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Arroz de levadura roja


¿Qué es?

El arroz de levadura roja es producto del arroz fermentado con levadura Monascus purpureus. Los suplementos de arroz de levadura roja son diferentes del arroz de levadura roja que se vende en las tiendas de abarrotes Chinas. La gente usa el arroz de levadura roja como un medicamento.

El arroz de levadura roja se utiliza para mantener los niveles deseados de colesterol en las personas que están en buen estado de salud, para reducir el colesterol en las personas con colesterol alto. También se usa para la indigestión, para la diarrea, para mejorar la circulación de la sangre y para mantener la salud del bazo y del estómago.

El arroz de levadura roja se utiliza como un colorante de alimentos para el pato Peking.

El ingrediente activo en el arroz de levadura roja es el mismo ingrediente activo de los medicamentos de venta con receta médica llamados estatinas que se usan para el tratamiento del colesterol alto. Es por eso que el arroz de levadura roja tiene todos los posibles efectos secundarios, las interacciones con otros medicamentos y las precauciones asociadas con este tipo de fármacos. La Asociación Americana del Corazón advierte contra el uso del arroz de levadura roja hasta que no se tengan los resultados de los estudios a largo plazo. Consulte con su proveedor de atención médica si piensa tomar arroz de levadura roja.

Es posible que haya oído hablar de un producto de levadura roja llamado Cholestin, elaborado por Pharmanex. Fue uno de los productos de arroz de levadura roja más estudiado. Originalmente el Cholestin contenía el mismo ingrediente activo que se encuentra en los medicamentos llamados estatinas. Como resultado de esto la Administración de Drogas y Alimentos (FDA) de los Estados Unidos determinó que el Cholestin era un medicamento no aprobado por la FDA. El Cholestin fue reformulado de manera que el ingrediente activo ahora es algo distinto.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Bajar el colesterol alto. Algunas investigaciones mostraron que el tomar un producto específico del arroz de levadura roja por 2 o 3 meses podría bajar significativamente el nivel del colesterol total, del “colesterol malo” (las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL)) y de los triglicéridos (otro tipo de grasa en la sangre). Pero, este producto específico contenía grandes cantidades de una sustancia química similar a los medicamentos llamados estatinas, tal como la lovastatina. Las estatinas están aprobadas por la FDA para bajar el colesterol. Ahora, en los Estados Unidos, la FDA considera este y otros productos de arroz de levadura roja que contienen estatinas, como medicamentos ilegales que no han sido aprobados. Sin embargo, fuera de los Estados Unidos, estos productos específicos del arroz de levadura roja están todavía disponibles.
    Hoy en día, algunos productos de arroz de levadura roja disponibles en los Estados Unidos contienen o muy poco o nada de estatinas. No se sabe si estos productos producen alguna reducción de los niveles de colesterol en las personas con colesterol alto.
    Hay todavía otros productos que contienen cantidades significativas de estatinas. Un análisis muestra que algunos de estos productos pueden contener hasta 5 mg de estatinas por tableta.
  • Bajar los niveles del colesterol y de los triglicéridos que están elevados debido a la enfermedad del SIDA causada por el virus de inmuno-deficiencia humana (VIH).

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • La indigestión.
  • La diarrea.
  • Mejorar la circulación sanguínea.
  • Los problemas del bazo y del estómago.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para aprobar al arroz de levadura roja para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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Los suplementos de arroz de levadura roja se elaboran fermentando la levadura Monascus purpureus del arroz a una temperatura controlada cuidadosamente y en condiciones de crecimiento controladas de manera que produzcan un aumento de la concentración de las sustancias químicas que bajan el colesterol y los triglicéridos. Estas sustancias químicas son similares a los medicamentos de venta con receta médica conocidos como “estatinas,” como la lovastatina (Mevacor) y otros.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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El arroz de levadura roja es POSIBLEMENTE SEGURO para la mayoría de las personas si se toma por vía oral por hasta 3 meses. No hay suficiente información para determinar si es seguro si se toma por un tiempo más largo. Puede producir malestar estomacal, acidez, gas intestinal y mareos.

El arroz de levadura roja contiene sustancias químicas similares a los medicamentos de venta bajo receta médica llamados “estatinas.” Por lo tanto, el arroz de levadura roja podría producir efectos secundarios similares a los que producen los medicamentos de estatinas, tales como daño hepático y severo dolor y daño muscular.

Hay también preocupación por la calidad del producto. Se ha encontrado que muchos productos de levadura roja de arroz contienen cantidades variables de substancias químicas tipo estatinas. Puede que algunos productos no contengan nada y otros pueden contener grandes cantidades y podrían posiblemente producir graves efectos secundarios.

Reacciones alérgicas graves pueden ocurrir después de aspirar arroz de levadura roja.

El arroz de levadura roja que no ha fermentado en forma correcta podría contener citrinina. La citrinina es un veneno que puede causar daño hepático.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: El arroz de levadura roja PROBABLEMENTE NO ES SEGURO durante el embarazo. Ha causado defectos de nacimiento en animales. No se tiene suficiente información sobre la seguridad del uso del arroz de levadura roja durante la lactancia. No lo use durante el embarazo y la lactancia.

Enfermedad hepática: El arroz de levadura roja contiene una sustancia química que es la misma que el medicamento de estatina llamado lovastatina. Al igual que con los medicamentos de estatinas, se debe evitar el uso del arroz de levadura roja en las personas con problemas hepáticos.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Serias

No tome esta combinación

Medicamentos que pueden dañar el hígado (Fármacos hepatotóxicos)
El arroz de levadura roja contiene la droga estatina llamada lovastatina. En algunas personas la lovastatina podría causar daño al hígado. El tomar arroz de levadura roja junto con otros medicamentos que también podrían dañar el hígado podría aumentar el riesgo de daño hepático. No tome arroz de levadura roja si está tomando un medicamento que puede dañar el hígado.

