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SAMe

¿Qué es?

SAMe es una sustancia química que se encuentra en forma natural en el cuerpo.También se puede hacer en el laboratorio.

SAMe ha estado disponible como un suplemento dietético en los Estados Unidos desde 1999, pero ha sido usado como un medicamento, que se vende bajo receta médica, en Italia desde 1979, en España desde 1985, y en Alemania desde 1989. Los investigadores descubrieron accidentalmente la posible utilidad del SAMe para el tratamiento de la osteoartritis. Mientras estaban estudiando el efecto del SAMe en la depresión los pacientes que eran parte del estudio reportaron una mejoría inesperada en sus síntomas de osteoartritis.

SAMe se usa para la depresión, las enfermedades del corazón, la fibromialgia, la osteoartritis, la bursitis, la tendonitis, el dolor de espalda crónico, la demencia, la enfermedad de Alzheimer, para retardar el proceso de envejecimiento, para el síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC), para mejorar el rendimiento intelectual, para la enfermedad hepática, y la enfermedad de Parkinson. También se usa para el trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), la esclerosis múltiple, el daño a la médula espinal, las convulsiones, los dolores de cabeza de migraña, y para el envenenamiento por plomo.

Algunas mujeres usan SAMe para el síndrome premenstrual (SPM) y para una forma más severa del SPM llamado trastorno disfórico premenstrual (TDPM).

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • Depresión. El tomar SAMe por vía oral o el usarlo por vía inyectable parece disminuir los síntomas de la depresión. Muchos estudios han demostrado que el SAMe podría ser beneficioso y podría ser tan eficaz como algunos medicamentos de venta bajo receta médica (antidepresivos tricíclicos). Algunas investigaciones también muestran que el tomar SAMe podría ayudar a las personas que no han respondido bien a un medicamento antidepresivo de venta bajo receta médica. Sin embargo, el SAMe no debería ser tomado en combinación con un antidepresivo, de venta bajo receta médica, sin la supervisión de un profesional de la salud.
  • Artrosis. La ingesta de SAMe parece funcionar tan bien como la aspirina y medicamentos similares, pero puede tardar el doble en comenzar a hacer efecto. La mayoría de las personas con artritis necesita ingerir SAMe durante aproximadamente un mes antes de comenzar a sentirse bien.

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Síntomas de problemas nerviosos relacionados con el SIDA. El uso del SAMe por vía intravenosa parece mejorar algunos síntomas causados por el SIDA y relacionados con problemas nerviosos.
  • Fibromialgia. Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta de SAMe mejora los síntomas de la fibromialgia. Sin embargo, no es consistente la evidencia del uso del SAMe por vía intravenosa para tratar la fibromialgia. Cierta investigación sugiere que podría disminuir los síntomas, mientras que otra no.
  • Trastornos hepáticos durante el embarazo (colestasis intrahepática). El uso de SAMe por vía oral o intravenosa parece ser beneficioso para el tratamiento de la enfermedad hepática durante el embarazo.
  • Disfunción sexual. La investigación sugiere que la ingesta de SAMe y antidepresivos mejoran la disfunción sexual en mujeres con depresión.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Enfermedad hepática relacionada con el alcohol. Es inconsistente la evidencia sobre la efectividad del uso del SAMe para el tratamiento de la enfermedad hepática relacionada con el alcohol. Cierta investigación preliminar muestra que el uso de SAMe por vía oral o intravenosa reduce algunos síntomas asociados con la enfermedad hepática, como la ictericia y la inflamación en el tobillo. No obstante, no afecta ciertas pruebas de función hepática o no disminuye la tasa de mortalidad ni las complicaciones.
  • Trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH /ADHD). No es clara la investigación sobre los efectos del SAMe en personas con TDAH. Cierta investigación preliminar sugiere que el SAMe podría reducir los síntomas del TDAH en adultos. No obstante, otra investigación sugiere que no mejor los síntomas.
  • Síndrome de Gilbert. La investigación preliminar sugiere que el uso de SAMe por vía oral o intravenosa podría ayudar al hígado a procesar una sustancia llamada bilirrubina.
  • Hepatitis. No está claro el efecto del SAMe en personas con hepatitis. Cierta investigación preliminar sugiere que el uso de SAMe por vía oral o intravenosa mejora la función hepática en personas con hepatitis.
  • Enfermedad hepática (cirrosis). Es inconsistente la evidencia sobre la efectividad del uso del SAMe para el tratamiento de la cirrosis. Cierta investigación preliminar sugiere que el uso de SAMe por vía oral o intravenosa mejora la función hepática en personas con cirrosis.
  • Esquizofrenia. Cierta investigación preliminar sugiere que el SAMe podría mejorar el comportamiento agresivo en personas con esquizofrenia.
  • Infección de la sangre (Septicemia). Cierta investigación preliminar muestra que la ingesta de SAMe junto con un tratamiento convencional reduce el periodo de recuperación por septicemia.
  • Dejar de fumar. La investigación preliminar sugiere que el SAMe no ayuda a dejar de fumar.
  • Enfermedades del corazón.
  • Ansiedad.
  • Bursitis.
  • Tendinitis.
  • Dolor de espalda crónico.
  • Mejorar la inteligencia.
  • Síndrome premenstrual (SPM).
  • Trastorno disfórico premenstrual (TDPM).
  • Síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC).
  • Esclerosis múltiple.
  • Daño a la médula espinal.
  • Convulsiones.
  • Dolores de cabeza de migraña.
  • Otras condiciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para aprobar al SAMe para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

