Omita y vaya al Contenido

Cromo


¿Qué es?

El cromo es un metal. Se le llama un “elemento traza esencial” porque muy pequeñas cantidades de cromo son necesarias para la salud de los seres humanos.

El cromo se utiliza para mejorar el control de azúcar en la sangre en las personas con prediabetes, con diabetes tipo 1 y tipo 2 y las que tienen un nivel alto de azúcar en la sangre debido a que están tomando esteroides.

También se utiliza para la depresión, el síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos (SOPQ), para bajar el colesterol “malo” y para aumentar el colesterol “bueno” en las personas que están tomando medicamentos para el corazón llamados bloqueadores beta.

Algunas personas utilizan el cromo para mejorar su condición física. Lo usan para la pérdida de peso, el aumento de la masa muscular y para la disminución de la grasa en el cuerpo. El cromo también se usa para mejorar el rendimiento atlético y aumentar la fuerza.

El cromo fue descubierto en Francia a fines de 1790, pero sólo fue reconocido como un importante elemento traza después de 1960.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • Prevenir la deficiencia de cromo.

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • La diabetes tipo 2. Hay cierta evidencia que muestra que el tomar picolinato de cromo (un compuesto químico que contiene cromo) por vía oral puede bajar el nivel de azúcar en ayunas, puede bajar lo niveles de insulina, y hacer que la insulina funcione mejor en las personas que tienen diabetes de tipo 2. El picolinato de cromo podría disminuir el aumento de peso y la acumulación de grasa en los pacientes que están tomando uno de los medicamentos, de venta bajo receta médica, llamados sulfonilureas.

    Dosis más altas de cromo podrían ser más eficaces y funcionar más rápido. En algunas personas, dosis más altas podrían también bajar el nivel de algunas grasas en la sangre (colesterol y triglicéridos).

    Investigaciones preliminares sugieren que el picolinato de cromo podría tener los mismos beneficios en los pacientes con diabetes tipo 1 como en los pacientes que sufren de diabetes a consecuencia de un tratamiento con esteroides.

    Sin embargo, los investigadores están observando cuidadosamente los resultados que muestran que el cromo podría ser eficaz para el tratamiento de la diabetes. Podría no ayudar a todos. Algunos investigadores sospechan que los suplementos de cromo podrían benificiar primordialmente a aquellos pacientes con mala nutrición o bajos niveles de cromo. Los niveles de cromo pueden estar más bajos que lo normal en los pacientes con diabetes.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • Mejorar el rendimiento atlético. Estudios de confianza muestran que el tomar cromo no parece mejorar la musculatura, la fuerza, o la masa muscular magra.
  • La prediabetes.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • La obesidad y la pérdida de peso. El tomar picolinato de cromo por vía oral por 2 a 3 meses podría producir una pequeña pérdida de peso de sólo alrededor de 1.1 kg. Pero no todos los estudios han demostrado este beneficio.
  • La depresión. El cromo podría mejorar el humor de las personas con depresión leve que no están respondiendo completamente al tratamiento con algunos medicamentos para la depresión de venta bajo receta médica.
  • La prevención de un ataque al corazón. Bajo nivel de cromo en las uñas de los pies parece estar vinculado con un más alto riesgo de sufrir un ataque al corazón. Los investigadores concluyeron que dando suplementos de cromo podría disminuir ese riesgo. Pero hasta el momento, no hay investigación de confianza que muestre que los suplementos de cromo pueden prevenir un ataque al corazón.
  • El síndrome de Turner (una enfermedad hereditaria que a menudo lleva a diabetes). La investigación hasta el momento sugiere que los suplementos de cromo podrían mejorar los problemas del metabolismo del azúcar y las grasas en las personas con el síndrome de Turner.
  • El síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos (SOPQ).
  • El bajo nivel de azúcar en la sangre (hypoglycemia).
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para aprobar al cromo para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

Volver al comienzo
El cromo podría ayudar a mantener los niveles de azúcar en la sangre normales al mejorar la manera que nuestro cuerpo usa la insulina.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

Volver al comienzo
El cromo es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO para la mayoría de los adultos cuando se usa en forma apropiada por 6 meses o menos. El cromo es POSIBLEMENTE SEGURO para la mayoría de las personas cuando se usa por períodos de tiempo más largos. Algunas personas sufren de efectos secundarios como irritación de la piel, dolores de cabeza, mareos, nausea, cambios de humor, y problemas con el razonamiento, juicio, y la coordinación. Las dosis altas han estado vinculadas con efectos secundarios más graves incluyendo trastornos sanguíneos, daño al hígado o al riñón, y otros problemas. No se sabe con seguridad si el cromo es la causa real de estos efectos adversos.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y Lactancia: El cromo es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO durante el embarazo y la lactancia si se toma por vía oral en cantidades que son iguales o menores a los niveles de la “ingesta adecuada” (IA). Sin embargo, las mujeres no deberían tomar suplementos de cromo durante el embarazo o la lactancia a menos que se lo recomiende su proveedor de salud.

Problemas del riñón: Hay por lo menos tres informes de daño al riñón en pacientes que tomaron picolinato de cromo. No tome suplementos de cromo, si usted ya tiene problemas renales.

Enfermedad del hígado: Hay 3 informes de daño hepático en pacientes que tomaron picolinato de cromo. No tome suplementos de cromo si usted ya tiene enfermedad del hígado.

Diabetes: El cromo podría disminuir los niveles de azúcar en la sangre y podría bajar demasiado el azúcar en la sangre si se toma junto con medicamentos para la diabetes. Si usted tiene diabetes, use los productos de cromo con cautela y controle los niveles de azúcar en la sangre de cerca. Podría ser necesario ajustar la dosis de los medicamentos para la diabetes.

Alergia de contacto al cromato/cuero: Los suplementos de cromo pueden producir reacciones alérgicas en las personas con alergia de contacto al cromato o al cuero. Los síntomas incluyen enrojecimiento, hinchazón, y descamación de la piel.

Trastornos del comportamiento o psiquiátricos tales como la depresión, ansiedad o esquizofrenia: El cromo podría afectar a las sustancias químicas en el cerebro y podría empeorar los trastornos del comportamiento o los trastornos psiquiátricos. Si tiene cualquiera de estos trastornos tenga cuidado cuando usa suplementos de cromo. Preste atención a cualquier cambio en la manera como se siente.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Volver al comienzo

Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Insulina
El cromo podría disminuir el azúcar en la sangre. La insulina también se usa para disminuir el azúcar en la sangre. El tomar cromo junto con insulina podría hacer que el azúcar en la sangre bajara demasiado. Controle de cerca el azúcar en la sangre. Podría ser necesario cambiar la dosis de su insulina.

Levotiroxina (Synthroid)
El tomar cromo con levotiroxina (Synthroid) podría disminuir la cantidad de levotiroxina (Synthroid) que el cuerpo absorbe. Esto podría hacer a la levotiroxina (Synthroid) menos eficaz. Para ayudar a evitar esta interacción la levotiroxina (Synthroid) debería tomarse ya sea 30 minutos antes o 3 a 4 horas después de tomar cromo.

Menores

Preste atención a esta combinación

AINEs (Medicamentos anti-inflamatorios no esteroidales)
Los AINEs son medicamentos anti-inflamatorios que se usan para disminuir el dolor y la hinchazón. Los AINEs podrían aumentar los niveles de cromo en el cuerpo y aumentar el riesgo de sufrir efectos adversos. Evite tomar suplementos de cromo y AINEs al mismo tiempo.

Algunos AINEs incluyen ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin, Nuprin, otros), indometacino (Indocin), naproxeno (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn), piroxicam (Feldene), aspirina, y otros.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Volver al comienzo
Hierbas y suplementos que contienen cromo
Las hierbas que contienen cromo, tales como la cola de caballo (Equisetum arvense) y la cáscara sagrada (Rhamus pursiana), pueden aumentar el riesgo de envenenamiento por cromo cuando se toman a largo plazo, o cuando se toman con suplementos de cromo.

Hierro
El cromo puede hacer que sea difícil para el cuerpo utilizar el hierro. Esto podría conducir a deficiencia de hierro en algunas personas. Pero, esto es poco probable que pase si la gente toma los suplementos de cromo en las dosis recomendadas.

Vitamina C
El tomar vitamina C junto con cromo podría aumentar la cantidad de cromo que es absorbida.

Zinc
El usar zinc junto con cromo podría disminuir la absorción de tanto el cromo como el zinc.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

Volver al comienzo
No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

Volver al comienzo
La siguiente dosis se ha estudiado en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para la diabetes de tipo 2:
    • 200-1000 mcg al día en dosis divididas.
    • Se ha utilizado también una combinación específica que provee 600 mcg de cromo más 2 mg de biotina y que se toma una vez al día (Diachrome, Nutrition 21).
Los niveles máximos de ingesta de cromo que son seguros y tolerables no se conocen. Sin embargo, los niveles de ingesta adecuada (IA) diarios para el cromo se han establecido. Para infantes de 0 a 6 meses: 0.2 mcg; de 7 a 12 meses: 5.5 mcg; para los niños y niñas de 1 a 3 años: 11 mcg; de 4 a 8 años: 15 mcg; para los niños de 9 a 13 años: 25 mcg; para los hombres de 14 a 50 años: 35 mcg; los hombres mayores de 51 años: 30 mcg; para las niñas de 9 a 13 años: 21 mcg; de 14 a 18 años: 24 mcg; para las mujeres de 19 a 50 años: 25 mcg; las mujeres mayores de 51 años: 20 mcg; las mujeres embarazadas de 14 a 18 años:29 mcg; de 19 a 50 años: 30 mcg, las mujeres amamantando de 14 a 18 años: 44 mcg; de 19 a 50 años: 45 mcg.

Otros nombres

Volver al comienzo
Acétate de Chrome, Atomic Number 24, Chlorure Chromique, Chlorure de Chrome, Chrome, Chrome III, Chrome 3+, Chrome FTG, Chrome Facteur de Tolérance au Glucose, Chrome Trivalent, Chromic Chloride, Chromium Acetate, Chromium Chloride, Chromium Nicotinate, Chromium Picolinate, Chromium Polynicotinate, Chromium Proteinate, Chromium Trichloride, Chromium Tripicolinate, Chromium III, Chromium III Picolinate, Chromium 3+, Cr III, Cr3+, Glucose Tolerance Factor-Cr, GTF, GTF Chromium, GTF-Cr, Kali Bichromicum, Nicotinate de Chrome, Numéro Atomique 24, Picolinate de Chrome, Picolinate de Chrome III, Polynicotinate de Chrome, Potassium Bichromate, Protéinate de Chrome, Trichlorure de Chrome, Tripicolinate de Chrome, Trivalent Chromium, Cr.

