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5-HTP

¿Qué es?

El 5-HTP (5-Hidroxitriptofano) es una sustancia química subproducto del l-trip-tofano, componente de las proteínas. También se produce comercialmente a partir de las semillas de una planta Africana (Griffonia simplicifolia).

No use 5-HTP hasta que no se sepa más sobre él. El 5-HTP puede no ser seguro de tomar. Algunas personas que lo han tomado han terminado con el síndrome de eosinofilia y mialgia (EMS), una enfermedad muy seria que involucra mucha sensibilidad de los músculos (mialgia) y anormalidades en la sangre (eosinofilia). Algunas personas piensan que el EMS puede ser causado por un ingrediente presente por accidente (contaminante) en algunos productos de 5-HTP. Pero no hay suficiente evidencia científica para saber si el EMS es causado por el 5-HTP, un contaminante u otro factor. Hasta que no se sepa más evite tomar 5-HTP.

El 5-HTP se usa para el tratamiento de los trastornos del sueño, la depresión, las migrañas y dolores de cabeza tensionales, la fibromialgia, la ingestión excesiva de alimentos asociada con la obesidad, el síndrome premenstrual (SPM), el trastorno disfórico premenstrual (TDPM), el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) y junto con medicamentos que se venden con receta médica para tratar trastornos con convulsiones y la enfermedad de Parkinson.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Depresión. La investigación muestra que la ingesta de 5-HTP por vía oral mejora los síntomas de la depresión. Varios estudios han descubierto que dosis de 50-3000 mg por día durante 2/4 semanas pueden mejorar los síntomas de la depresión. Cierta investigación preliminar también muestra que el 5-HTP podría ser beneficioso y a la vez un tratamiento convencional antidepresivo.
  • Fibromialgia. El tomar 5-HTP por vía oral parece mejorar los síntomas de la fibromialgia incluyendo la severidad del dolor, la rigidez matutina y el insomnio.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Alcoholismo. La investigación preliminar muestra que la ingesta de 5-HTP con D-fenilalanina y L-glutamina durante 40 días puede reducir los síntomas de la abstinencia al alcohol. No obstante, la ingesta diaria de 5-HTP con carbidopa durante un año no parece ser beneficio para ayudar a las personas a dejar de beber. No es claro el efecto del 5-HTP de manera aislada para tratar el alcoholismo.
  • Enfermedad de Alzheimer. No es clara la evidencia sobre la efectividad del uso de 5-HTP para tratar la ansiedad. La ingesta diaria de hasta 300 mg de 5-HTP junto on carbidopa parece reducir los síntomas de la ansiedad en personas con trastornos de la ansiedad. No obstante, la ingesta de hasta 60 mg de 5-HTP por día por vía intravenosa no reduce los síntomas de la ansiedad en personas con ataques de pánico.
  • Trastornos del sistema nervioso (Ataxia cerebelosa). No es clara la evidencia del uso del 5-HTP para tratar la ataxia. La investigación preliminar muestra que la ingesta de 5 mg/kg de 5-HTP por día durante 4 meses puede reducir la disfunción del sistema nervioso. No obstante, otra investigación muestra que la ingesta diaria de 5-HTP durante hasta un año no mejora los síntomas de la ataxia cerebelosa.
  • Síndrome de Down. La ingesta de 2 mg/kg of 5-HTP por día durante 3 años no mejora los movimientos musculares, las habilidades sociales o el desarrollo intelectual de los recién nacidos con síndrome de Down.
  • Cefalea. No es clara la evidencia del uso del 5-HTP para prevenir o tratar los síntomas de la cefalea. Cierta investigación muestra que la ingesta de 5-HTP por vía puede reducir los síntomas de la cefalea en niños con cefalea. No obstante, otros estudios muestran que el 5-HTP no reduce la cantidad o gravedad de la cefalea
  • Insomnio. La ingesta de una fórmula de aminoácidos (Gabadone) con ácido gamma-aminobutírico (GABA) y 5-HTP parece ayudar a las personas con trastornos del sueño a conciliar el sueño más rápido y a dormir más tiempo. No es claro el efecto del 5-HTP de manera aislada para tratar problemas de sueño.
  • Síntomas menopáusicos. La ingesta de hasta 150 mg de 5-HTP por día durante 4 semanas no reduce los sofocos en las mujeres menopáusicas.
  • Cefalea migrañosa. No es clara la evidencia sobre la los efectos del uso de 5-HTP para prevenir o tratar las migrañas en adultos. Algunos estudios muestran que la ingesta diaria de 5-HTP no reduce las migrañas, mientras que otros estudios muestran que podría ser beneficioso como medicamento recetado. El 5-HTP no parece reducir las migrañas en niños
  • .
  • Obesidad. La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de 5-HTP podría ayudar a disminuir el apetito, la ingesta calórica y peso en las personas obesas.
  • Espasmos musculares en la boca (mioclonía palatal). La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de 5-HTP por vía oral podría reducir los espasmos musculares en personas con mioclonía palatal.
  • Síndrome premenstrual (SPM).
  • El trastorno disfórico premenstrual (TDPM).
  • Trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH).
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para evaluar el 5-HTP para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

