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Vitamina B12


¿Qué es?

La vitamina B12 es una vitamina. Se puede encontrar en alimentos tales como la carne, el pescado y los productos lácteos. También se puede sintetizar en el laboratorio.

La vitamina B12 se usa para el tratamiento y la prevención de deficiencia de vitamina B12, una condición en la cual los niveles de vitamina B12 en la sangre están muy bajos. También se usa en el tratamiento de la anemia perniciosa, un tipo de anemia muy grave que se debe a deficiencia de vitamina B12 y ocurre principalmente en la gente de edad avanzada.Para tratarla, la gente usa ya sea un suplemento que se toma por vía oral o un gel que se aplica a la nariz.

La vitamina B12 también se usa para la pérdida de la memoria; para la enfermedad de Alzheimer; para mejorar el estado de ánimo, aumentar la energía, concentración y el sistema inmunológico; y para retardar el envejecimiento. También se utiliza para las enfermedades del corazón, para disminuir los niveles altos de homocisteína (que pueden contribuir a las enfermedades del corazón), para la infertilidad masculina, la diabetes, los trastornos del sueño, la depresión, los desórdenes psiquiátricos, la debilidad de los huesos (osteoporosis), la hinchazón de tendones, el SIDA, la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, el asma, las alergias, el tratamiento de una enfermedad a la piel llamada vitiligo, la prevención del cáncer cervical y otros y para las infecciones de la piel.

Algunas personas usan la vitamina B12 para la esclerosis amiotrópica lateral (la enfermedad de Lou Gehrig), la esclerosis múltiple, para prevenir la degeneración macular relacionada con la edad (AMD), para la enfermedad de Lyme y para enfermedades de las encías. También se usa para el zumbido de oídos, el sangrado, las enfermedades hepáticas y renales y como protección contra los venenos y alergenos en el humo del tabaco.

La vitamina B12 se aplica a la piel ya sea sola o en combinación con aceite de aguacate (palta) para la psoriasis y el eczema.

La vitamina B12 se usa frecuentemente en combinación con otras vitaminas B en varios productos de complejo de vitamina B.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Eficaz para...

  • El tratamiento y la prevención de deficiencia de vitamina B12 y las enfermedades causadas por bajos niveles de vitamina B12.
  • El tratamiento de la anemia perniciosa.

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • Disminuir los efectos de una afección relacionada con la enfermedad del corazón llamada “hiperhomocisteinemia” cuando se toma junta con ácido fólico y vitamina B6.

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • La degeneración macular. Algunas investigaciones muestran que el tomar vitamina B12 con otras vitaminas, incluyendo ácido fólico y vitamina B6 podría ayudar a prevenir la enfermedad de los ojos llamada degeneración macular relacionada con la edad.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • Los trastornos del sueño.
  • Prevenir otro derrame cerebral.
  • Para mejorar el pensamiento y la memoria en las personas de 65 años y mayores, cuando se usa en combinación con vitamina B6 y ácido fólico.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • El síndrome de las piernas temblorosas. Hay algunos informes que indican que un tipo de vitamina B12 (cianocobalamina) puede ayudar a aliviar los temblores debidos al síndrome de las piernas temblorosas.
  • Eczema (dermatitis atópica). Algunas investigaciones muestran que el aplicar una crema específica de 0,07% de vitamina B12 (Regividerm) al área afectada, dos veces al día, disminuye la cantidad y la severidad del eczema.
  • Enfermedad de Alzheimer. Los resultados de investigaciones limitadas sugieren que la ingesta más alta de vitamina B12 no parece prevenir la enfermedad de Alzheimer.
  • Las aftas bucales (Herpes labial). Las investigaciones preliminares muestran que el tomar 1000 mcg de vitamina B12 debajo de la lengua (uso sublingual) podría ayudar a disminuir el número de brotes de aftas bucales, la duración de los brotes y el dolor causado por las aftas.
  • Cáncer cervical. El aumentar la ingesta de vitamina B12 en la dieta o con suplementos, junto con el consumo de ácido fólico, tiamina y riboflavina parece ayudar a prevenir el cáncer cervical.
  • Cáncer de mama. No hay resultados que indiquen que la vitamina B12, por si sola en la dieta, disminuye el riesgo de cáncer de mama.
  • Cáncer del pulmón. Las pruebas preliminares sugieren que no hay ninguna relación entre los niveles de vitamina B12 en la sangre y el cáncer del pulmón.
  • Las alergias.
  • El envejecimiento.
  • El síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC).
  • Evitar que se vuelvan a bloquear los vasos sanguíneos después de la dilatación de la arteria coronaria (angioplastia de balón).
  • La fatiga o cansancio.
  • La diabetes.
  • Las enfermedades del corazón.
  • La enfermedad de Lyme.
  • Los problemas del sistema inmune.
  • Los problemas de la memoria.
  • La esclerosis múltiple.
  • El colesterol elevado.
  • La psoriasis.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para poder evaluar la eficacia de la vitamina B12 para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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La vitamina B12 es necesaria para el funcionamiento y el desarrollo normal del cerebro, los nervios, las células sanguíneas y muchas otras partes del cuerpo.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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La vitamina B12 PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURA para la mayoría de las personas cuando se toma por vía oral o cuando el producto inyectable, que se vende con receta médica solamente, se usa en forma correcta. En algunas personas la vitamina B12 podría causar diarrea, coágulos sanguíneos, comezón, reacciones alérgicas graves y otros efectos secundarios.

