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Algas verdiazul (espirulina)


¿Qué es?

Las “algas verdiazul” describen a un grupo amplio y diverso de simples organismos tipo plantas que se encuentran en el agua salada y algunos lagos de agua dulce.

Los productos de las algas verdiazul se usan para muchos trastornos, pero hasta el momento, no hay suficiente evidencia científica para poder determinar si son o no eficaces para cualquiera de ellos.

Las algas verdiazul se utilizan como una fuente dietética de proteínas, de vitaminas B y de hierro. También se usan para la pérdida de peso, el trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), la fiebre de heno, la diabetes, el estrés, la ansiedad el síndrome premenstrual (SPM) y otros problemas de salud en las mujeres.

Algunas personas utilizan las algas verdiazul para el tratamiento de tumores precancerosos en el interior de la boca, para el fortalecimiento del sistema inmunológico, para mejorar la memoria, para aumentar la energía y el metabolismo, para bajar el colesterol, para prevenir las enfermedades cardíacas, para la cicatrización de las heridas y para mejorar la digestión y la salud intestinal.

Las algas verdiazul se encuentran comúnmente en aguas tropicales o subtropicales que tienen un alto contenido de sal, pero algunos tipos de algas también crecen en lagos grandes de agua dulce. El color natural de estas algas les da un color verde oscuro al agua. Los tipos y mezclas de algas verdiazul que se encuentran en el agua están influenciados dramáticamente por la altitud, temperatura y exposición al sol del lugar donde estas crecen.

Algunos productos de algas verdiazul se cultivan bajo condiciones controladas. Otras se cultivan en su entorno natural, adonde hay más posibilidades de que se contaminen con bacterias, venenos hepáticos (microcistinas) producidos por algunas bacterias, y por metales pesados. Use solamente productos que han sido probados y están libres de estos contaminantes.

Probablemente le han dicho que las algas verdiazul son una excelente fuente de proteínas. Pero, en realidad, las algas verdiazul no son mejores como fuente de proteínas que la carne o la leche y cuestan alrededor de 30 veces más por gramo.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Las heridas precancerosas en la boca (leucoplaquia oral). Investigaciones preliminares muestran que el tomar por vía oral 1 gramo al día de algas verdiazul espirulina (Spirulina fusiformis) por un período de 12 meses disminuye la leucoplaquia oral en las personas que mascan tabaco.
  • La pérdida de peso. Investigaciones hechas hasta el momento muestran que el tomar algas verdiazul espirulina no parece ayudar a disminuir de peso.
  • Tics y contracciones espasmódicas de los párpados (blefarospasmos o síndrome de Beige). Investigación preliminar muestra que el tomar un producto específico de algas verdiazul (Super Blue-Green Algae (SBGA), Cell Tech) por vía oral por 6 meses no disminuye los espasmos de los párpados en las personas con blefarospasmos.
  • El trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH).
  • El síndrome premenstrual (SPM).
  • La diabetes.
  • El sistema inmunológico.
  • La fatiga.
  • La ansiedad.
  • La depresión.
  • La memoria.
  • La energía.
  • El colesterol alto.
  • Las enfermedades cardíacas.
  • La cicatrización de heridas.
  • La digestión.
  • Que sea una fuente dietética de proteínas, vitamina B12 y de hierro.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para aprobar a las algas verdiazul para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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Las algas verdiazul tienen un alto contenido de proteínas, hierro y otros minerales que son absorbidos cuando se toman por vía oral. Las algas verdiazul están siendo investigadas por sus posibles efectos en el sistema inmunológico, la hinchazón (inflamación) y las infecciones virales.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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Los productos de algas verdiazul que están libres de contaminantes - tales como las sustancias llamadas microcistinas que dañan al hígado, los metales tóxicos, y las bacterias nocivas - son POSIBLEMENTE SEGUROS para la mayoría de las personas.

Los productos de algas verdiazul que están contaminados POSIBLEMENTE NO SON SEGUROS, especialmente para los niños. Los niños son más sensibles que los adultos a los productos de algas verdiazul contaminados.

Los productos de algas verdiazul contaminados pueden producir daño hepático, dolor estomacal, nausea, vómitos, debilidad, sed, latidos rápidos del corazón, colapso y muerte. Solo use productos de algas verdiazul que han sido probados y han sido encontrados libres de microcistinas y otros contaminantes.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: No se sabe lo suficiente sobre el uso de las algas verdiazul durante el embarazo y la lactancia. Sea precavida y evite su uso.

“Enfermedades auto-inmunes” tales como la esclerosis múltiple (EM), el lupus (lupus eritematoso sistémico, LES), la artritis reumatoide (AR), el pemphigo vulgaris (un trastorno a la piel) y otras: Las algas verdiazul podrían aumentar la actividad del sistema inmunológico, y esto podría aumentar los síntomas de las enfermedades auto-inmunes. Si tiene cualquiera de estas enfermedades, es mejor evitar tomar algas verdiazul.

Fenilcetonuria: La especie espirulina de las algas verdiazul contienen la sustancia química fenilalanina. Esto podría empeorar la fenilcetonuria. Evite los productos de algas verdiazul espirulina si usted tiene fenilcetonuria.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Medicamentos que debilitan el sistema inmunológico (Inmunosupresores)
Las algas verdiazul podrían aumentar el sistema inmunológico. Al aumentar el sistema inmunológico las algas verdiazul pueden disminuir la eficacia de los medicamentos que debilitan el sistema inmunológico.

Algunos de los medicamentos que debilitan el sistema inmunológico incluyen azatioprina (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), ciclosporina (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), micofenolato (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisona (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroides (glucocorticoids) y otros.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con hierbas y suplementos.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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La dosis apropiada de algas verdiazul depende de muchos factores tales como la edad de la persona, el estado de salud y varias otras condiciones. En este momento no hay suficiente información científica para determinar un rango de dosis apropiado para el uso de las algas verdiazul. Tenga en mente que los productos naturales no son siempre necesariamente seguros y las dosis pueden ser importantes. Asegúrese de seguir las instrucciones en las etiquetas de los productos y consulte con su farmacéutico, doctor u otro proveedor de salud médica antes de usarlos.

Otros nombres

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AFA, Algae, Algues Bleu-Vert, Algues Bleu-Vert du Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira maxima, Arthrospira platensis, BGA, Blue Green Algae, Blue-Green Micro-Algae, Cyanobacteria, Cyanobactérie, Cyanophycée, Dihe, Espirulina, Hawaiian Spirulina, Klamath, Klamath Lake Algae, Lyngbya wollei, Microcystis aeruginosa, Microcystis wesenbergii, Nostoc ellipsosporum, Spirulina Blue-Green Algae, Spirulina Fusiformis, Spirulina maxima, Spirulina platensis, Spirulina pacifica, Spiruline, Spiruline d’Hawaii, Tecuitlatl.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Algas verdiazul (espirulina), por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/923.html.
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