciones científicas:

APLICACIÓN A LA PIEL:
  • Para el herpes labial: Se aplica una pomada de 3% propóleos (Herstat or ColdSore-FX) 5 veces al día.
  • Para el herpes genital: Se aplica a las ampollas una pomada de 3% propóleos (Herstat or ColdSore-FX) 4 veces al día.
  • Como un enjuague bucal después de una cirugía de la boca: Se usa una solución que contiene propóleos, agua y alcohol.

Otros nombres

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Acide de Cire d’Abeille, Baume de Propolis, Bee Glue, Bee Propolis, Beeswax Acid, Cire d’Abeille Synthétique, Cire de Propolis, Colle d’Abeille, Hive Dross, Pénicilline Russe, Propolis Balsam, Propolis Cera, Propolis d'Abeille, Propolis Resin, Propolis Wax, Résine de Propolis, Russian Penicillin, Synthetic Beeswax.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Propóleos, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/390.html.
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  3. Downs, A. M. and Sansom, J. E. Occupational contact dermatitis due to propolis. Contact Dermatitis 1998;38:359-360. View abstract.
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  7. Murray, M. C., Worthington, H. V., and Blinkhorn, A. S. A study to investigate the effect of a propolis-containing mouthrinse on the inhibition of de novo plaque formation. J Clin Periodontol. 1997;24:796-798. View abstract.
  8. Silvani, S., Spettoli, E., Stacul, F., and et al. Contact dermatitis in psoriasis due to propolis. Contact Dermatitis 1997;37:48-49. View abstract.
  9. Crisan, I., Zaharia, C. N., Popovici, F., and et al. Natural propolis extract NIVCRISOL in the treatment of acute and chronic rhinopharyngitis in children. Rom.J Virol. 1995;46(3-4):115-133. View abstract.
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  1. Bellegrandi, S., D'Offizi, G., Ansotegui, I. J., and et al. Propolis allergy in an HIV-positive patient. J Am Acad.Dermatol. 1996;35:644. View abstract.
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  8. Pascual, C., Gonzalez, R., and Torricella, R. G. Scavenging action of propolis extract against oxygen radicals. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994;41(1-2):9-13. View abstract.
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  21. Ayala, F., Lembo, G., Nappa, P., and et al. Contact dermatitis from propolis. Contact Dermatitis 1985;12:181-182. View abstract.
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  23. Hausen, B. M., Wollenweber, E., Senff, H., and et al. Propolis allergy. (II). The sensitizing properties of 1,1-dimethylallyl caffeic acid ester. Contact Dermatitis 1987;17:171-177. View abstract.
  24. Cirasino, L., Pisati, A., and Fasani, F. Contact dermatitis from propolis. Contact Dermatitis 1987;16:110-111. View abstract.
  25. Poppe, B. and Michaelis, H. [Results of a twice-yearly controlled oral hygiene activity using a propolis-containing toothpaste (double-blind study)]. Stomatol.DDR. 1986;36:195-203. View abstract.
  26. Nakamura, T. Sensitivity to propolis in Japan. Contact Dermatitis 1988;18:313. View abstract.
  27. Martinez, Silveira G., Gou, Godoy A., Ona, Torriente R., and et al. [Preliminary study of the effects of propolis in the treatment of chronic gingivitis and oral ulceration]. Rev Cubana Estomatol. 1988;25:36-44. View abstract.
  28. Hausen, B. M. and Wollenweber, E. Propolis allergy. (III). Sensitization studies with minor constituents. Contact Dermatitis 1988;19:296-303. View abstract.
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  31. Angelini, G., Vena, G. A., and Meneghini, C. L. Psoriasis and contact allergy to propolis. Contact Dermatitis 1987;17:251-253. View abstract.
  32. Kleinhans, D. Airborne contact dermatitis due to propolis. Contact Dermatitis 1987;17:187-188. View abstract.
  33. Rudzki, E., Grzywa, Z., and Pomorski, Z. New data on dermatitis from propolis. Contact Dermatitis 1985;13:198-199. View abstract.
  34. Scheller, S., Gazda, G., Krol, W., and et al. The ability of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) to protect mice against gamma irradiation. Z Naturforsch [C.] 1989;44(11-12):1049-1052. View abstract.
  35. Kosenko, S. V. and Kosovich, T. I. [The treatment of periodontitis with prolonged-action propolis preparations (clinical x-ray research)]. Stomatologiia (Mosk) 1990;69:27-29. View abstract.
  36. Raton, J. A., Aguirre, A., and Diaz-Perez, J. L. Contact dermatitis from propolis. Contact Dermatitis 1990;22:183-184. View abstract.
  37. Grange, J. M. and Davey, R. W. Antibacterial properties of propolis (bee glue). J R.Soc Med 1990;83:159-160. View abstract.