Metodología

Volver al comienzo
Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

Volver al comienzo
Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Cromo, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/932.html.
  1. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, and Bryden NA. Acute effects on chromium, copper, zinc, and selected clinical variables in urine and serum of male runners. Biological Trace Element Research 1984;6:327-336.
  2. Bulbulian R, Pringle DD, and Liddy MS. Chromium picolinate supplementation in male and female swimmers [abstract]. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1996;28(5 Supplement):s111.
  3. Kaats GR. The short term therapeutic efficacy of treating obesity with a plan of improved nutrition and moderate calorie restriction. Curr Ther Res 1992;51:261-274.
  4. Kelly GS. Sports nutrition: A review of selected nutritional supplements for bodybuilders and strength athletes. Alt Med Rev 1997;2:184-201.
  5. Almada A, Kreider R, Harmon K, and et al. Effects of ingesting a nutritional supplement containing chromium picolinate and boron on body composition during resistance-training [abstract]. FASEB J 1995;9:A1015.
  6. McArdle WD and Moore BJ. Chromium shows little proof as weight loss supplement. Altern Med Alert 1998;1:9-10.
  7. Rothacker DQ, Waitman BE. Effectiveness of a Garcinia cambogia and natural caffeine combination in weight loss - a double-blind, placebo controlled pilot study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997;21:1.
  8. Girola M, De Bernardi M, and Contos S, et al. Dose effect in lipid-lowering activity of a new dietary integrator (chitosan, Garcinia cambogia extract and chrome). Acta Toxicol Ther 1996;17:25-40.
  9. Vinson JA and Bose P. The effect of a high chromium yeast on the blood glucose control and blood lipids of normal and diabetic human subjects. Nutrition Reports International 1984;30:911-918.
  10. Lane B. Diet and the glaucomas [abstract]. J Am Coll Nutr. 1991;10:536.
  1. Cefalu WT, Bell-Farrow AD, Wang ZQ, and et al. The effect of chromium supplementation on carbohydrate metabolism and body fat distribution [abstract]. Diabetes 1997;46(suppl 1):55A.
  2. Wrobel K, Garay-Sevilla ME, Malacara JM, and et al. Effect of chromium on glucose tolerance, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in occupational exposure to trivalent species in type 2 diabetic patients and in control subjects. Trace Elements & Electrolytes 1999;16:199-205.
  3. Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, and et al. Control of steroid-induced diabetes with supplemental chromium. J Trace Elem Exper Med 1999;12:375-378.
  4. Cheng N. Follow-up survey of people in China with type 2 diabetes mellitus consuming supplemental chromium. J Trace Elem Exptl Med 1999;12:71-83.
  5. Ravina A, Slezak L, Rubal A, and et al. Clinical use of the trace element chromium (III) in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Exper Med 1995;8:183-190.
  6. Nath R, Minocha J, Lyall V, and et al. Assessment of chromium metabolism in maturity onset and juvenile diabetes using chromium-51 and therapeutic response of chromium administration on plasma lipids, glucose tolerance and insulin levels. In: Shapcott D and Hubert J. Chromium in Nutrition and Metabolism. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press;1979.
  7. Morris BW. Chromium action and glucose homeostasis. J Trace Elem Exptl Med 1999;12:61-70.
  8. Uusitupa MI, Kumpulainen JT, Voutilainen E, and et al. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1983;38:404-410.
  9. Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levine SR, and et al. Clinical trial of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Biol Trace Elem Res 1983;5:449-466.
  10. Anderson R, Cheng N, Bryden N, and et al. Beneficial effects of chromium for people with type II diabetes [abstract]. Diabetes 1996;45(Suppl 2):124 A.
  11. Martinez OB, MacDonald AC, Gibson RS, and et al. Dietary chromium and effect of chromium suppelmentation on glucose tolerance of elderly canadian women. Nutrition Research 1985;5:609-620.
  12. Feng J, Lin D, Zheng A, and et al. Chromium picolinate reduces insulin requirement in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. American Diabetes Association 62nd Scientific Sessions, June 14-18 2002;
  13. Cefalu, WT. Effect of chromium picolinate on insulin sensitivity in vivo. J Trace Elem Exptl Med 1999;12:71-83.
  14. Offenbacher E, Miou J Moussas A Pi-Sunyer F. Chromium (Cr) intake and urinary Cr excretion in young adults. Fed Proc 1985;44:8393.
  15. Jovanovic L, Gutierrez M, and Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Trace Elem Exp Med 1999;12:91-97.
  16. Simonoff M, Llabador Y, Hamon C, and et al. Low plasma chromium in patients with coronary artery and heart diseases. Biological Trace Element Research 1984;6:431-439.
  17. Woolven L. Safely slimming. Alive Magazine: Canadian Journal of Health and Nutrition 2000;:86.
  18. Tsuda K, Yokoyama Y, Morita M, and et al. Selenium and chromium deficiency during long-term home total parenteral nutrition in chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction. International Ward Rounds in Clinical Nutrition 1998;14:291-295.
  19. Evans, GW. The effect of chromium picolinate on insulin controlled parameters in humans. Int J Biosoc Med Res 1989;11:163-180.
  20. O'Mathuna DP. Chromium supplementation in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. Alternative Medicine Alert 2000;3:40-44.
  21. Stoecker BJ. Chromium. In: Shils M and et al. Nutrition in Health and Disease. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins;1999.
  22. McCarty MF. The case for supplemental chromium and a survey of clinical studies with chromium picolinate. Journal of Applied Nutrition 1991;43:58-66.
  23. Jovanovic-Peterson L, Gutierrez M, and Peterson CM. Chromium supplementation for gestational diabetic women (GDM) improves glucose tolerance and decreases hyperinsulinemia [abstract]. Diabetes 1996;45(Suppl 2):337A.
  24. O'Mathuna DP. Chromium supplementation for weight loss. Alternative Medicine Alert 2001;4:37-48.
  25. Kaats GR, Blum K, Fisher JA, and et al. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Current Therapeutic Research 1996;57:747-756.
  26. Kaats GR, Blum K, Pullin D, and et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of the effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a replication and extension of a previous study. Current Therapeutic Research 1998;59:379-388.
  27. Uusitupa MI, Mykkänen L, Siitonen O, and et al. Chromium supplementation in impaired glucose tolerance of elderly: effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and lipid levels. British Journal of Nutrition 1992;68:209-216.
  28. Wang MW, Fox EA, Stoecker BJ, and et al. Serum cholesterol of adults supplemented with brewer's yeast or chromium chloride. Nutrition Research 1989;9:989-998.
  29. Bourn DM, Gibson RS, Martinez OB, and et al. The effect of chromium supplementation on serum lipid levels in a selected sample of Canadian postmenopausal women. Biological Trace Element Research 1986;9:197-205.
  30. Zhang, L., Dong, T., Zhang, H., Jiang, Y., and Yang, S. The relationship between chromium, inflammation and insulin resistance. Chinese Journal of Microecology 2010;22:705.
  31. Cowart VS. Dietary supplements: alternatives to anabolic steroids? The Physician and Sportsmedicine 1992;20:189-193, 196, 198.
  32. Gaby AR. Literature review and commentary: and do chromium supplements, too? Townsend Letters for Doctors and Patients 2000;:24.
  33. Fristedt B, Lindqvist B, Schutz A, and et al. Survival in a case of acute oral chromic acid poisoning with acute renal failure treated by haemodialysis. Acta Med Scand 1965;177:153-159.
  34. Tesfai Y, Davis D, and Reinhold D. Chromium can reduce the mutagenic effects of a benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide in normal human fibroblasts via an oxidative stress mechanism. Mutation Research 1998;416:159-168.
  35. Boyd SG, Boone BE, Smith AR, and et al. Combined dietary chromium picolinate supplementation and an exercise program leads to a reduction of serum cholesterol and insulin in college-aged subjects. J Nutr Biochem 1998;9:471-475.
  36. Hermann J, Arquitt A, and Stoecker B. Effects of chromium supplementation on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, and glucose in elderly subjects. Nutrition Research 1994;14:671-674.
  37. Lefavi RG, Wilson GD, Keith RE, and et al. Lipid-lowering effect of a dietary chromium (III) - nicotinic acid complex in male athletes. Nutrition Research 1993;13:239-249.
  38. Aguilar, M. V., Jimenez-Jimenez, F. J., Molina, J. A., Meseguer, I., Mateos-Vega, C. J., Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J., de Bustos, F., Gomez-Escalonilla, C., Ort-Pareja, M., Zurdo, M., and Martinez-Para MC. Cerebrospinal fluid selenium and chromium levels in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm. 1998;105(10-12):1245-1251. View abstract.
  39. Campbell W, Joseph L, and Davey S. Effects of resistance training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle in older men. J.Appl.Physiol 1999;86:29-39. View abstract.
  40. Walker, L. S., Bemben, M. G., Bemben, D. A., and Knehans, A. W. Chromium picolinate effects on body composition and muscular performance in wrestlers. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 1998;30:1730-1737. View abstract.
  41. Mertz, W. Chromium research from a distance: from 1959 to 1980. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17:544-547. View abstract.
  42. Kato, I., Vogelman, J. H., Dilman, V., Karkoszka, J., Frenkel, K., Durr, N. P., Orentreich, N., and Toniolo, P. Effect of supplementation with chromium picolinate on antibody titers to 5-hydroxymethyl uracil. Eur.J Epidemiol. 1998;14:621-626. View abstract.
  43. Proctor, D. M., Fredrick, M. M., Scott, P. K., Paustenbach, D. J., and Finley, B. L. The prevalence of chromium allergy in the United States and its implications for setting soil cleanup: a cost-effectiveness case study. Regul.Toxicol Pharmacol 1998;28:27-37. View abstract.
  44. Leroyer, C., Dewitte, J. D., Bassanets, A., Boutoux, M., Daniel, C., and Clavier, J. Occupational asthma due to chromium. Respiration 1998;65:403-405. View abstract.
  45. Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr.Rev. 1998;56:266-270. View abstract.
  46. Martin, W. R. and Fuller, R. E. Suspected chromium picolinate-induced rhabdomyolysis. Pharmacotherapy 1998;18:860-862. View abstract.
  47. McCarty, M. F. Nitric oxide deficiency, leukocyte activation, and resultant ischemia are crucial to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy/neuropathy-- preventive potential of antioxidants, essential fatty acids, chromium, ginkgolides, and pentoxifylline. Med Hypotheses 1998;50:435-449. View abstract.
