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Granada


¿Qué es?

La granada es un árbol. Diversas partes del árbol y los frutos se utilizan para elaborar medicamentos.

La granada se utiliza para muchas afecciones, pero hasta el momento, no hay suficiente evidencia científica para poder evaluar si es eficaz para alguna de ellas. Sabemos, eso si, que la granada no parece ser eficaz para reducir los síntomas de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) o para mejorar la respiración en las personas con esta enfermedad.

La granada se usa para afecciones del corazón y los vasos sanguíneos, que incluyen la presión arterial alta, la insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva (ICC), el ataque al corazón, el “endurecimiento de las arterias” (arterioesclerosis) y el colesterol alto. También se utiliza para trastornos del tracto digestivo, que incluyen diarrea, disentería, la tenia y otros parásitos intestinales.

Algunas personas usan la granada para la influenza, la inflamación de la mucosa de la boca (estomatitis), para las enfermedades de las encías, la disfunción eréctil (DE), para la diabetes y una complicación llamada acidosis, para el sangrado y la enfermedad del SIDA. También se utiliza para prevenir el cáncer de próstata, para la obesidad y para la pérdida de peso. Algunas mujeres usan la granada para producir un aborto.

La granada se usa como gárgaras para los dolores de garganta y se aplica a la piel para el tratamiento de las hemorroides.

La granada (Punica granatum) es una especie única en las plantas. La única otra planta que está cercanamente relacionada a ella es un pequeño árbol que crece solamente en una isla en Yemen.

La granada ha sido utilizada por miles de años para el tratamiento de una gran variedad de enfermedades. Se encuentra presente en la mitología y escrituras Griegas, Hebreas, Budistas, Islámicas y Cristianas. Su uso para el tratamiento de la tenia y otros parásitos ha sido descrito en registros que datan alrededor de los años 1500 AC.

En muchas culturas se usa la granada como una medicina popular. La granada es nativa de Irán. Se cultiva principalmente en los países Mediterráneos, en algunas partes de los Estados Unidos, en Afganistán, Rusia, India, China y Japón. Se puede ver la granada en el escudo de armas de la realeza y de los médicos.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • La enfermedad pulmonar crónica (la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica EPOC). El beber jugo de granada no parece mejorar los síntomas o la respiración de las personas con EPOC.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • El colesterol alto (hiperlipidemia). Algunos estudios muestran que la granada parece bajar el colesterol total y el colesterol “malo.” Pero otros estudios no encuentran ningún beneficio.
  • La presión arterial alta (hipertensión). Un estudio de investigación sugiere que el tomar 50 ml de jugo de granada diarios por hasta un año puede bajar la presión arterial sistólica (el número de arriba) en un 5% a 21%. Pero el tomar jugo de granada no parece afectar la presión diastólica (el número de abajo). Otras investigaciones, sin embargo, muestran que el tomar 240 ml diarios de jugo de granada por hasta 3 meses no produce ningún efecto en la presión sanguínea en los sujetos estudiados. Es necesario llevar a cabo más investigaciones para poder aclarar esto.
  • El “endurecimiento de las arterias” (arterioesclerosis). La evidencia preliminar sugiere que el tomar jugo de granada podría ayudar a mantener las arterias en el cuello (arterias carótidas) libres de depósitos de grasa.
  • Las enfermedades de las encías. Hay cierta evidencia de que el pintar las encías con extracto de la cáscara de granada en combinación con gotu cola podría mejorar las enfermedades de las encías.
  • El cáncer de próstata. Los resultados de investigaciones preliminares sugieren que el beber jugo de granada podría retardar el progreso del cáncer de próstata.
  • Las enfermedades del corazón. Algunas investigaciones preliminares muestran que el tomar jugo de granada podría mejorar el flujo de sangre al corazón. Pero el tomar jugo de granada no parece prevenir el estrechamiento de los vasos sanguíneos (estenosis). Además, no hay suficiente información para determinar si el tomar jugo de granada ayuda a prevenir los problemas cardiacos tales como un ataque al corazón.
  • Las infestaciones intestinales con gusanos.
  • La obesidad y la pérdida de peso.
  • Las infecciones de hongos en la boca.
  • La diarrea.
  • La disentería.
  • El dolor de garganta.
  • Las hemorroides.
  • Los síntomas de la menopausia.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para aprobar a la granada para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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La granada contiene una variedad de sustancias químicas que podrían tener efectos antioxidantes. Algunas investigaciones preliminares sugieren que las sustancias químicas en el jugo de granada podrían retardar la progresión de la arterioesclerosis (endurecimiento de las arterias) y posiblemente atacar las células cancerígenas. Pero no se sabe si la granada tiene estos efectos cuando la gente bebe el jugo de granada.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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El jugo de granada es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO para la mayoría de las personas. La mayoría de la gente no sufre efectos secundarios. Algunas personas pueden tener reacciones alérgicas al jugo de granada.

La granada se considera POSIBLEMENTE SEGURA cuando se aplica sobre la piel o las encías. Algunas personas han experimentado sensibilidad a la granada. Esta puede incluir comezón, hinchazón, romadizo y dificultad para respirar.

La raíz y los tallos de la granada POSIBLEMENTE NO SON SEGUROS cuando se toma por vía oral. La raíz contiene un veneno.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: El jugo de granada es POSIBLEMENTE SEGURO para las mujeres que están embarazadas y amamantando. Pero no se sabe si los otros productos de granada, tal como el extracto de granada, son seguros. Si usted usa granada, consuma solo el jugo de granada mientras esté embarazada o amamantando. Consulte primero con su proveedor de atención médica.