  38. Debiaggi, M., Tateo, F., Pagani, L., and et al. Effects of propolis flavonoids on virus infectivity and replication. Microbiologica 1990;13:207-213. View abstract.
  39. Brumfitt, W., Hamilton-Miller, J. M., and Franklin, I. Antibiotic activity of natural products: 1. Propolis. Microbios 1990;62:19-22. View abstract.
  40. Scheller, S., Wilczok, T., Imielski, S., and et al. Free radical scavenging by ethanol extract of propolis. Int J Radiat.Biol. 1990;57:461-465. View abstract.
  41. Ikeno, K., Ikeno, T., and Miyazawa, C. Effects of propolis on dental caries in rats. Caries Res 1991;25:347-351. View abstract.
  42. Abdel-Fattah, N. S. and Nada, O. H. Effect of propolis versus metronidazole and their combined use in treatment of acute experimental giardiasis. J Egypt.Soc Parasitol. 2007;37(2 Suppl):691-710. View abstract.
  43. Coelho, L. G., Bastos, E. M., Resende, C. C., Paula e Silva CM, Sanches, B. S., de Castro, F. J., Moretzsohn, L. D., Vieira, W. L., and Trindade, O. R. Brazilian green propolis on Helicobacter pylori infection. a pilot clinical study. Helicobacter. 2007;12:572-574. View abstract.
  44. Munstedt, K., Hellner, M., Hackethal, A., Winter, D., and von Georgi, R. Contact allergy to propolis in beekeepers. Allergol.Immunopathol.(Madr.) 2007;35:95-100. View abstract.
  45. Weng, M. S., Liao, C. H., Chen, C. N., Wu, C. L., and Lin, J. K. Propolin H from Taiwanese propolis induces G1 arrest in human lung carcinoma cells. J Agric Food Chem 6-27-2007;55:5289-5298. View abstract.
  46. Korkina, L. G. Phenylpropanoids as naturally occurring antioxidants: from plant defense to human health. Cell Mol.Biol (Noisy.-le-grand) 2007;53:15-25. View abstract.
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  48. Takara, K., Fujita, M., Matsubara, M., Minegaki, T., Kitada, N., Ohnishi, N., and Yokoyama, T. Effects of propolis extract on sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents in HeLa and resistant sublines. Phytother Res 2007;21:841-846. View abstract.
  49. Suzuki, K., Tanaka, I., Nakanishi, I., Kurematsu, A., Yakumaru, H., Ikota, N., and Ishihara, H. Drastic effect of several caffeic acid derivatives on the induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression revealed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Biofactors 2006;28(3-4):151-158. View abstract.
  50. Ozan, F., Polat, Z. A., Er, K., Ozan, U., and Deger, O. Effect of propolis on survival of periodontal ligament cells: new storage media for avulsed teeth. J Endod. 2007;33:570-573. View abstract.
  51. Celli, N., Dragani, L. K., Murzilli, S., Pagliani, T., and Poggi, A. In vitro and in vivo stability of caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a bioactive compound of propolis. J Agric Food Chem 5-2-2007;55:3398-3407. View abstract.
  52. Ahn, M. R., Kunimasa, K., Ohta, T., Kumazawa, S., Kamihira, M., Kaji, K., Uto, Y., Hori, H., Nagasawa, H., and Nakayama, T. Suppression of tumor-induced angiogenesis by Brazilian propolis: major component artepillin C inhibits in vitro tube formation and endothelial cell proliferation. Cancer Lett 7-18-2007;252:235-243. View abstract.
  53. Naito, Y., Yasumuro, M., Kondou, K., and Ohara, N. Antiinflammatory effect of topically applied propolis extract in carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema. Phytother Res 2007;21:452-456. View abstract.
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  56. Oliveira, A. C., Shinobu, C. S., Longhini, R., Franco, S. L., and Svidzinski, T. I. Antifungal activity of propolis extract against yeasts isolated from onychomycosis lesions. Mem.Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2006;101:493-497. View abstract.
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  58. Xiang, D., Wang, D., He, Y., Xie, J., Zhong, Z., Li, Z., and Xie, J. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces growth arrest and apoptosis of colon cancer cells via the beta-catenin/T-cell factor signaling. Anticancer Drugs 2006;17:753-762. View abstract.
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  60. Silici, S. and Koc, A. N. Comparative study of in vitro methods to analyse the antifungal activity of propolis against yeasts isolated from patients with superficial mycoses. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006;43:318-324. View abstract.
  61. Paulino, N., Teixeira, C., Martins, R., Scremin, A., Dirsch, V. M., Vollmar, A. M., Abreu, S. R., de Castro, S. L., and Marcucci, M. C. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a Brazilian green propolis. Planta Med 2006;72:899-906. View abstract.