  48. Granchi, D., Verri, E., Ciapetti, G., Savarino, L., Cenni, E., Gori, A., and Pizzoferrato, A. Effects of chromium extract on cytokine release by mononuclear cells. Biomaterials 1998;19(1-3):283-291. View abstract.
  49. Bunner S and McGinnis R. Chromium-induced hypoglycemia. Psychosomatics 1998;39:298-299. View abstract.
  50. Hayes, R. B. The carcinogenicity of metals in humans. Cancer Causes Control 1997;8:371-385. View abstract.
  51. Bahadori, B., Wallner, S., Schneider, H., Wascher, T. C., and Toplak, H. [Effect of chromium yeast and chromium picolinate on body composition of obese, non-diabetic patients during and after a formula diet]. Acta Med Austriaca 1997;24:185-187. View abstract.
  52. Pasman, W. J., Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., and Saris, W. H. The effectiveness of long-term supplementation of carbohydrate, chromium, fibre and caffeine on weight maintenance. Int J Obes.Relat Metab Disord. 1997;21:1143-1151. View abstract.
  53. Mertz, W. Confirmation: chromium levels in serum, hair, and sweat decline with age. Nutr Rev. 1997;55:373-375. View abstract.
  54. Costa M. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) in animal models and humans. Crit Rev.Toxicol. 1997;27:431-442. View abstract.
  55. Michenfelder, H. J. and Thompson, J. Over-the-counter chromium and renal failure. Ann Intern Med 10-15-1997;127(8 Pt 1):655-656. View abstract.
  56. Mennen, B. Over-the-counter chromium and renal failure. Ann.Intern.Med. 10-15-1997;127(8 Pt 1):655-656. View abstract.
  57. Hathcock, J. N. Over-the-counter chromium and renal failure. Ann.Intern.Med. 10-15-1997;127(8 Pt 1):655. View abstract.
  58. McCarty, M. F. Over-the-counter chromium and renal failure. Ann.Intern.Med 10-15-1997;127(8 Pt 1):654-655. View abstract.
  59. Anderson, R. A. Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium. J Am.Coll.Nutr. 1997;16:404-410. View abstract.
  60. Linday, L. A. Trivalent chromium and the diabetes prevention program. Med Hypotheses 1997;49:47-49. View abstract.
  61. Clarkson, P. M. Effects of exercise on chromium levels. Is supplementation required? Sports Med 1997;23:341-349. View abstract.
  62. Thomas, V. L. and Gropper, S. S. Effect of chromium nicotinic acid supplementation on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1996;55:297-305. View abstract.
  63. Davis C and Vincent J. Isolation and characterization of a biologically active chromium oligopeptide from bovine liver. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 3-15-1997;339:335-343. View abstract.
  64. Huvinen, M., Uitti, J., Zitting, A., Roto, P., Virkola, K., Kuikka, P., Laippala, P., and Aitio, A. Respiratory health of workers exposed to low levels of chromium in stainless steel production. Occup Environ Med 1996;53:741-747. View abstract.
  65. Mattagajasingh, S. N. and Misra, H. P. Mechanisms of the carcinogenic chromium(VI)-induced DNA-protein cross- linking and their characterization in cultured intact human cells. J Biol Chem. 12-27-1996;271:33550-33560. View abstract.
  66. Romero, R. A., Salgado, O., Rodriguez-Iturbe, B., and Tahan, J. E. Blood levels of chromium in diabetic and nondiabetic hemodialysis patients. Transplant.Proc 1996;28:3382-3384. View abstract.
  67. Williams, M. H. Nutritional ergogenics in athletics. J Sports Sci 1995;13 Spec No:S63-S74. View abstract.
  68. Clarkson, P. M. Micronutrients and exercise: anti-oxidants and minerals. J Sports Sci 1995;13 Spec No:S11-S24. View abstract.
  69. Reading, S. A. Chromium picolinate. J Fla.Med Assoc 1996;83:29-31. View abstract.
  70. Little, M. C., Gawkrodger, D. J., and MacNeil, S. Chromium- and nickel-induced cytotoxicity in normal and transformed human keratinocytes: an investigation of pharmacological approaches to the prevention of Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity. Br J Dermatol. 1996;134:199-207. View abstract.
  71. McCarty, M. F. Chromium and other insulin sensitizers may enhance glucagon secretion: implications for hypoglycemia and weight control. Med Hypotheses 1996;46:77-80. View abstract.
  72. Verhage, A. H., Cheong, W. K., and Jeejeebhoy, K. N. Neurologic symptoms due to possible chromium deficiency in long-term parenteral nutrition that closely mimic metronidazole-induced syndromes. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1996;20:123-127. View abstract.
  73. Leung, F. Y. Trace elements in parenteral micronutrition. Clin Biochem. 1995;28:561-566. View abstract.
  74. McCarty, M. F. Anabolic effects of insulin on bone suggest a role for chromium picolinate in preservation of bone density. Med Hypotheses 1995;45:241-246. View abstract.
  75. Preuss, H. G., Gondal, J. A., Bustos, E., Bushehri, N., Lieberman, S., Bryden, N. A., Polansky, M. M., and Anderson, R. A. Effects of chromium and guar on sugar-induced hypertension in rats. Clin Nephrol. 1995;44:170-177. View abstract.
  76. Stearns, D. M., Wise, J. P., Sr., Patierno, S. R., and Wetterhahn, K. E. Chromium(III) picolinate produces chromosome damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells. FASEB J 1995;9:1643-1648. View abstract.
  77. Wilson BE and Gondy A. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabetes Res.Clin.Pract. 1995;28:179-184. View abstract.
  78. Mertz, W. Chromium in human nutrition: a review. J Nutr 1993;123:626-633. View abstract.
  79. Evans G and Pouchnik D. Composition and biological activity of chromium-pyridine carboxylate complexes. J.Inorg.Biochem. 2-15-1993;49:177-187. View abstract.
  80. Basketter D, Briatico-Vangosa G, Kaestner W, and et al. Nickel, cobalt and chromium in consumer products: a role in allergic contact dermatitis? Contact Dermatitis 1993;28:15-25. View abstract.
  81. Huszonek, J. Over-the-counter chromium picolinate. Am J Psychiatry 1993;150:1560-1561. View abstract.
  82. Katz, S. A. and Salem, H. The toxicology of chromium with respect to its chemical speciation: a review. J Appl Toxicol 1993;13:217-224. View abstract.
  83. Cohen M, Kargacin B, Klein C, and et al. Mechanisms of chromium carcinogenicity and toxicity. Crit Rev.Toxicol. 1993;23:255-281. View abstract.
  84. Pekarek, R. S., Hauer, E. C., Rayfield, E. J., Wannemacher, R. W., and Beisel, W. R. Relationship between serum chromium concentrations and glucose utilization in normal and infected subjects. Diabetes 1975;24:350-353. View abstract.
  85. Clancy, S. P., Clarkson, P. M., DeCheke, M. E., Nosaka, K., Freedson, P. S., Cunningham, J. J., and Valentine, B. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition, strength, and urinary chromium loss in football players. Int.J.Sport Nutr. 1994;4:142-153. View abstract.
  86. Littlefield, D. Chromium decreases blood glucose in a patient with diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1368. View abstract.
  87. Gargas, M. L., Norton, R. L., Paustenbach, D. J., and Finley, B. L. Urinary excretion of chromium by humans following ingestion of chromium picolinate. Implications for biomonitoring. Drug Metab Dispos. 1994;22:522-529. View abstract.
  88. Anderson, R. A., Polansky, M. M., Bryden, N. A., Roginski, E. E., Patterson, K. Y., Veillon, C., and Glinsmann, W. Urinary chromium excretion of human subjects: effects of chromium supplementation and glucose loading. Am.J Clin Nutr. 1982;36:1184-1193. View abstract.
  89. Riales, R. and Albrink, M. J. Effect of chromium chloride supplementation on glucose tolerance and serum lipids including high-density lipoprotein of adult men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34:2670-2678. View abstract.
  90. Offenbacher, E. G. and Pi-Sunyer, F. X. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29:919-925. View abstract.
  91. Mossop, R. T. Effects of chromium III on fasting blood glucose, cholesterol and cholesterol HDL levels in diabetics. Cent.Afr.J Med 1983;29:80-82. View abstract.
  92. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, and et al. Effects of chromium supplementation on urinary Cr excretion of human subjects and correlation of Cr excretion with selected clinical parameters. J.Nutr. 1983;113:276-281. View abstract.
  93. Bunker V, Lawson M, Delves H, and et al. The uptake and excretion of chromium by the elderly. Am J.Clin.Nutr. 1984;39:797-802. View abstract.
  94. Yamamoto A, Wada O, and Ono T. Distribution and chromium-binding capacity of a low-molecular-weight, chromium-binding substance in mice. J.Inorg.Biochem. 1984;22:91-102. View abstract.
  95. Newman, H. A., Leighton, R. F., Lanese, R. R., and Freedland, N. A. Serum chromium and angiographically determined coronary artery disease. Clin Chem. 1978;24:541-544. View abstract.
  96. Anderson R, Polansky M, Bryden N, and et al. Chromium supplementation of human subjects: effects on glucose, insulin, and lipid variables. Metabolism 1983;32:894-899. View abstract.
  97. Glinsmann, W. H. and Mertz, W. Effect of trivalent chromium on glucose tolerance. Metabolism 1966;15:510-520. View abstract.
  98. Hambidge, K. M., Rodgerson, D. O., and O'Brien, D. Concentration of chromium in the hair of normal children and children with juvenile diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 1968;17:517-519. View abstract.
  99. Schroeder, H. A. The role of chromium in mammalian nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1968;21:230-244. View abstract.
  100. Hopkins, L. L., Jr., Ransome-Kuti, O., and Majaj, A. S. Improvement of impaired carbohydrate metabolism by chromium(III) in malnourished infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1968;21:203-211. View abstract.
  101. Levine, R. A., Streeten, D. H., and Doisy, R. J. Effects of oral chromium supplementation on the glucose tolerance of elderly human subjects. Metabolism 1968;17:114-125. View abstract.
  102. Hambidge, K. M., Franklin, M. L., and Jacobs, M. A. Hair chromium concentration: effects of sample washing and external environment. Am J Clin Nutr. 1972;25:384-389. View abstract.
  103. Hambidge, K. M., Franklin, M. L., and Jacobs, M. A. Changes in hair chromium concentrations with increasing distances from hair roots. Am J Clin Nutr. 1972;25:380-383. View abstract.
  104. Sherman, L., Glennon, J. A., Brech, W. J., Klomberg, G. H., and Gordon, E. S. Failure of trivalent chromium to improve hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 1968;17:439-442. View abstract.
  105. Wolf W, Mertz W, and Masironi R. Determination of chromium in refined and unrefined sugars by oxygen plasma ashing flameless atomic absorption. J.Agric.Food Chem. 1974;22:1037-1042. View abstract.
  106. Hambidge, K. M. Chromium nutrition in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1974;27:505-514. View abstract.