El 5-HTP actúa en el cerebro y el sistema nervioso central aumentando la producción de la sustancia química serotonina. La serotonina puede afectar el sueño, el apetito, la temperatura, el comportamiento sexual y la sensación de dolor. Puesto que el 5-HTP aumenta la síntesis de serotonina se usa para tratar varias enfermedades en las cuales se piensa que la serotonina juega un papel importante incluyendo la depresión, el insomnio, la obesidad y muchas otras afecciones.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

El 5-HTP ES POSIBLEMENTE SEGURO cuando se ingiere por vía oral. Hay la preocupación de que puede causar un serio efecto secundario llamado síndrome de eosinofilia y mialgia. Algunas personas piensan que este efecto secundario es solamente producido por un contaminante presente en algunos de los productos de 5-HTP; sin embargo no hay suficiente evidencia científica para saber si es causado por el 5-HTP, un contaminante u otro factor. Usar con precaución el 5-HTP hasta tanto no se investigue más.

Otros posibles efectos secundarios del 5-HTP incluyen acidez, dolor estomacal, náusea, vómito, diarrea, somnolencia, problemas sexuales y problemas musculares.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: El 5-HTP NO ES POSIBLEMENTE SEGURO por vía oral durante el embarazo o la lactancia. Evite usarlo.

Síndrome de Down: Hay algunos informes que indican que el 5-HTP ha producido convulsiones en algunas de las personas con el síndrome de Down. En un grupo de estudio, el 15% de las personas con el síndrome de Down que estaban recibiendo un tratamiento a largo plazo con 5-HTP sufrieron convulsiones.

Cirugía. El 5-HTP puede afectar el nivel de una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. Ciertos medicamentos administrados durante la cirugía pueden también afectar la serotonina. La ingesta de 5-HTP antes de la cirugía podría elevar demasiado los niveles de serotonina en el cerebro, lo que podría causar efectos secundarios graves, incluidos problemas cardiacos, escalofríos y ansiedad. Pídale al paciente que suspenda la ingesta de 5-HTP al menos 2 semanas antes de la cirugía.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Serias
No tome esta combinación
Medicamentos para la depresión (Drogas antidepresivas)
El 5-HTP aumenta una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. Algunos medicamentos para la depresión también aumentan la serotonina. El tomar 5-HTP junto con estos medicamentos para la depresión puede aumentar demasiado el nivel de serotonina y puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen problemas al corazón, escalofríos y ansiedad. No tome 5-HTP si está tomando medicamentos para la depresión.

Algunos de estos medicamentos para la depresión incluyen fluoxetina (Prozac), paroxetina (Paxil), sertralina (Zoloft), amitriptilina (Elavil), clomipramine (anafranil), imipramina (Tofranil) y otros.
Medicamentos para la depresión (MAOIs)
EL 5-HTP aumenta una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. Algunos medicamentos para la depresión también aumentan la serotonina. El tomar 5-HTP junto con estos medicamentos para la depresión puede aumentar demasiado el nivel de serotonina y puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen problemas al corazón, escalofríos y ansiedad.