Algunos medicamentos que pueden producir daño al hígado incluyen acetaminofeno (Tylenol y otros), amiodarona (Cordarone), carbamazepina (Tegretol), isoniazida (INH), metotrexato (Rheumatrex), metildopa (Aldomet), fluconazol (Diflucan), itraconazol (Sporanox), eritromicina (Erythrocin, Ilosone, otras) fenitoina (Dilantin), lovastatina (Mevacor), pravastatina (Pravachol), simvastatina (Zocor) y muchos otros.

Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Alcohol (Etanol)
El consumir alcohol podría producir daño al hígado. El arroz de levadura roja también puede dañar el hígado. El tomar arroz de levadura roja junto con alcohol podría aumentar la probabilidad de producir daño hepático. No beba alcohol si está tomando arroz de levadura roja.

Ciclosporina (Neoral, Sandimmune)
El arroz de levadura roja podría afectar a los músculos. La ciclosporina (Neoral, Sandimmune) también podría afectar a los músculos. El tomar arroz de levadura roja junto con ciclosporina (Neoral, Sandimmune) podría producir efectos secundarios graves.

Gemfibrozil (Lopid)
El gemfibrozil (Lopid) puede afectar a los músculos. El arroz de levadura roja también podría afectar a los músculos. El tomar gemfibrozil (Lopid) junto con arroz de levadura roja podría aumentar el riesgo de sufrir problemas musculares.

Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del citocromo P450 3A4 (CYP3A4))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. Algunos medicamentos podrían disminuir la rapidez con que el hígado descompone el arroz de levadura roja. El tomar arroz de levadura roja junto con medicamentos que disminuyen la descomposición de otros medicamentos en el hígado puede aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios del arroz de levadura roja. Antes de tomar arroz de levadura roja hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado.

Algunos medicamentos que podrían disminuir la rapidez con que el hígado descompone el arroz de levadura roja incluyen amiodarona (Cordarone), claritromicina (Biaxin), diltiazem (Cardizem), eritromicina (E-mycin, Erythrocin), indinavir (Crixivan), ritonavir (Norvir), saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase) y muchos otros.

Medicamentos que se usan para bajar el colesterol (Estatinas)
El arroz de levadura roja puede ayudar a bajar el colesterol. El tomar arroz de levadura roja junto con otros medicamentos que se usan para bajar el colesterol podría aumentar los riesgos de sufrir efectos secundarios. No tome arroz de levadura roja si ya está tomando medicamentos para bajar el colesterol.

Algunos medicamentos que se usan para bajar el colesterol incluyen cerivastatina (Baycol), atorvastatina (Lipitor), lovastatina (Mevacor), pravastatina (Pravachol), simvastatina (Zocor) y otros.

Niacina
La niacina puede afectar a los músculos. El arroz de levadura roja también puede afectar a los músculos. El tomar niacina junto con arroz de levadura roja podría aumentar el riesgo de problemas musculares.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Coenzima Q-10 (CoQ10, Ubiquinone)
El arroz de levadura roja puede bajar los niveles de la coenzima Q-10.

Hierbas y suplemntos que podrían dañar el hígado
El arroz de levadura roja contiene drogas similares a las estatinas. Las estatinas pueden dañar el hígado. El tomar arroz de levadura roja junto con otras hierbas o suplementos que podrían dañar el hígado podría aumentar este riesgo. Algunos de estos productos incluyen androstenediona, la hoja de borraja, el chaparral, la consuelda, la DHEA, el camedrio, la kava, la niacina, el aceite de poleo y otras.

La hierba de San Juan
La hierba de San Juan puede bajar los niveles de la droga estatina llamada lovastatina. El arroz de levadura roja contiene lovastatina. Por lo tanto, la hierba de San Juan podría reducir los efectos del arroz de levadura roja.

Pomelo
El pomelo puede disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo utiliza el arroz de levadura roja. Esto podría aumentar la cantidad de arroz de levadura roja en el cuerpo y aumentar sus efectos y efectos secundarios.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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Alcohol
El arroz de levadura roja contiene lovastatina. En algunas personas la lovastatina puede producir daño hepático. Teóricamente, el beber alcohol junto con arroz de levadura roja podría aumentar el riesgo de daño hepático.

Alimentos
El tomar el arroz de levadura roja con comida aumenta la rapidez con la que es absorbida por el cuerpo.

Pomelo
El pomelo puede disminuir la rapidez con que el cuerpo utiliza el arroz de levadura roja. Esto podría aumentar la cantidad de arroz de levadura roja en el cuerpo y aumentar sus efectos y efectos secundarios.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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Las siguientes dosis se han estudiado en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para el colesterol alto: Se toman 1200 a 2400 mg de arroz de levadura roja una o dos veces al día. Solo los productos que contienen sustancias químicas similares a las que hay en los medicamentos para el colesterol llamados “estatinas” -que se venden con receta médica- han demostrado que bajan los niveles del colesterol. Muchos de estos productos proporcionan aproximadamente 5-10 mg del medicamento estatina llamado lovastatina.
  • Para el colesterol alto debido a la infección con en VIH: Se toma 1200 mg dos veces al día.

Otros nombres

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Cholestin, Hong Qu, Koji Rouge, Levure de Riz Rouge, Monascus, Monascus purpureus, Monascus Purpureus Went, Red Rice, Red Rice Yeast, Red Yeast Rice, Red Yeast Rice Extract, Riz Rouge, Xue Zhi Kang, XueZhiKang, XZK, Zhibituo, Zhi Tai.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Arroz de levadura roja, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/925.html.
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