  107. Anderson R and Kozlovsky A. Chromium intake, absorption and excretion of subjects consuming self- selected diets. Am J.Clin.Nutr. 1985;41:1177-1183. View abstract.
  108. Anderson, R. A., Bryden, N. A., and Polansky, M. M. Serum chromium of human subjects: effects of chromium supplementation and glucose. Am.J Clin Nutr. 1985;41:571-577. View abstract.
  109. Offenbacher, E. G., Rinko, C. J., and Pi-Sunyer, F. X. The effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast on glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and plasma chromium in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:454-461. View abstract.
  110. Wallach, S. Clinical and biochemical aspects of chromium deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr. 1985;4:107-120. View abstract.
  111. Kozlovsky, A. S., Moser, P. B., Reiser, S., and Anderson, R. A. Effects of diets high in simple sugars on urinary chromium losses. Metabolism 1986;35:515-518. View abstract.
  112. Yamamoto A, Wada O, and Ono T. Isolation of a biologically active low-molecular-mass chromium compound from rabbit liver. Eur.J.Biochem. 6-15-1987;165:627-631. View abstract.
  113. Anderson, R. A. Trace elements and cardiovascular diseases. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol.(Copenh) 1986;59 Suppl 7:317-324. View abstract.
  114. Anderson RA. Chromium metabolism and its role in disease processes in man. Clin.Physiol Biochem. 1986;4:31-41. View abstract.
  115. Anderson, R. A., Bryden, N. A., Polansky, M. M., and Deuster, P. A. Exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained men consuming a constant diet. J Appl.Physiol 1988;64:249-252. View abstract.
  116. Yamamoto A, Wada O, and Suzuki H. Purification and properties of biologically active chromium complex from bovine colostrum. J.Nutr. 1988;118:39-45. View abstract.
  117. Urberg, M., Benyi, J., and John, R. Hypocholesterolemic effects of nicotinic acid and chromium supplementation. J Fam.Pract. 1988;27:603-606. View abstract.
  118. Offenbacher, E. G. and Pi-Sunyer, F. X. Chromium in human nutrition. Annu.Rev.Nutr. 1988;8:543-563. View abstract.
  119. Bunker, V. W. and Clayton, B. E. Research review: studies in the nutrition of elderly people with particular reference to essential trace elements. Age Ageing 1989;18:422-429. View abstract.
  120. Anderson, R. A. Essentiality of chromium in humans. Sci.Total Environ. 10-1-1989;86(1-2):75-81. View abstract.
  121. Clausen J. Chromium induced clinical improvement in symptomatic hypoglycemia. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1988;17:229-236. View abstract.
  122. Press, R. I., Geller, J., and Evans, G. W. The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects. West J Med 1990;152:41-45. View abstract.
  123. Zasorin, B. V., Kurmangaliev, O. M., and Ermukhanova, L. S. [Features of the immune status in the population of urban areas with a high content of heavy metals]. Gig.Sanit. 2012;:17-19. View abstract.
  124. Wittczak, T., Dudek, W., Walusiak-Skorupa, J., Swierczynska-Machura, D., Cader, W., Kowalczyk, M., and Palczynski, C. Metal-induced asthma and chest X-ray changes in welders. Int.J.Occup.Med.Environ.Health 2012;25:242-250. View abstract.
  125. Jain, S. K., Kahlon, G., Morehead, L., Dhawan, R., Lieblong, B., Stapleton, T., Caldito, G., Hoeldtke, R., Levine, S. N., and Bass, P. F., III. Effect of chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation on circulating levels of insulin, TNF-alpha, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic subjects: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2012;56:1333-1341. View abstract.
  126. Scarselli, A., Binazzi, A., Marzio, D. D., Marinaccio, A., and Iavicoli, S. Hexavalent chromium compounds in the workplace: assessing the extent and magnitude of occupational exposure in Italy. J.Occup.Environ.Hyg. 2012;9:398-407. View abstract.
  127. Gorgey, A. S., Harnish, C. R., Daniels, J. A., Dolbow, D. R., Keeley, A., Moore, J., and Gater, D. R. A report of anticipated benefits of functional electrical stimulation after spinal cord injury. J.Spinal Cord.Med. 2012;35:107-112. View abstract.
  128. Chhabra, D., Oda, K., Jagannath, P., Utsunomiya, H., Takekoshi, S., and Nimura, Y. Chronic heavy metal exposure and gallbladder cancer risk in India, a comparative study with Japan. Asian Pac.J.Cancer Prev. 2012;13:187-190. View abstract.
  129. Lardanchet, J. F., Taviaux, J., Arnalsteen, D., Gabrion, A., and Mertl, P. One-year prospective comparative study of three large-diameter metal-on-metal total hip prostheses: serum metal ion levels and clinical outcomes. Orthop.Traumatol.Surg.Res. 2012;98:265-274. View abstract.
  130. Drake, T. C., Rudser, K. D., Seaquist, E. R., and Saeed, A. Chromium infusion in hospitalized patients with severe insulin resistance: a retrospective analysis. Endocr.Pract. 2012;18:394-398. View abstract.
  131. Luce, D. and Stucker, I. Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers (ICARE): a multicenter, population-based case-control study in France. BMC.Public Health 2011;11:928. View abstract.
  132. Jakubowski, M. Biological monitoring versus air monitoring strategies in assessing environmental-occupational exposure. J.Environ.Monit. 2012;14:348-352. View abstract.
  133. Xiang, J., Sun, Z., and Huan, J. N. Intensive chromic acid burns and acute chromium poisoning with acute renal failure. Chin Med.J.(Engl.) 7-5-2011;124:2071-2073. View abstract.
  134. Goulle, J. P., Saussereau, E., Grosjean, J., Doche, C., Mahieu, L., Thouret, J. M., Guerbet, M., and Lacroix, C. Accidental potassium dichromate poisoning. Toxicokinetics of chromium by ICP-MS-CRC in biological fluids and in hair. Forensic Sci.Int. 4-10-2012;217(1-3):e8-12. View abstract.
  135. 't Mannetje, A., Bencko, V., Brennan, P., Zaridze, D., Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N., Rudnai, P., Lissowska, J., Fabianova, E., Cassidy, A., Mates, D., Foretova, L., Janout, V., Fevotte, J., Fletcher, T., and Boffetta, P. Occupational exposure to metal compounds and lung cancer. Results from a multi-center case-control study in Central/Eastern Europe and UK. Cancer Causes Control 2011;22:1669-1680. View abstract.
  136. Halasova, E., Matakova, T., Musak, L., Polakova, V., Letkova, L., Dobrota, D., and Vodicka, P. Evaluating chromosomal damage in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium and the modulating role of polymorphisms of DNA repair genes. Int.Arch.Occup.Environ.Health 2012;85:473-481. View abstract.
  137. Mamyrbaev, A. A., Sakebaeva, L. D., Satybaldieva, U. A., and Zasorin, B. V. [Immune homeostasis parameters in chromium production workers]. Med.Tr.Prom Ekol. 2011;:43-45. View abstract.
  138. Musina, A. A. and Mashin, K. V. [Ageing pace in workers engaged into chromium ores processing]. Med.Tr.Prom Ekol. 2011;:40-43. View abstract.
  139. Wise, J. P., Sr. and Aboueissab, A. M. Addendum to "The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hexavalent chromium in Steller sea lion lung fibroblasts compared to human lung fibroblasts" [Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 15291-8. Comp Biochem.Physiol C.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 2011;154:135. View abstract.
  140. Huang, J., Frohlich, J., and Ignaszewski, A. P. The impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile. Can.J.Cardiol. 2011;27:488-505. View abstract.
  141. Gorman, Ng M., Stjernberg, E., Koehoorn, M., Demers, P. A., and Davies, H. W. Exposure to pesticides and metal contaminants of fertilizer among tree planters. Ann.Occup.Hyg. 2011;55:752-763. View abstract.
  142. Sullivan, M. J. and Leavey, S. Heavy metals in bottled natural spring water. J.Environ.Health 2011;73:8-13. View abstract.
  143. Sharma, S., Agrawal, R. P., Choudhary, M., Jain, S., Goyal, S., and Agarwal, V. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glucose, HbA1C and lipid variables in individuals with newly onset type-2 diabetes. J.Trace Elem.Med.Biol. 2011;25:149-153. View abstract.
  144. Noda, S., Asano, Y., and Sato, S. Lichen planus in a patient with long-term exposure to chrome. Eur.J.Dermatol. 2011;21:417-418. View abstract.
  145. Quarles, C. D., Jr., Brumaghim, J. L., and Marcus, R. K. Instrumental comparison of the determination of Cr+ uptake by human transferrin. Metallomics. 2010;2:792-799. View abstract.
  146. Li, Chen T., LaCerte, C., Wise, S. S., Holmes, A., Martino, J., Wise, J. P., Jr., Thompson, W. D., and Wise, J. P., Sr. Comparative cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble hexavalent chromium in human and sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) skin cells. Comp Biochem.Physiol C.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 2012;155:143-150. View abstract.
  147. Roller, M. In vitro genotoxicity data of nanomaterials compared to carcinogenic potency of inorganic substances after inhalational exposure. Mutat.Res. 2011;727:72-85. View abstract.
  148. Sun, H., Clancy, H. A., Kluz, T., Zavadil, J., and Costa, M. Comparison of gene expression profiles in chromate transformed BEAS-2B cells. PLoS.One. 2011;6:e17982. View abstract.
  149. Arvizu, R. R., Dominguez, I. A., Rubio, M. S., Borquez, J. L., Pinos-Rodriguez, J. M., Gonzalez, M., and Jaramillo, G. Effects of genotype, level of supplementation, and organic chromium on growth performance, carcass, and meat traits grazing lambs. Meat.Sci. 2011;88:404-408. View abstract.
  150. Unisa, S., Jagannath, P., Dhir, V., Khandelwal, C., Sarangi, L., and Roy, T. K. Population-based study to estimate prevalence and determine risk factors of gallbladder diseases in the rural Gangetic basin of North India. HPB (Oxford) 2011;13:117-125. View abstract.
  151. Boffetta, P., Fontana, L., Stewart, P., Zaridze, D., Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N., Janout, V., Bencko, V., Foretova, L., Jinga, V., Matveev, V., Kollarova, H., Ferro, G., Chow, W. H., Rothman, N., van, Bemmel D., Karami, S., Brennan, P., and Moore, L. E. Occupational exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel, and renal cell carcinoma: a case-control study from Central and Eastern Europe. Occup.Environ.Med. 2011;68:723-728. View abstract.
  152. Kim, C. W., Kim, B. T., Park, K. H., Kim, K. M., Lee, D. J., Yang, S. W., and Joo, N. S. Effects of short-term chromium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and body composition in overweight children: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2011;22:1030-1034. View abstract.
  153. Krol, E., Krejpcio, Z., Byks, H., Bogdanski, P., and Pupek-Musialik, D. Effects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patients. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2011;143:726-737. View abstract.