Alergia a las plantas: Las personas que tienen alergias a las plantas tienen una mayor probabilidad de tener una reacción alérgica a la granada.

Cirugía: La granada podría afectar la presión arterial. Esto podría interferir con el control de la presión arterial durante y después de una cirugía. Deje de tomar granada por lo menos 2 semanas antes de una cirugía.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Carbamazepina (Tegretol)
La carbamazepina (Tegretol) es descompuesta por el cuerpo. El tomar granada podría disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone la carbamazepina (Tegretol). Esto podría aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de la carbamazepina (Tegretol).

Medicamentos modificados por el cuerpo (Sustratos del citocromo P450 2C9 (CYP2C9))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el cuerpo. La granada podría disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone algunos de los medicamentos. El tomar granada junto con estos medicamentos que son alterados por el cuerpo podría aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de su medicamento. Antes de tomar granada hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que pueden ser alterados por el cuerpo.

Algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el cuerpo incluyen celecoxib (Celebrex), dicloflenac (Voltaren), fluvastatina (Lescol), glipizida (Glucotrol), ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), fenitoina (Dilantin), piroxicam (feldene), tamoxifeno (Nolvadex), tolbutamida (Tolinase), torsemida (Demadex) y S warfarina (Coumadin).

Medicamentos modificados por el cuerpo (Sustratos del citocromo P450 2D6 (CYP2D6))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el cuerpo. La granada podría disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone algunos de los medicamentos. El tomar granada junto con otros medicamentos que son alterados por el cuerpo puede aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Antes de tomar granada hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que son modificados por el cuerpo.

Algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el cuerpo incluyen amitriptilina (Elavil), codeina, desipramina (Norpramin), flecainida (Tambocor), fluoxetina (Prozac), ondansetron (Zofran), tramadol (Ultram) y otros.

Medicamentos modificados por el cuerpo (Sustratos del citocromo P450 3A4 (CYP3A4))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el cuerpo. El tomar jugo de granada podría disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone algunos medicamentos. El tomar jugo de granada junto con medicamentos que son descompuestos por el cuerpo podría aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Antes de tomar granada hable con su proveedor de atención médica si está tomando medicamentos que son modificados por el cuerpo.

Algunos medicamentos que son modificados por el cuerpo incluyen amlodipina (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem), verapamil (Verelan, Calan, otros), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir), saquinavir (Invirase), alfentanil (Alfenta), fentanil (Sublimaze), midazolam (Versed), ondansetron (Zofran), propranolol (Inderal) y muchos otros.

Medicamentos para la presión arterial alta (Fármacos antihipertensivos)
La granada parece bajar la presión arterial. El tomar jugo de granada junto con medicamentos para la presión arterial alta podría bajar demasiado la presión arterial.

Algunos medicamentos para la presión arterial alta incluyen captopril (Capoten), enalaprila (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipina (Norvasc), hydroclorotiazida (HydroDiuril), furosemida (Lasix) y muchos otros.

Medicamentos para la presión arterial alta (Inhibidores de la ECA)
El jugo de granada parece bajar la presión arterial. El tomar jugo de granada junto con medicamentos para la presión arterial alta podría bajar demasiado la presión arterial.

Algunos de los medicamentos para la presión arterial alta incluyen captoprila (Capoten), enalaprila (Vasotec), lisinoprila (Prinivil, Zestril), ramiprila (Altace) y otros.

Rosuvastatina (Crestor)
La rosuvastatina (Crestor) es descompuesta por el cuerpo en el hígado. El tomar jugo de granada podría disminuir la rapidez con que el hígado descompone la rosuvastatina (Crestor). Esto podría aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de la rosuvastatina (Crestor).

Tolbutamida (Orinase)
La tolbutamida (Orinase) es descompuesta por el cuerpo. El tomar granada podría disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone la tolbutamida (Orinase). Esto podría aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de la tolbutamida (Orinase).

Warfarina (Coumadin)
La warfarina (Coumadin) es descompuesta por el cuerpo. El tomar granada podría disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone la warfarina (Coumadin). Esto podría aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de la warfarina (Coumadin).

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Hierbas y suplementos que podrían bajar la presión sanguínea
La granada parece bajar la presión arterial. El tomar granada junto con otras hierbas y suplementos que podrían bajar la presión arterial podría bajar demasiado la presión arterial. Algunos de estos productos incluyen la salvia miltiorrhiza, el jengibre, el ginseng Panax, la cúrcuma, la valeriana y otras.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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La dosis apropiada de granada depende de muchos factores tales como la edad de la persona, el estado de salud y varias otras condiciones. En este momento no hay suficiente información científica para determinar un rango de dosis apropiado para el uso de la granada. Tenga en mente que los productos naturales no son siempre necesariamente seguros y las dosis pueden ser importantes. Asegúrese de seguir las instrucciones en las etiquetas de los productos y consulte con su farmacéutico o doctor u otro proveedor de salud médica antes de usarla.

Otros nombres

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Anardana, Dadim, Dadima, Extrait de Feuille de Grenade, Extrait de Grenade, Extrait de Polyphénol de Grenade, Feuille de Grenade, Fleur de Grenade, Fruit du Grenadier, Fruit of the Dead, Grenade, Grenadier, PE, PLE, Pomegranate Extract, Pomegranate Flower, Pomegranate Fruit, Pomegranate Leaf, Pomegranate Leaf Extract, Pomegranate Polyphenol Extract, Pomme Grenade, Punica granatum, Roma, Shi Liu Gen Pi, Shi Liu Pi.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Granada, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/392.html.
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Página actualizada 08 septiembre 2014