El cuerpo usa SAMe para hacer ciertas sustancias químicas en el cuerpo que tienen que ver con el dolor, la depresión, la enfermedad hepática y otras condiciones. La gente que no produce suficiente SAMe, naturalmente, puede recibir ayuda tomando un suplemento de SAMe.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

El SAMe es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO para la mayoría de la gente. A veces puede producir gas, vómitos, diarrea, estreñimiento, sequedad de la boca, dolor de cabeza, insomnio leve, anorexia, sudor, mareos, y nerviosismo, especialmente con dosis altas. Puede producir ansiedad en algunas personas con depresión.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: No se sabe lo suficiente sobre el uso del SAMe durante el embarazo y la lactancia. Sea precavida y evite su uso.

Niños: El SAMe es POSIBLEMETE SEGURO cuando se lo usa por vía oral o intravenosa en niños durante un corto plazo.

Trastorno bipolar: El uso del SAMe por las personas con trastorno bipolar puede hacerlas cambiar de un estado de depresión a manía.

Enfermedad de Parkinson: El SAMe podría empeorar los síntomas de la enfermedad de Parkinson.

Cirugía: El SAMe podría afectar el sistema nervioso central. Esto podría interferir con la cirugía. Deje de tomar SAMe por lo menos 2 semanas antes de un procedimiento quirúrgico.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Serias
No tome esta combinación
Dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros)
SAMe puede afectar una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. El dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros) también puede afectar a la serotonina. El tomar SAMe junto con dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros) puede resultar en la presencia de mucha serotonina en el cerebro lo que puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen problemas al corazón, escalofríos, y ansiedad. No tome SAMe si está tomando dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros).
Medicamentos para la depresión (Drogas antidepresivas)
SAMe aumenta una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. Algunos medicamentos para la depresión también aumentan la serotonina . El tomar SAMe junto con estos medicamentos para la depresión puede aumentar demasiado el nivel de serotonina y puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen problemas al corazón, escalofríos, y ansiedad. No tome SAMe si está tomando medicamentos para la depresión.

Algunos de estos medicamentos para la depresión incluyen fluoxetina (Prozac), paroxetina (Paxil), sertralina (Zoloft), amitriptilina (Elavil), clomipramine (anafranil), imipramina (Tofranil), y otros.
Medicamentos para la depresión (MAOIs)
SAMe aumenta una sustancia química en el cerebro. Esta sustancia química se llama serotonina. Algunos medicamentos para la depresión también aumentan la serotonina. El tomar SAMe junto con estos medicamentos para la depresión puede aumentar demasiado el nivel de serotonina y puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen problemas al corazón, escalofríos, y ansiedad.

Algunos de estos medicamentos usados para la depresión incluyen fenelzina (Nardil), tranilcipromina (Parnate), y otros.
Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Levodopa
La levodopa se usa para la enfermedad de Parkinson. SAMe puede cambiar la levodopa en el cuerpo y disminuir la eficacia de la levodopa. El tomar SAMe junto con levodopa puede empeorar los síntomas de la enfermedad de Parkinson. No tome SAMe si está tomando levodopa.
Meperidina (Demerol)
SAMe aumenta una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. La meperidina (Demerol) puede también aumentar el nivel de serotonina en el cerebro. El tomar SAMe junto con meperidina (Demerol) puede resultar en demasiada serotonina en el cerebro y puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen problemas al corazón, escalofríos, y ansiedad.
Pentazocina (Talwin)
SAMe aumenta una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. La pentazocina (Talwin) también aumenta la serotonina. El tomar SAMe junto con pentazocina (Talwin) podría producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen problemas al corazón, escalofríos, y ansiedad. No tome SAMe si está tomando pentazocina (Talwin).
Tramadol (Ultram)
El tramadol (Ultram) puede afectar una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. SAMe también afecta la serotonina. El tomar SAMe junto con tramadol (Ultram) puede aumentar demasiado el nivel de serotonina y puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen confusión, escalofríos, rigidez muscular, y otros efectos secundarios.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Hierbas y suplementos con propiedades similares a la serotonina
SAMe aumenta una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. El tomar SAMe junto con otras hierbas y suplementos que aumentan la serotonina puede aumentar demasiado el nivel de serotonina y puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen problemas al corazón, escalofríos, y ansiedad. Las hierbas y suplementos que aumentan los niveles de serotonina incluyen al 5-hidroxitriptofano (5-HTP), a la enredadera elefanta, y a la Hierba de San Juan.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

La siguiente dosis se ha estudiado en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para la depresión: 400-1600 mg por día.
  • Para la osteoartritis: 200 mg tres veces al día.
  • Para la fibromialgia: 800 mg po día.

Otros nombres

Ademetionine, Adenosylmethionine, Adénosylméthionine, S-Adenosyl Methionine, S-Adénosyl Méthionine, S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine, S-Adénosyl-L-Méthionine, S-Adenosylmethionine, S-Adénosylméthionine, S-Adenosylmethionine Butanedisulfonate, S-Adenosylmethionine Tosylate, S-Adenosylmethionine Tosylate Disulfate, SAM, SAM-e, Sammy.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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