  154. Sodergren, M. H., Jethwa, P., Kumar, S., Duncan, H. D., Johns, T., and Pearce, C. B. Immunonutrition in patients undergoing major upper gastrointestinal surgery: a prospective double-blind randomised controlled study. Scand.J.Surg. 2010;99:153-161. View abstract.
  155. Sepcic, J., Bucuk, M., Perkovic, O., Sepic-Grahovac, D., Troselj-Vukic, B., Poljak, I., Crnic-Martinovic, M., Turel, I., Ristic, S., and Sepcic, K. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss and vestibulopaty. Coll.Antropol. 2010;34:1101-1104. View abstract.
  156. Thompson, C. M., Haws, L. C., Harris, M. A., Gatto, N. M., and Proctor, D. M. Application of the U.S. EPA mode of action Framework for purposes of guiding future research: a case study involving the oral carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium. Toxicol.Sci. 2011;119:20-40. View abstract.
  157. Nakayama, Y., Kawashima, T., Ishii, N., Yoshida, T., Toyama, K., Takahashi, A., and Nakao, H. [Case of chemical burns caused by hexavalent chromium]. Chudoku.Kenkyu 2010;23:238-242. View abstract.
  158. Hedberg, Y., Midander, K., and Wallinder, I. O. Particles, sweat, and tears: a comparative study on bioaccessibility of ferrochromium alloy and stainless steel particles, the pure metals and their metal oxides, in simulated skin and eye contact. Integr.Environ.Assess.Manag. 2010;6:456-468. View abstract.
  159. Midander, K., de, Frutos A., Hedberg, Y., Darrie, G., and Wallinder, I. O. Bioaccessibility studies of ferro-chromium alloy particles for a simulated inhalation scenario: a comparative study with the pure metals and stainless steel. Integr.Environ.Assess.Manag. 2010;6:441-455. View abstract.
  160. Bharmal, S. V., Moyes, V., Ahmed, S., and Grossman, A. Hypoglycaemia: possible mediation by chromium salt medication. Hormones.(Athens.) 2010;9:181-183. View abstract.
  161. Zook, J. E., Wurtz, D. L., Cummings, J. E., and Cardenes, H. R. Intra-articular chromic phosphate (P) in the treatment of diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis. Brachytherapy. 2011;10:190-194. View abstract.
  162. Ali, A., Ma, Y., Reynolds, J., Wise, J. P., Sr., Inzucchi, S. E., and Katz, D. L. Chromium effects on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in persons at risk for diabetes mellitus. Endocr.Pract. 2011;17:16-25. View abstract.
  163. Davi, G., Santilli, F., and Patrono, C. Nutraceuticals in diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Cardiovasc.Ther 2010;28:216-226. View abstract.
  164. Sellappa, S., Prathyumnan, S., Keyan, K. S., Joseph, S., Vasudevan, B. S., and Sasikala, K. Evaluation of DNA damage induction and repair inhibition in welders exposed to hexavalent chromium. Asian Pac.J.Cancer Prev. 2010;11:95-100. View abstract.
  165. Gatto, N. M., Kelsh, M. A., Mai, D. H., Suh, M., and Proctor, D. M. Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010;34:388-399. View abstract.
  166. Krikorian, R., Eliassen, J. C., Boespflug, E. L., Nash, T. A., and Shidler, M. D. Improved cognitive-cerebral function in older adults with chromium supplementation. Nutr.Neurosci. 2010;13:116-122. View abstract.
  167. Jain, S. K., Croad, J. L., Velusamy, T., Rains, J. L., and Bull, R. Chromium dinicocysteinate supplementation can lower blood glucose, CRP, MCP-1, ICAM-1, creatinine, apparently mediated by elevated blood vitamin C and adiponectin and inhibition of NFkappaB, Akt, and Glut-2 in livers of zucker diabetic fatty rats. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2010;54:1371-1380. View abstract.
  168. Phung, O. J., Quercia, R. A., Keating, K., Baker, W. L., Bell, J. L., White, C. M., and Coleman, C. I. Improved glucose control associated with i.v. chromium administration in two patients receiving enteral nutrition. Am.J.Health Syst.Pharm. 4-1-2010;67:535-541. View abstract.
  169. Wise, J. P., Sr., Wise, S. S., Holmes, A. L., LaCerte, C., Shaffiey, F., and Aboueissa, A. M. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hexavalent chromium in Steller sea lion lung fibroblasts compared to human lung fibroblasts. Comp Biochem.Physiol C.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 2010;152:91-98. View abstract.
  170. Aghdassi, E., Arendt, B. M., Salit, I. E., Mohammed, S. S., Jalali, P., Bondar, H., and Allard, J. P. In patients with HIV-infection, chromium supplementation improves insulin resistance and other metabolic abnormalities: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Curr HIV.Res 2010;8:113-120. View abstract.
  171. Wise, S. S., Holmes, A. L., Qin, Q., Xie, H., Katsifis, S. P., Thompson, W. D., and Wise, J. P., Sr. Comparative genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of four hexavalent chromium compounds in human bronchial cells. Chem.Res.Toxicol. 2-15-2010;23:365-372. View abstract.
  172. Cavallo, D., Ursini, C. L., Fresegna, A. M., Ciervo, A., Maiello, R., Rondinone, B., D'Agata, V., and Iavicoli, S. Direct-oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis induction in different human respiratory cells exposed to low concentrations of sodium chromate. J.Appl.Toxicol. 2010;30:218-225. View abstract.
  173. Iskakov, A. Z., Boev, V. M., and Zasorin, B. V. [Integrated estimation of carcinogenic load on the population in the town of Aktobe]. Gig.Sanit. 2009;:52-54. View abstract.
  174. Li, Chen T., Wise, S. S., Holmes, A., Shaffiey, F., Wise, J. P., Jr., Thompson, W. D., Kraus, S., and Wise, J. P., Sr. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hexavalent chromium in human and North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) lung cells. Comp Biochem.Physiol C.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 2009;150:487-494. View abstract.
  175. Gomes, C. P., Freire, M. S., Pires, B. R., Vasconcelos, E. A., Rocha, T. L., Grossi-de-Sa, Mde F., Rezende, T. M., Mehta, A., Pereira, R. W., Petriz, B. A., da Cruz, A. D., Pescara, I. C., and Franco, O. L. Comparative proteomical and metalloproteomical analyses of human plasma from patients with laryngeal cancer. Cancer Immunol.Immunother. 2010;59:173-181. View abstract.
  176. Nahas, R. and Moher, M. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Can Fam.Physician 2009;55:591-596. View abstract.
  177. Nadeem, ul Haq, Arain, M. A., Haque, Z., Badar, N., and Mughal, N. Drinking water contamination by chromium and lead in industrial lands of Karachi. J.Pak.Med.Assoc. 2009;59:270-274. View abstract.
  178. Iqbal, N., Cardillo, S., Volger, S., Bloedon, L. T., Anderson, R. A., Boston, R., and Szapary, P. O. Chromium picolinate does not improve key features of metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic adults. Metab Syndr.Relat Disord. 2009;7:143-150. View abstract.
  179. Baresic, M., Gornik, I., Radonic, R., Zlopasa, O., Gubarev, N., and Gasparovic, V. Survival after severe acute chromic acid poisoning complicated with renal and liver failure. Intern.Med. 2009;48:711-715. View abstract.
  180. Gao, W., Liu, L., Liu, Z. Y., Li, X. D., and Li, C. Interstitial injection of P-chromic phosphate during lung cancer resection to treat occult lymphatic metastasis. Nucl.Med.Commun. 2009;30:420-426. View abstract.
  181. Sun, H., Zhou, X., Chen, H., Li, Q., and Costa, M. Modulation of histone methylation and MLH1 gene silencing by hexavalent chromium. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 6-15-2009;237:258-266. View abstract.
  182. Jana, M., Rajaram, A., and Rajaram, R. Chromium picolinate induced apoptosis of lymphocytes and the signaling mechanisms thereof. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 6-15-2009;237:331-344. View abstract.
  183. Lin, C. C., Wu, M. L., Yang, C. C., Ger, J., Tsai, W. J., and Deng, J. F. Acute severe chromium poisoning after dermal exposure to hexavalent chromium. J.Chin Med.Assoc. 2009;72:219-221. View abstract.
  184. Lees, P. S. Chromium and disease: review of epidemiologic studies with particular reference to etiologic information provided by measures of exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 1991;92:93-104. View abstract.
  185. Snow ET. A possible role for chromium(III) in genotoxicity. Environ.Health Perspect. 1991;92:75-81. View abstract.
  186. Wedeen, R. P. and Qian, L. F. Chromium-induced kidney disease. Environ.Health Perspect. 1991;92:71-74. View abstract.
  187. Bagdon RE and Hazen RE. Skin permeation and cutaneous hypersensitivity as a basis for making risk assessments of chromium as a soil contaminant. Environ.Health Perspect. 1991;92:111-119. View abstract.
  188. Iskakov, A. Z., Boev, V. M., and Zasorin, B. V. [Assessment of a risk from environmental factors to human health]. Gig.Sanit. 2009;:4-5. View abstract.
  189. Parsons, A., Ingram, J., Inglis, J., Aveyard, P., Johnstone, E., Brown, K., Franklin, M., and Bermudez, I. A proof of concept randomised placebo controlled factorial trial to examine the efficacy of St John's wort for smoking cessation and chromium to prevent weight gain on smoking cessation. Drug Alcohol Depend. 6-1-2009;102(1-3):116-122. View abstract.
  190. Illner, N., Gerth, J., Pfeiffer, R., Bruns, T., and Wolf, G. "Nearly a stairway to heaven"--severe dichromate intoxication in a young man. Clin.Nephrol. 2009;71:338-341. View abstract.
  191. Jeejeebhoy, K. N., Chu, R. C., Marliss, E. B., Greenberg, G. R., and Bruce-Robertson, A. Chromium deficiency, glucose intolerance, and neuropathy reversed by chromium supplementation, in a patient receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 1977;30:531-538. View abstract.
  192. Pasko, D. A., Churchwell, M. D., Btaiche, I. F., Jain, J. C., and Mueller, B. A. Continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration trace element clearance in pediatric patients: a case series. Pediatr.Nephrol. 2009;24:807-813. View abstract.
  193. d'Errico, A., Pasian, S., Baratti, A., Zanelli, R., Alfonzo, S., Gilardi, L., Beatrice, F., Bena, A., and Costa, G. A case-control study on occupational risk factors for sino-nasal cancer. Occup.Environ.Med. 2009;66:448-455. View abstract.
  194. Lai, M. H. Antioxidant effects and insulin resistance improvement of chromium combined with vitamin C and e supplementation for type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Biochem.Nutr 2008;43:191-198. View abstract.
  195. Pohl, M., Mayr, P., Mertl-Roetzer, M., Lauster, F., Haslbeck, M., Hipper, B., Steube, D., Tietjen, M., Eriksen, J., and Rahlfs, V. W. Glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with a disease-specific enteral formula: stage II of a randomized, controlled multicenter trial. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2009;33:37-49. View abstract.
  196. Caglieri, A., Goldoni, M., De, Palma G., Mozzoni, P., Gemma, S., Vichi, S., Testai, E., Panico, F., Corradi, M., Tagliaferri, S., and Costa, L. G. Exposure to low levels of hexavalent chromium: target doses and comparative effects on two human pulmonary cell lines. Acta Biomed. 2008;79 Suppl 1:104-115. View abstract.
