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Cartílago de tiburón


¿Qué es?

El cartílago de tiburón (tejido elástico resistente que proporciona apoyo, de manera similar a como lo hacen los huesos) que se utiliza en las medicinas proviene principalmente de los tiburones capturados en el Océano Pacífico. Los diferentes tipos de extractos de cartílago de tiburón incluyen el lactato de escualamina, el AE-941 y el U-995.

El cartílago de tiburón es principalmente utilizado para el cáncer, incluyendo un tipo de cáncer llamado sarcoma de Kaposi, que es más común en las personas con infección por VIH. El cartílago de tiburón se utiliza también para la artritis, la psoriasis, la cicatrización de las heridas, los daños a la retina del ojo debido a la diabetes y para la inflamación del intestino (enteritis).

Algunas personas se aplican cartílago de tiburón directamente sobre la piel para la artritis y psoriasis.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Probablemente ineficaz para...

  • Los canceres avanzados - previamente tratados - de mama, de colon, del pulmón, de próstata y del cerebro y para el linfoma no Hodgkin. Sin embargo, no se han publicado estudios del uso del cartílago de tiburón en las personas con cáncer menos avanzado.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • El cáncer de riñón. El tomar el extracto de cartílago de tiburón AE-941 por vía oral parece incrementar la supervivencia en los pacientes con cáncer renal avanzado (carcinoma de las células renales). Este producto tiene la clasificación de "medicamento huérfano" por la FDA para su uso para el carcinoma de las células renales. La ley de los medicamentos huérfanos proporciona incentivos especiales a los fabricantes de medicamentos para estudiar medicamentos que se usan para enfermedades raras.
  • La psoriasis. Las investigaciones en desarrollo sugieren que el AE-941 por vía oral puede mejorar la apariencia y disminuir la picazón de la placas de psoriasis.
  • La osteoartritis. Cuando se aplican a la piel (uso tópico), los productos de cartílago de tiburón en combinación con sulfato de condroitina, sulfato de glucosamina y alcanfor, supuestamente reducen los síntomas de la artritis. Sin embargo, cualquier alivio de los síntomas es más probable se deba al efecto del alcanfor y no a los demás componentes. Además, no hay estudios que demuestren que el cartílago de tiburón es absorbido por la piel.
  • La artritis.
  • Las complicaciones oculares.
  • La cicatrización de las heridas.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesitan más pruebas para poder evaluar la eficacia del cartílago de tiburón para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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El cartílago de tiburón podría ayudar a prevenir el crecimiento de los tumores.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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El cartílago de tiburón POSIBLEMENTE ES SEGURO para la mayoría de la gente cuando se toma en forma adecuada por vía oral por hasta 40 meses o cuando se aplica a la piel por un máximo de ocho semanas.

Puede causar un mal sabor en la boca, náusea, vómito, malestar estomacal, estreñimiento, presión arterial baja, mareos, alto nivel de azúcar en la sangre, niveles altos de calcio y fatiga. Algunos productos tienen un olor y sabor desagradable.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: No se sabe lo suficiente sobre el uso de cartílago de tiburón durante el embarazo y la lactancia. Sea precavida y evite su uso.

Niveles altos de calcio (hipercalcemia): El cartílago de tiburón podría aumentar los niveles de calcio, por lo que no debe ser utilizado por las personas cuyos niveles de calcio ya están demasiado altos.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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No se sabe si este producto interactúa con algún medicamento.

Si está tomando medicamentos, converse con su proveedor de atención médica antes de empezar a tomar este producto.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Calcio
El cartílago de tiburón puede elevar los niveles de calcio. Existe la preocupación de que su uso junto con suplementos de calcio podría aumentar demasiado los niveles de calcio.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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Jugo de frutas
El jugo de frutas ácidas como naranjas, manzanas, uvas o tomates, puede disminuir el efecto del cartílago de tiburón a medida que pasan los minutos una vez que se han mezclado. Si el cartílago de tiburón se añade a un jugo de fruta, se debe tomar de inmediato.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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La dosis adecuada de cartílago de tiburón depende de varios factores como la edad del usuario, la salud y varias otras condiciones. En este momento no hay suficiente información científica para determinar un rango de dosis apropiado para el cartílago de tiburón. Tenga en cuenta que los productos naturales no siempre son necesariamente seguros y las dosis pueden ser importantes. Asegúrese de seguir las instrucciones pertinentes en las etiquetas del producto y consulte con su farmacéutico, médico o profesional de la salud antes de usar.

Otros nombres

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AE-941, Cartilage de Requin, Cartilage de Requin du Pacifique, Collagène Marin, Extrait de Cartilage de Requin, Liquide de Cartilage Marin, Marine Collagen, Marine Liquid Cartilage, MSI-1256F, Neovastat, Pacific Shark Cartilage, Poudre de Cartilage de Requin, Shark Cartilage Powder, Shark Cartilage Extract, Sphyrna lewini, Squalus acanthias.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Cartílago de tiburón, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/909.html.
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