La vitamina B12 también parece ser segura cuando se usa sobre la piel para la psoriasis. Se ha reportado leve comezón en una persona que usó, para la psoriasis, un aceite de aguacate (palta) específico junto con una crema de vitamina B12.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: La vitamina B12, por vía oral, PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURA para las mujeres embarazadas cuando se toma en las cantidades recomendadas. La cantidad recomendada para las mujeres embarazadas es 2,6 mcg por día. Las mujeres que están amamantando no deben tomar más de 2,8 mcg por día. No tome cantidades más grandes. Se desconoce la seguridad del uso en cantidades mayores.

Número muy alto de glóbulos rojos (policitemia vera). El tratamiento de la deficiencia de vitamina B12 puede enmascarar los síntomas de policitemia vera.

Glóbulos rojos anormales (anemia megaloblástica). La anemia megaloblástica a veces es corregida con el tratamiento con vitamina B12. Pero puede producir efectos secundarios graves. No empiece la terapia con vitamina B12 sin la supervisión de su proveedor de salud.

Enfermedad de Leber, una enfermedad ocular hereditaria: Si tiene esta enfermedad, no tome vitamina B12. Puede dañar seriamente el nervio óptico lo que podría conducir a ceguera.

Alergia o sensibilidad al cobalto o cobalamina: Si tiene este problema, no use vitamina B12.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Serias

No tome esta combinación

Cloramfenicol
La vitamina B12 es importante para la producción de nuevas células sanguíneas. El cloramfenicol podría disminuir el número de células sanguíneas. El tomar cloramfenicol por un tiempo largo podría disminuir los efectos de la vitamina B12 en las nuevas células sanguíneas. Pero la mayoría de las personas solo toman cloramfenicol por un tiempo corto de manera que esta interacción no es un gran problema.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Acido folico
El ácido fólico, particularmente en dosis altas, puede encubrir la deficiencia de vitamina B12 y puede producir efectos graves en la salud. Asegúrese de que su proveedor de salud controle su nivel de vitamina B12 antes de empezar a tomar ácido fólico.

Potasio
Los suplementos de potasio pueden reducir la absorción de vitamina B12 en algunas personas y podría contribuir a la deficiencia de vitamina B12.

Vitamina C
Las primeras investigaciones sugieren que los suplementos de vitamina C podrían destruir la vitamina B12 en la dieta. No se sabe si esta interacción es importante, pero para mayor seguridad, tome los suplementos de vitamina C por lo menos 2 horas después de las comidas.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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Alcohol
El tomar alcohol en exceso, por al menos un período de 2 semanas, puede disminuir la absorción de vitamina B12 del tracto gastrointestinal.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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Las siguientes dosis han sido estudiadas en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:

La dosis típica de suplemento de vitamina B12 es de 1-25 mcg por día.

La ingesta diaria recomendada (RDAs) de vitamina B12 es: Para infantes de 0-6 meses: 0,4 mcg; Infantes de 7-12 meses: 0,5 mcg; Niños de 1-3 años: 0,9 mcg; Niños de 4-8 años: 1,2 mcg; Niños de 9-13 años: 1,8 mcg; Para niños mayores y adultos: 2,4 mcg; Para las mujeres embarazadas: 2,6 mcg; Para las mujeres amamantando: 2,8 mcg. Debido a que entre un 10 % a 30% de las personas de edad avanzada no absorben eficientemente la vitamina B12 de las comidas, las personas mayores de 50 años deben comer alimentos enriquecidos con vitamina B12 o tomar suplementos para cumplir con la ingesta diaria recomendada (RDA). Se han usado dosis de 25-100 mcg por día para mantener los niveles de vitamina B12 en la gente de edad avanzada.

  • Para la deficiencia de vitamina B12 o anemia perniciosa, se han usado dosis diarias de 300-10.000 mcg (microgramos) de cianocobalamina. Sin embargo, cierta evidencia sugiere que la dosis oral más eficaz es entre 647-1032 mcg/día.
  • Para los niveles altos de homocisteína, se usa 500 mcg de vitamina B12 en combinación con 0,5-5 mg de ácido fólico y 16,5 mg de piridoxina.
  • Para prevenir la degeneración macular: se ha estudiado tomar 1 mg de vitamina B12, 2.5 mg de ácido fólico y 50 mg de vitamina B6.
APLICACIÓN A LA PIEL:
  • Para la dermatitis atópica (eczema), se ha usado una crema específica con 0,07% de vitamina B12 (Regividerm) que se aplica dos veces al día.
  • Para la psoriasis, se ha usado una crema específica ((Regividerm, Regeneration Pharma AG, Wuppertal, Alemania) que contiene aceite de aguacate más 0,7 mg/gramo de vitamina B12 y se aplica dos veces al día por 12 semanas.

Otros nombres

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B-12, B12, B Complex Vitamin, Bedumil, Cobalamin, Cobalamine, Cobamin, Cobamine, Complexe Vitaminique B, Cyanocobalamin, Cyanocobalamine, Cyanocobalaminum, Cycobemin, Hydroxocobalamin, Hydroxocobalamine, Hydroxocobalaminum, Hydroxocobemine, Hydroxocobémine, Idrossocobalamina, Methylcobalamin, Méthylcobalamine, Vitadurin, Vitadurine, Vitamine B12.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Vitamina B12, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/926.html.
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