  197. Zhao, F. L., Wen, C. H., and Xu, X. C. [A case of acute chromic acid poisoning]. Zhonghua Lao.Dong.Wei Sheng Zhi.Ye.Bing.Za Zhi. 2008;26:187. View abstract.
  198. Anton, S. D., Morrison, C. D., Cefalu, W. T., Martin, C. K., Coulon, S., Geiselman, P., Han, H., White, C. L., and Williamson, D. A. Effects of chromium picolinate on food intake and satiety. Diabetes Technol.Ther. 2008;10:405-412. View abstract.
  199. Papageorgiou, I., Shadrick, V., Davis, S., Hails, L., Schins, R., Newson, R., Fisher, J., Ingham, E., and Case, C. P. Macrophages detoxify the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of surgical cobalt chrome alloy particles but not quartz particles on human cells in vitro. Mutat.Res. 8-25-2008;643(1-2):11-19. View abstract.
  200. Via, M., Scurlock, C., Raikhelkar, J., Di, Luozzo G., and Mechanick, J. I. Chromium infusion reverses extreme insulin resistance in a cardiothoracic ICU patient. Nutr.Clin.Pract. 2008;23:325-328. View abstract.
  201. Micheletti, E., Colica, G., Viti, C., Tamagnini, P., and De, Philippis R. Selectivity in the heavy metal removal by exopolysaccharide-producing cyanobacteria. J.Appl.Microbiol. 2008;105:88-94. View abstract.
  202. Feiner, J. J., McNurlan, M. A., Ferris, R. E., Mynarcik, D. C., and Gelato, M. C. Chromium picolinate for insulin resistance in subjects with HIV disease: a pilot study. Diabetes Obes.Metab 2008;10:151-158. View abstract.
  203. Hill, R., Leidal, A. M., Madureira, P. A., Gillis, L. D., Cochrane, H. K., Waisman, D. M., Chiu, A., and Lee, P. W. Hypersensitivity to chromium-induced DNA damage correlates with constitutive deregulation of upstream p53 kinases in p21-/- HCT116 colon cancer cells. DNA Repair (Amst) 2-1-2008;7:239-252. View abstract.
  204. Wang, Z. Q., Qin, J., Martin, J., Zhang, X. H., Sereda, O., Anderson, R. A., Pinsonat, P., and Cefalu, W. T. Phenotype of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus may determine clinical response to chromium supplementation. Metabolism 2007;56:1652-1655. View abstract.
  205. Diaz, M. L., Watkins, B. A., Li, Y., Anderson, R. A., and Campbell, W. W. Chromium picolinate and conjugated linoleic acid do not synergistically influence diet- and exercise-induced changes in body composition and health indexes in overweight women. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2008;19:61-68. View abstract.
  206. Balk, E. M., Tatsioni, A., Lichtenstein, A. H., Lau, J., and Pittas, A. G. Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2007;30:2154-2163. View abstract.
  207. Strehblow, C., Gyongyosi, M., Zenker, G., Wallner, H., Heigert, M., Siostrzonek, P., Tischler, R., Probst, P., Lang, I., Sochor, H., and Glogar, D. Small vessel stenting with cobalt-chromium stents (Arthos Pico) in a real world setting. Coron.Artery Dis. 2007;18:305-311. View abstract.
  208. Wang, T. Y., Hasselblad, V., Peterson, J. L., Wijns, W., Parhizgar, A., Kereiakes, D. J., and Krucoff, M. W. The Cobalt chromium STent with Antiproliferative for Restenosis II (COSTAR II) trial study design: advancing the active-control evaluation of second-generation drug-eluting stents. Am.Heart J 2007;153:743-748. View abstract.
  209. Boloorchi, A., Sinna, R., Benhaim, T., Gobel, F., and Robbe, M. [Chromic acid burns: systematic prevention of systemic toxicity]. Ann.Chir Plast.Esthet. 2007;52:621-623. View abstract.
  210. Kleefstra, N., Houweling, S. T., Bakker, S. J., Verhoeven, S., Gans, R. O., Meyboom-de Jong, B., and Bilo, H. J. Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2007;30:1092-1096. View abstract.
  211. Lukaski, H. C., Siders, W. A., and Penland, J. G. Chromium picolinate supplementation in women: effects on body weight, composition, and iron status. Nutrition 2007;23:187-195. View abstract.
  212. Ortolani, P., Marzocchi, A., Marrozzini, C., Palmerini, T., Saia, F., Taglieri, N., Aquilina, M., Baldazzi, F., Silenzi, S., Cooke, R. M., Reggiani, M. L., and Branzi, A. Randomized comparative trial of a thin-strut bare metal cobalt-chromium stent versus a sirolimus-eluting stent for coronary revascularization. Catheter.Cardiovasc.Interv. 5-1-2007;69:790-798. View abstract.
  213. Aharoni, A., Tesler, B., Paltieli, Y., Tal, J., Dori, Z., and Sharf, M. Hair chromium content of women with gestational diabetes compared with nondiabetic pregnant women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:104-107. View abstract.
  214. Amann, B. L., Mergl, R., Vieta, E., Born, C., Hermisson, I., Seemueller, F., Dittmann, S., and Grunze, H. A 2-year, open-label pilot study of adjunctive chromium in patients with treatment-resistant rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. J Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2007;27:104-106. View abstract.
  215. Volek, J. S., Silvestre, R., Kirwan, J. P., Sharman, M. J., Judelson, D. A., Spiering, B. A., Vingren, J. L., Maresh, C. M., Vanheest, J. L., and Kraemer, W. J. Effects of chromium supplementation on glycogen synthesis after high-intensity exercise. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2006;38:2102-2109. View abstract.
  216. Seyler, T. M., Bonutti, P. M., Shen, J., Naughton, M., and Kester, M. Use of an alumina-on-alumina bearing system in total hip arthroplasty for osteonecrosis of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg.Am. 2006;88 Suppl 3:116-125. View abstract.
  217. Hasegawa, M., Sudo, A., and Uchida, A. Cobalt-chromium head wear following revision hip arthroplasty performed after ceramic fracture--a case report. Acta Orthop. 2006;77:833-835. View abstract.
  218. Hisatomi, K., Ishii, H., Hashiguchi, K., Seki, M., Ide, M., Sugiyama, K., Ishimoto, H., Nakayama, S., Mukae, H., and Kohno, S. Interstitial pneumonia caused by inhalation of fumes of nickel and chrome. Respirology. 2006;11:814-817. View abstract.
  219. Hockney, R. A., Montgomery, P., Williams, C., Geddes, J. R., and Cowen, P. J. Lack of effect of chromium supplementation on mental state and body weight in people with schizophrenia. J Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2006;26:544-545. View abstract.
  220. Choi, K., Lee, S. S., Oh, S. J., Lim, S. Y., Lim, S. Y., Jeon, W. K., Oh, T. Y., and Kim, J. W. The effect of oral glutamine on 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin-induced mucositis/stomatitis assessed by intestinal permeability test. Clin.Nutr. 2007;26:57-62. View abstract.
  221. Williams, R. J., Bibb, R., Eggbeer, D., and Collis, J. Use of CAD/CAM technology to fabricate a removable partial denture framework. J Prosthet.Dent. 2006;96:96-99. View abstract.
  222. Cruz, M. J., Costa, R., Marquilles, E., Morell, F., and Munoz, X. [Occupational asthma caused by chromium and nickel]. Arch.Bronconeumol. 2006;42:302-306. View abstract.
  223. Henricson, A., Dalen, T., and Nilsson, K. G. Mobile bearings do not improve fixation in cemented total knee arthroplasty. Clin.Orthop.Relat Res. 2006;448:114-121. View abstract.
  224. Zhou, Z. K., Li, M. G., Borlin, N., Wood, D. J., and Nivbrant, B. No increased migration in cups with ceramic-on-ceramic bearing: an RSA study. Clin.Orthop.Relat Res. 2006;448:39-45. View abstract.
  225. Pei, D., Hsieh, C. H., Hung, Y. J., Li, J. C., Lee, C. H., and Kuo, S. W. The influence of chromium chloride-containing milk to glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Metabolism 2006;55:923-927. View abstract.
  226. Borin, J. F., Melamud, O., and Clayman, R. V. Initial experience with full-length metal stent to relieve malignant ureteral obstruction. J Endourol. 2006;20:300-304. View abstract.
  227. Racek, J., Trefil, L., Rajdl, D., Mudrova, V., Hunter, D., and Senft, V. Influence of chromium-enriched yeast on blood glucose and insulin variables, blood lipids, and markers of oxidative stress in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2006;109:215-230. View abstract.
  228. Preuss, H. G., Garis, R. I., Bramble, J. D., Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., Rao, C. V., and Satyanarayana, S. Efficacy of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid in weight control. Int.J Clin.Pharmacol.Res. 2005;25:133-144. View abstract.
  229. Lucidi, R. S., Thyer, A. C., Easton, C. A., Holden, A. E., Schenken, R. S., and Brzyski, R. G. Effect of chromium supplementation on insulin resistance and ovarian and menstrual cyclicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil.Steril. 2005;84:1755-1757. View abstract.
  230. Chen, G., Liu, P., Pattar, G. R., Tackett, L., Bhonagiri, P., Strawbridge, A. B., and Elmendorf, J. S. Chromium activates glucose transporter 4 trafficking and enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism. Mol.Endocrinol. 2006;20:857-870. View abstract.
  231. Hannu, T., Piipari, R., Kasurinen, H., Keskinen, H., Tuppurainen, M., and Tuomi, T. Occupational asthma due to manual metal-arc welding of special stainless steels. Eur.Respir.J 2005;26:736-739. View abstract.
  232. Docherty, J. P., Sack, D. A., Roffman, M., Finch, M., and Komorowski, J. R. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory trial of chromium picolinate in atypical depression: effect on carbohydrate craving. J Psychiatr.Pract. 2005;11:302-314. View abstract.
  233. Vrtovec, M., Vrtovec, B., Briski, A., Kocijancic, A., Anderson, R. A., and Radovancevic, B. Chromium supplementation shortens QTc interval duration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am.Heart J. 2005;149:632-636. View abstract.
  234. Pittler, M. H. and Ernst, E. Complementary therapies for reducing body weight: a systematic review. Int.J.Obes.(Lond) 2005;29:1030-1038. View abstract.
  235. Saper, R. B., Eisenberg, D. M., and Phillips, R. S. Common dietary supplements for weight loss. Am.Fam.Physician 11-1-2004;70:1731-1738. View abstract.
  236. Cefalu, W. T. and Hu, F. B. Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2741-2751. View abstract.
  237. Chang, X. and Mowat, D. N. Supplemental chromium for stressed and growing feeder calves. J Anim Sci 1992;70:559-565. View abstract.
  238. Pittler, M. H. and Ernst, E. Dietary supplements for body-weight reduction: a systematic review. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2004;79:529-536. View abstract.
  239. Keszthelyi, Z., Past, T., Koltai, K., Szabo, L., and Mozsik, G. [Chromium (III)-ion enhances the utilization of glucose in type-2 diabetes mellitus]. Orv.Hetil. 10-19-2003;144:2073-2076. View abstract.
  240. Anderson RA, Bryden NA, and Polansky MM. Dietary chromium intake. Freely chosen diets, institutional diet, and individual foods. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1992;32:117-121. View abstract.