Algunos de estos medicamentos usados para la depresión incluyen fenelzina (Nardil), tranilcipromina (Parnate) y otros.
Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Carbidopa (Lodosyn)
El 5-HTP puede afectar el cerebro. Carbidopa (Lodosyn) puede también afectar el cerebro. El tomar 5-HTP junto con carbidopa puede aumentar el riesgo de efectos secundarios serios tales como hablar muy rápido, ansiedad, agresividad y otros.
Dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros)
El 5-HTP puede afectar una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. El dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros) también puede afectar la serotonina. El tomar 5-HTP junto con dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros) puede resultar en la presencia de mucha serotonina en el cerebro lo que puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen problemas al corazón, escalofríos y ansiedad. No tome 5-HTP si está tomando dextrometorfano (Robitussin DM y otros).
Medicamentos sedantes (depresores del SNC)
La ingesta de 5-HTP podría causar adormecimiento y somnolencia. Los medicamentos que causan adormecimiento se denominan sedantes. La ingesta de 5-HTP junto con sedantes podría causar demasiado adormecimiento.

Ciertos sedantes incluyen clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), fenobarbital (Donnatal) y zolpidem (Ambien) entre otros.
Meperidina (Demerol)
El 5-HTP aumenta una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. La meperidina (Demerol) puede también aumentar el nivel de serotonina en el cerebro. El tomar 5-HTP junto con meperidina (Demerol) puede resultar en demasiada serotonina en el cerebro y puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen problemas al corazón, escalofríos y ansiedad.
Pentazocina (Talwin)
El 5-HTP aumenta una sustancia química llamada serotonina. La pentazocina (Talwin) también aumenta la serotonina. El tomar 5-HTP junto con pentazocina (Talwin) puede aumentar demasiado el nivel de serotonina y puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen problemas al corazón, escalofríos y ansiedad. No tome 5-HTP si está tomando pentazocina (Talwin).
Tramadol (Ultram)
El 5-HTP aumenta el nivel de una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. El tramadol (Ultram) también puede elevar el nivel de una sustancia química en el cerebro llamada serotonina. El 5-HTP también afecta la serotonina. El tomar 5-HTP junto con tramadol (Ultram) puede aumentar demasiado el nivel de serotonina y puede producir serios efectos secundarios que incluyen confusión, escalofríos, rigidez muscular y otros.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Hierbas y suplementos con propiedades relacionadas a la serotonina
El 5-HTP puede aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de los productos que aumentan los niveles de serotonina tales como la enredadera elefanta, el l-triptofano, la adenosilmetionina (SAMe) y la Hierba de San Juan.
Hierbas y suplementos con propiedades relacionadas a la serotonina
El 5-HTP eleva el nivel de un químico cerebral llamada serotonina. La ingesta de 5-HTP junto con otras hierbas y suplementos que aumentan los niveles de serotonina podría conducir a un elevado incremento del nivel de serotonina y causar efectos secundarios graves, incluidos problemas cardiacos, escalofríos y ansiedad. Otras hierbas y suplementos que elevan el nivel de serotonina incluyen la enredadera elefanta, el l-triptofano, la adenosilmetionina (SAMe) y la hierba de San Juan.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

La dosis apropiada del 5-HTP depende de muchos factores tales como la edad de la persona, el estado de salud y varias otras condiciones. En este momento no hay suficiente información científica para determinar un rango de dosis apropiado para el uso del 5-HTP. Tenga en mente que los productos naturales no son siempre necesariamente seguros y las dosis pueden ser importantes. Asegúrese de seguir las instrucciones en las etiquetas de los productos y consulte con su farmacéutico, doctor u otro proveedor de salud médica antes de usarlos.

Otros nombres

5HTP, 5 HTP, 5 Hydroxy-Tryptophan, 5 Hydroxy-Tryptophane, 5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophane, 5-Hydroxy L-Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxy L-Tryptophane, 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxy Tryptophane, 5-L-Hydroxytryptophan, L-5 HTP, L-5 hydroxytryptophan, L-5 Hydroxytryptophane, Oxitriptan.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Documento revisado - 02/18/2015