  62. Ozkul, Y., Eroglu, H. E., and Ok, E. Genotoxic potential of Turkish propolis in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Pharmazie 2006;61:638-640. View abstract.
  63. Jesus, L. M., Abreu, P. R., Almeida, M. C., Brito, L. C., Soares, S. F., de Souza, D. E., Bernardo, L. C., Fonseca, A. S., and Bernardo-Filho, M. A propolis extract and the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m. Acta Biol Hung 2006;57:191-200. View abstract.
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  65. Kuo, H. C., Kuo, W. H., Lee, Y. J., Wang, C. J., and Tseng, T. H. Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 10-1-2006;216:80-88. View abstract.
  66. Speciale, A., Costanzo, R., Puglisi, S., Musumeci, R., Catania, M. R., Caccamo, F., and Iauk, L. Antibacterial activity of propolis and its active principles alone and in combination with macrolides, beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones against microorganisms responsible for respiratory infections. J Chemother. 2006;18:164-171. View abstract.
  67. Suzuki, T., Nishimaki-Mogami, T., Kawai, H., Kobayashi, T., Shinozaki, Y., Sato, Y., Hashimoto, T., Asakawa, Y., Inoue, K., Ohno, Y., Hayakawa, T., and Kawanishi, T. Screening of novel nuclear receptor agonists by a convenient reporter gene assay system using green fluorescent protein derivatives. Phytomedicine 2006;13:401-411. View abstract.
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  69. Scifo, C., Milasi, A., Guarnera, A., Sinatra, F., and Renis, M. Resveratrol and propolis extract: an insight into the morphological and molecular changes induced in DU145 cells. Oncol Res 2006;15:409-421. View abstract.
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  71. Russo, A., Troncoso, N., Sanchez, F., Garbarino, J. A., and Vanella, A. Propolis protects human spermatozoa from DNA damage caused by benzo[a]pyrene and exogenous reactive oxygen species. Life Sci 2-23-2006;78:1401-1406. View abstract.
  72. Orsolic, N., Saranovic, A. B., and Basic, I. Direct and indirect mechanism(s) of antitumour activity of propolis and its polyphenolic compounds. Planta Med 2006;72:20-27. View abstract.
  73. Pisco, L., Kordian, M., Peseke, K., Feist, H., Michalik, D., Estrada, E., Carvalho, J., Hamilton, G., Rando, D., and Quincoces, J. Synthesis of compounds with antiproliferative activity as analogues of prenylated natural products existing in Brazilian propolis. Eur J Med Chem 2006;41:401-407. View abstract.
  74. Freitas, S. F., Shinohara, L., Sforcin, J. M., and Guimaraes, S. In vitro effects of propolis on Giardia duodenalis trophozoites. Phytomedicine 2006;13:170-175. View abstract.
  75. Bestwick, C. S. and Milne, L. Influence of galangin on HL-60 cell proliferation and survival. Cancer Lett 11-8-2006;243:80-89. View abstract.
  76. Azad, A. A. Novel drugs and vaccines based on the structure and function of HIV pathogenic proteins including Nef. Ann N Y.Acad Sci 2005;1056:279-292. View abstract.
  77. Montoro, A., Almonacid, M., Serrano, J., Saiz, M., Barquinero, J. F., Barrios, L., Verdu, G., Perez, J., and Villaescusa, J. I. Assessment by cytogenetic analysis of the radioprotection properties of propolis extract. Radiat.Prot.Dosimetry. 2005;115(1-4):461-464. View abstract.
  78. Ozkul, Y., Silici, S., and Eroglu, E. The anticarcinogenic effect of propolis in human lymphocytes culture. Phytomedicine 2005;12:742-747. View abstract.
  79. Cushnie, T. P. and Lamb, A. J. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob.Agents 2005;26:343-356. View abstract.
  80. Santos, V. R., Pimenta, F. J., Aguiar, M. C., do Carmo, M. A., Naves, M. D., and Mesquita, R. A. Oral candidiasis treatment with Brazilian ethanol propolis extract. Phytother Res 2005;19:652-654. View abstract.
  81. Gulbahar, O., Ozturk, G., Erdem, N., Kazandi, A. C., and Kokuludag, A. Psoriasiform contact dermatitis due to propolis in a beekeeper. Ann.Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005;94:509-511. View abstract.
  82. Imhof, M., Lipovac, M., Kurz, Ch, Barta, J., Verhoeven, H. C., and Huber, J. C. Propolis solution for the treatment of chronic vaginitis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2005;89:127-132. View abstract.
  83. Black, R. J. Vulval eczema associated with propolis sensitization from topical therapies treated successfully with pimecrolimus cream. Clin Exp.Dermatol. 2005;30:91-92. View abstract.
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