  241. Hasten, D. L., Rome, E. P., Franks, B. D., and Hegsted, M. Effects of chromium picolinate on beginning weight training students. Int.J.Sport Nutr. 1992;2:343-350. View abstract.
  242. Ghosh, D., Bhattacharya, B., Mukherjee, B., Manna, B., Sinha, M., Chowdhury, J., and Chowdhury, S. Role of chromium supplementation in Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J.Nutr.Biochem. 2002;13:690-697. View abstract.
  243. Rhee, Y. S., Hermann, J. R., Burnham, K., Arquitt, A. B., and Stoecker, B. J. The effects of chromium and copper supplementation on mitogen-stimulated T cell proliferation in hypercholesterolaemic postmenopausal women. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 2002;127:463-469. View abstract.
  244. Shapiro, K. and Gong, W. C. Natural products used for diabetes. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash.) 2002;42:217-226. View abstract.
  245. Livolsi, J. M., Adams, G. M., and Laguna, P. L. The effect of chromium picolinate on muscular strength and body composition in women athletes. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2001;15:161-166. View abstract.
  246. Bahijri, S. M. Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Saudi.Med.J 2000;21:45-50. View abstract.
  247. Preuss, H. G., Wallerstedt, D., Talpur, N., Tutuncuoglu, S. O., Echard, B., Myers, A., Bui, M., and Bagchi, D. Effects of niacin-bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study. J Med 2000;31(5-6):227-246. View abstract.
  248. Anderson, R. A., Roussel, A. M., Zouari, N., Mahjoub, S., Matheau, J. M., and Kerkeni, A. Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2001;20:212-218. View abstract.
  249. McLeod, M. N. and Golden, R. N. Chromium treatment of depression. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2000;3:311-314. View abstract.
  250. Smith, A. Antidepressant chromium. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1-1-2001;22:12. View abstract.
  251. Acharya, S., Mehta, K., Krishnan, S., and Rao, C. V. A subtoxic interactive toxicity study of ethanol and chromium in male Wistar rats. Alcohol 2001;23:99-108. View abstract.
  252. Trumbo, P., Yates, A. A., Schlicker, S., and Poos, M. Dietary reference intakes: vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 2001;101:294-301. View abstract.
  253. O'Flaherty, E. J., Kerger, B. D., Hays, S. M., and Paustenbach, D. J. A physiologically based model for the ingestion of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) by humans. Toxicol.Sci 2001;60:196-213. View abstract.
  254. Crawford, V., Scheckenbach, R., and Preuss, H. G. Effects of niacin-bound chromium supplementation on body composition in overweight African-American women. Diabetes Obes.Metab 1999;1:331-337. View abstract.
  255. Jannetto, P. J., Antholine, W. E., and Myers, C. R. Cytochrome b View abstract.
  256. Basketter, D., Horev, L., Slodovnik, D., Merimes, S., Trattner, A., and Ingber, A. Investigation of the threshold for allergic reactivity to chromium. Contact Dermatitis 2001;44:70-74. View abstract.
  257. Lukaski, H. C. Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutriture and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(2 Suppl):585S-593S. View abstract.
  258. Vincent, J. B. Elucidating a biological role for chromium at a molecular level. Acc.Chem.Res 2000;33:503-510. View abstract.
  259. Gibb, H. J., Lees, P. S., Pinsky, P. F., and Rooney, B. C. Clinical findings of irritation among chromium chemical production workers. Am J Ind.Med 2000;38:127-131. View abstract.
  260. Gibb, H. J., Lees, P. S., Pinsky, P. F., and Rooney, B. C. Lung cancer among workers in chromium chemical production. Am J Ind.Med 2000;38:115-126. View abstract.
  261. Matey, P., Allison, K. P., Sheehan, T. M., and Gowar, J. P. Chromic acid burns: early aggressive excision is the best method to prevent systemic toxicity. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2000;21:241-245. View abstract.
  262. Amato, P., Morales, A. J., and Yen, S. S. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and body composition in healthy, nonobese, older men and women. J Gerontol.A Biol.Sci Med Sci 2000;55:M260-M263. View abstract.
  263. Vincent, J. B. Quest for the molecular mechanism of chromium action and its relationship to diabetes. Nutr.Rev. 2000;58(3 Pt 1):67-72. View abstract.
  264. Kelly, G. S. Insulin resistance: lifestyle and nutritional interventions. Altern.Med Rev 2000;5:109-132. View abstract.
  265. Anderson, R. A. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes Metab 2000;26:22-27. View abstract.
  266. Trow, L. G., Lewis, J., Greenwood, R. H., Sampson, M. J., Self, K. A., Crews, H. M., and Fairweather-Tait, S. J. Lack of effect of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and lipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Int.J Vitam.Nutr.Res 2000;70:14-18. View abstract.
  267. Jeejeebhoy, K. N. The role of chromium in nutrition and therapeutics and as a potential toxin. Nutr Rev. 1999;57:329-335. View abstract.
  268. McCarron, P., Harvey, I., Brogan, R., and Peters, T. J. Self reported health of people in an area contaminated by chromium waste: interview study. BMJ 1-1-2000;320:11-15. View abstract.
  269. Shumilla, J. A., Broderick, R. J., Wang, Y., and Barchowsky, A. Chromium(VI) inhibits the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor- kappaB by decreasing the interaction of p65 with cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 12-17-1999;274:36207-36212. View abstract.
  270. Stupar, J., Vrtovec, M., Kocijancic, A., and Gantar, A. Chromium status of tannery workers in relation to metabolic disorders. J Appl.Toxicol. 1999;19:437-446. View abstract.
  271. Young P, Turiansky G, Bonner M, and et al. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis induced by chromium picolinate. J.Am Acad.Dermatol. 1999;41(5 Pt 2):820-823. View abstract.
  272. Prasad, K. N., Cole, W. C., and Kumar, B. Multiple antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of Parkinson's disease. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18:413-423. View abstract.
  273. Porter, D. J., Raymond, L. W., and Anastasio, G. D. Chromium: friend or foe? Arch.Fam.Med 1999;8:386-390. View abstract.
  274. Anderson, R. A. Chromium and diabetes. Nutrition 1999;15:720-722. View abstract.
  275. Lukaski, H. C. Chromium as a supplement. Annu.Rev.Nutr. 1999;19:279-302. View abstract.
  276. Morris, B. W., MacNeil, S., Hardisty, C. A., Heller, S., Burgin, C., and Gray, T. A. Chromium homeostasis in patients with type II (NIDDM) diabetes. J Trace Elem Med Biol 1999;13(1-2):57-61. View abstract.
  277. Joseph, L. J., Farrell, P. A., Davey, S. L., Evans, W. J., and Campbell, W. W. Effect of resistance training with or without chromium picolinate supplementation on glucose metabolism in older men and women. Metabolism 1999;48:546-553. View abstract.
  278. McCarty, M. F. Complementary measures for promoting insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Med Hypotheses 1998;51:451-464. View abstract.
  279. Elwood, J. C., Nash, D. T., and Streeten, D. H. Effect of high-chromium brewer's yeast on human serum lipids. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 1982;1:263-274. View abstract.
  280. Elias, A. N., Grossman, M. K., and Valenta, L. J. Use of the artificial beta cell (ABC) in the assessment of peripheral insulin sensitivity: effect of chromium supplementation in diabetic patients. Gen.Pharmacol. 1984;15:535-539. View abstract.
  281. Offenbacher, E. G. Chromium in the elderly. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 1992;32:123-131. View abstract.
  282. Bahijri, S. M. and Mufti, A. M. Beneficial effects of chromium in people with type 2 diabetes, and urinary chromium response to glucose load as a possible indicator of status. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2002;85:97-109. View abstract.
  283. Bahijiri, S. M., Mira, S. A., Mufti, A. M., and Ajabnoor, M. A. The effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast supplementation on glucose tolerance, serum lipids and drug dosage in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Saudi.Med.J. 2000;21:831-837. View abstract.
  284. Opala, T., Rzymski, P., Pischel, I., Wilczak, M., and Wozniak, J. Efficacy of 12 weeks supplementation of a botanical extract-based weight loss formula on body weight, body composition and blood chemistry in healthy, overweight subjects--a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Med Res 8-30-2006;11:343-350. View abstract.
  285. Bartlett, H. E. and Eperjesi, F. Nutritional supplementation for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2008;28:503-523. View abstract.
  286. Geohas J, Daly A, Juturu V, et al. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination reduces atherogenic index of plasma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Am J Med Sci. 2007 Mar;333:145-53. View abstract.
  287. Yazaki Y, Faridi Z, Ma Y, et al. A pilot study of chromium picolinate for weight loss. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16:291-9. View abstract.
  288. Aldosary BM, Sutter ME, Schwartz M, Morgan BW. Case series of selenium toxicity from a nutritional supplement. Clin Toxicol 2012;50:57-64. View abstract.
  289. John-Kalarickal J, Pearlman G, Carlson HE. New medications which decrease levothyroxine absorption. Thyroid 2007;17:763-5. View abstract.
  290. Singer GM, Geohas J. The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial. Diabetes Technol Ther 2006;8:636-43. View abstract.
  291. Lydic ML, McNurlan M, Bembo S, et al. Chromium picolinate improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2006;86:243-6. View abstract.
  292. Martin J, Wang ZQ, Zhang XH, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation attenuates body weight gain and increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006;29:1826-32. View abstract.
  293. Kleefstra N, Houweling ST, Jansman FG, et al. Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with poorly controlled, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in an obese Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2006;29:521-5. View abstract.
  294. Wani S, Weskamp C, Marple J, Spry L. Acute tubular necrosis associated with chromium picolinate-containing dietary supplement. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:563-6. View abstract.
  295. Wise A. Chromium supplementation and diabetes. JAMA 1978;240:2045-6. View abstract.
  296. Freund H, Atamian S, Fischer JE. Chromium deficiency during total parenteral nutrition. JAMA 1979;241:496-8. View abstract.
  297. Saner G, Yuzbasiyan V, Neyzi O, et al. Alterations of chromium metabolism and effect of chromium supplementation in Turner's syndrome patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:574-8. View abstract.
