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Sen


¿Qué es?

El sen es un arbusto. Las hojas y el fruto de la planta se usan para hacer las medicinas.

El sen es un laxante aprobado por la FDA para la venta sin receta médica. Se utiliza para tratar el estreñimiento y también para limpiar el intestino antes de las pruebas de diagnóstico tales como la colonoscopia.

El sen también se utiliza para el síndrome del intestino irritable (SII), las hemorroides y para la pérdida de peso.

El fruto del sen parece ejercer un efecto más suave que la hoja del sen. Esto ha llevado a la Asociación Americana de Productos Herbales (AHPA) a dar una advertencia en contra del uso a largo plazo de la hoja de sen, pero no del fruto de sen. La AHPA recomienda que los productos de hoja de sen sean etiquetados como "No utilice este producto si usted tiene dolor abdominal o diarrea. Consulte a un médico antes de usar si está embarazada o amamantando. Suspenda su uso en caso de diarrea o deposiciones acuosas. No exceda la dosis recomendada. No es para el uso a largo plazo."

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • El estreñimiento. El tomar sen por vía oral es eficaz para el tratamiento a corto plazo del estreñimiento. El sen es un medicamento aprobado por la FDA para la venta libre (sin receta médica) para los adultos y niños mayores de 2 años. Sin embargo, para los niños de 3-15 años el aceite mineral y un medicamento llamado lactulosa pueden ser más eficaces. En las personas de edad avanzada, el sen más psyllium son más eficaces que la lactulosa para el tratamiento del estreñimiento.

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • La preparación del intesto antes de la colonoscopia. El tomar sen por vía oral podría ser eficaz para la limpieza intestinal antes de la colonoscopia; sin embargo, el fosfato de sodio o el glicol de polietileno son más eficaces.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Las hemorroides.
  • El síndrome del intestino irritable.
  • La pérdida de peso.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesitan más pruebas para poder evaluar la eficacia del sen para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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El sen contiene muchas substancias químicas conocidas como senósidos. Los senósidos irritan el revestimiento del intestino lo que produce un efecto laxante.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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El sen PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURO para la mayoría de los adultos y niños mayores de 2 años de edad cuando se utiliza a corto plazo. El sen es un medicamento de venta libre aprobado por la FDA. El sen puede causar algunos efectos secundarios como malestar estomacal, calambres y diarrea.

No utilice sen por más de dos semanas. El uso prolongado puede hacer que el intestino deje de funcionar normalmente y puede producir una dependencia al uso de laxantes. El uso a largo plazo también puede cambiar la cantidad o el equilibrio de algunas sustancias químicas en la sangre (electrolitos) que pueden causar trastornos en el funcionamiento del corazón, debilidad muscular, daño al hígado y otros efectos nocivos.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: El sen POSIBLEMENTE ES SEGURO durante el embarazo y la lactancia cuando se utiliza a corto plazo. POSIBLEMENTE NO ES SEGURO cuando se usa a largo plazo o en dosis altas. A largo plazo, el uso frecuente, o el uso de dosis altas se ha relacionado con efectos secundarios graves que incluyen la dependencia a los laxantes y daño hepático.

Aunque pequeñas cantidades de sen se excretan en la leche materna, no parece ser un problema para los bebés que están amamantando. Siempre que la madre lo utilice en las cantidades recomendadas, el sen no produce cambios en la frecuencia o consistencia de las heces de los bebés.

Desequilibrios electrolíticos, deficiencia de potasio: El uso excesivo de sen puede empeorar estas afecciones.

Deshidratación, diarrea o deposiciones blandas: El sen no debe utilizarse en las personas con deshidratación, diarrea o deposiciones blandas. Puede empeorar estas afecciones.

Trastornos gastrointestinales (GI): El sen no debe ser utilizado por personas con dolor abdominal (diagnosticado o no), obstrucción intestinal, enfermedad de Crohn, colitis ulcerosa, apendicitis, inflamación del estómago, prolapso anal o hemorroides.

Enfermedades del corazón: El sen puede producir trastornos electrolíticos y puede empeorar las enfermedades cardíacas.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Digoxina (Lanoxin)
El sen es un tipo de laxante llamado laxante estimulante. Los laxantes estimulantes pueden disminuir los niveles de potasio en el cuerpo. Los niveles bajos de potasio pueden aumentar los efectos secundarios de la digoxina (Lanoxin).

Diuréticos (Medicamentos diuréticos)
El sen es un laxante. Algunos laxantes pueden disminuir el potasio en el cuerpo. Las "píldoras de agua" también puede disminuir el potasio en el cuerpo. El tomar sen junto con "píldoras de agua" podría disminuir demasiado el nivel de potasio en el cuerpo.

Algunos "píldoras de agua" que pueden disminuir el potasio incluyen clorotiazida (Diuril), clortalidona (Thalitone), furosemida (Lasix), hidroclorotiazida (HCTZ, Hydrodiuril, Microzide) y otras.

Warfarina (Coumadin)
El sen puede funcionar como un laxante. En algunas personas el sena puede producir diarrea. La diarrea puede aumentar los efectos de la warfarina y aumentar el riesgo de sangrado. Si usted toma warfarina, no tome cantidades excesivas de sen.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Equiseto
Existe la preocupación de que el usar sen junto con equiseto podría aumentar la probabilidad de que los niveles de potasio en el cuerpo bajen demasiado.

Hierbas laxantes estimulantes
Existe la preocupación de que el utilizar sen junto con hierbas laxantes estimulantes podría aumentar la probabilidad de que los niveles de potasio en el cuerpo bajen demasiado. Las hierbas laxantes estimulantes incluyen el aloe, el espino cerval, la leptandra, el lirio azul, la corteza de nogal, el coloquíntido, el espino cerval europeo, el fo ti, la garcinia, el gosipol, la correhuela mayor, la jalapa, el maná, la raíz de la escamonea mexicana, el ruibarbo, el sen y la lengua de vaca.

Regaliz
Existe la preocupación de que el utilizar sen junto con regaliz podría aumentar la probabilidad de que los niveles de potasio en el cuerpo bajen demasiado.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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La siguiente dosis ha sido estudiada en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:

El sen está aprobado por la FDA como un medicamento de venta libre (OTC).
  • Para el estreñimiento en los adultos y niños mayores de 12 años: La dosis habitual es de 17,2 mg al día. No tome más de 34,4 mg por día.
  • Para el estreñimiento en los niños: Se han usado 8,5 mg al día y se puede aumentar solo la cantidad necesaria para provocar un movimiento intestinal al día.
  • Para la constipación en las personas de edad: Se han utilizado 17 mg al día.
  • Para el estreñimiento después del embarazo: Se han utilizado 28 mg en 2 dosis divididas.

Otros nombres

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Alexandrian Senna, Alexandrinische Senna, Casse, Cassia acutifolia, Cassia angustifolia, Cassia lanceolata, Cassia senna, Fan Xie Ye, Indian Senna, Khartoum Senna, Sena Alejandrina, Séné, Séné d'Alexandrie, Séné d'Egypte, Séne d’Inde, Séné de Tinnevelly, Senna alexandrina, Sennae Folium, Sennae Fructus, Sennosides, Tinnevelly Senna, True Senna.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Sen, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/652.html.
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