  298. Guallar E, Jimenez FJ, van 't Veer P, et al. Low toenail chromium concentration and increased risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction. Am J Epidemiol 2005;162:157-64. View abstract.
  299. Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, Lesser II. Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:293-306. View abstract.
  300. Frauchiger MT, Wenk C, Colombani PC. Effects of acute chromium supplementation on postprandial metabolism in healthy young men. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:351-7. View abstract.
  301. Morris BW, Kemp GJ, Hardisty CA. Plasma chromium and chromium excretion in diabetes. Clin Chem 1985;31:334-5. View abstract.
  302. Cheng HH, Lai MH, Hou WC, Huang CL. Antioxidant effects of chromium supplementation with type 2 diabetes mellitus and euglycemic subjects. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:1385-9. View abstract.
  303. Uusitupa MI, Kumpulainen JT, Voutilainen E, et al. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:404-10. View abstract.
  304. Uusitupa MI, Mykkanen L, Siitonen O, et al. Chromium supplementation in impaired glucose tolerance of elderly: effects on blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide and lipid levels. Br J Nutr 1992;68:209-16. View abstract.
  305. Mulyani I, Levina A, Lay PA. Biomimetic oxidation of chromium(III): does the antidiabetic activity of chromium(III) involve carcinogenic chromium(VI)? Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2004;43:4504-7. View abstract.
  306. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Prototype monograph on chromium picolinate. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2005. Available at: http://www.iom.edu/CMS/3788/19554.aspx.
  307. Qualified Health Claims: Letter of Enforcement Discretion -Chromium Picolinate and Insulin Resistance (Docket No. 2004Q-0144).CFSAN/Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements August 25, 2005. Available at: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/qhccr.html.
  308. Gunton JE, Cheung NW, Hitchman R, et al. Chromium supplementation does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, or lipid profile: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of supplementation in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care 2005;28:712-3. View abstract.
  309. Stevens T, Qadri A, Zein NN. Two patients with acute liver injury associated with use of the herbal weight-loss supplement hydroxycut. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:477-8. View abstract.
  310. Albarracin C, Fuqua B, Evans JL, Goldfine ID. Chromium picolinate and biotin combination improves glucose metabolism in treated, uncontrolled overweight to obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2008;24:41-51. View abstract.
  311. Geohas J, Finch M, Juturu V, et al. Improvement in Fasting Blood Glucose with the Combination of Chromium Picolinate and Biotin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. American Diabetes Association 64th Annual Meeting, June 2004, Orlando, Florida, abstract 191-OR.
  312. Pittler MH, Stevinson C, Ernst E. Chromium picolinate for reducing body weight: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003;27:522-9. View abstract.
  313. Rajpathak S, Rimm EB, Li T, et al. Lower toenail chromium in men with diabetes and cardiovascular disease compared with healthy men. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2211-6. View abstract.
  314. Cefalu WT, Hu FB. Role of chromium in human health and in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2741-51.
  315. Mouser JF, Hak EB, Helms RA, et al. Chromium and zinc concentrations in pediatric patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56:1950-6. View abstract.
  316. Food Standards Agency. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals. Available at: http://www.foodstandards.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/vitmin2003.pdf.
  317. Urberg M, Zemel MB. Evidence for synergism between chromium and nicotinic acid in the control of glucose tolerance in elderly humans. Metabolism 1987;36:896-9. View abstract.
  318. Davidson JR, Abraham K, Connor KM, McLeod MN. Effectiveness of chromium in atypical depression: a placebo-controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry 2003;53:261-4.. View abstract.
  319. Kockler DR, McCarthy MW, Lawson CL. Seizure activity and unresponsiveness after hydroxycut ingestion. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21:647-51.. View abstract.
  320. Lanca S, Alves A, Vieira AI, et al. Chromium-induced toxic hepatitis. Eur J Intern Med 2002;13:518-20.. View abstract.
  321. Attenburrow MJ, Odontiadis J, Murray BJ, et al. Chromium treatment decreases the sensitivity of 5-HT2A receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002;159:432-6. View abstract.
  322. Althius MD, Jordon NE, Ludington EA, Wittes JT. Glucose and insulin responses to dietary chromium supplements: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:148-55. View abstract.
  323. Hoeger WW, Harris C, Long EM, Hopkins DR. Four-week supplementation with a natural dietary compound produces favorable changes in body composition. Adv Ther 1998;15:305-14. View abstract.
  324. Blasiak J, Kowalik J. A comparison of the in vitro genotoxicity of tri- and hexavalent chromium. Mutat Res 2000;469:135-45. View abstract.
  325. Rabinovitz H, Friedensohn A, Leibovitz A, et al. Effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus elderly patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2004;74:178-82. View abstract.
  326. Rubin MA, Miller JP, Ryan AS, et al. Acute and chronic resistive exercise increase urinary chromium excretion in men as measured with an enriched chromium stable isotope. J Nutr 1998;128:73-78. View abstract.
  327. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at: www.nap.edu/books/0309072794/html/.
  328. Minerals for diabetes. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter 2000;16:160212.
  329. Abraham AS, Brooks BA, Eylath U. The effects of chromium supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in patients with and without non-insulin dependent diabetes. Metabolism 1992;41:768-71. View abstract.
  330. Davies S, Howard JM, Hunnisett A, et al. Age-related decreases in chromium levels in 51,665 hair, sweat, and serum samples from 40,872 patients - implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Metabolism 1997;46:469-73. View abstract.
  331. Vincent JB. The biochemistry of chromium. J Nutr 2000;130:715-8. View abstract.
  332. Kaats GR, Blum K, Pullin D, et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of the effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a replication and extension of a previous study. Curr Ther Res 1998;59:379-88.
  333. Anderson RA, Cheng N, Bryden NA, et al. Elevated intakes of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1997;46:1786-91. View abstract.
  334. McCarty MF. Chromium supplementation and iron metabolism [letter]. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:890-2. View abstract.
  335. Campbell WW, Beard JL, Joseph LJ, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation and resistive training by older men: effects on iron status and hematologic indexes. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:944-9. View abstract.
  336. Kaats GR, Blum K, Fisher JA, Adelman JA. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:747-56.
  337. Stearns DM, Belbruno JJ, Wetterhahn KE. A prediction of chromium (III) accumulation in humans from chromium dietary supplements. FASEB J 1995;9:1650-7. View abstract.
  338. Hallmark MA, Reynolds TH, DeSouza CA, et al. Effects of chromium and resistive training on muscle strength and body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:139-44. View abstract.
  339. Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW, Siders WA, Milne DB. Chromium supplementation and resistance training: effects on body composition, strength, and trace element status of men. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:954-65. View abstract.
  340. Trent LK, Thieding-Cancel D. Effects of chromium picolinate on body composition. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1995;35:273-80. View abstract.
  341. Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, et al. Effects of supplemental chromium on patients with symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia. Metabolism 1987;36:351-5. View abstract.
  342. Liu VJ, Abernathy RP. Chromium and insulin in young subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35:661-7. View abstract.
  343. Fowler JF Jr. Systemic contact dermatitis caused by oral chromium picolinate. Cutis 2000;65:116. View abstract.
  344. Wang ZQ, Zhang XH, Baldor LC, et al. Chromium picolinate enhances insulin sensitivity in an animal model for the metabolic syndrome: the obese, insulin resistant JCR:LA-corpulent rat. Am Diabetes Assn's 60th Sci Sessions & Expo, San Antonio, TX 2000;Jun 9-13: abstract 291.
  345. Stricker PR. Other ergogenic agents. Clin Sports Med 1998;17:283-97. View abstract.
  346. Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levin SR, Davidson MB. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care 1983;6:319-27. View abstract.
  347. Roeback JR Jr, Hla KM, Chambless LE, Fletcher RH. Effects of chromium supplementation on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men taking beta-blockers. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:917-24. View abstract.
  348. Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, et al. Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitus with supplemental chromium. Diabet Med 1999;16:164-7. View abstract.
  349. Maher TJ. Chromium and other minerals in diabetes mellitus. US Pharm 1999;24:66-76.
  350. McLeod MN, Gaynes BN, Golden RN. Chromium potentiation of antidepressant pharmacotherapy for dysthymic disorder in 5 patients. J Clin Psych 1999;60:237-40. View abstract.
  351. Anderson RA. Chromium, glucose intolerance and diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:548-55. View abstract.
  352. Mertz W. Interaction of chromium with insulin: a progress report. Nutr Rev 1998;56:174-7. View abstract.
  353. Wasser WG, Feldman NS, D'Agati VD. Chronic renal failure after ingestion of over-the-counter chromium picolinate. [letter]. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:410. View abstract.
  354. Hahn CJ, Evans GW. Absorption of trace metals in the zinc-deficient rat. Am J Physiol 1975;228:1020-3. View abstract.
  355. Grant KE, Chandler RM, Castle AL, Ivy JL. Chromium and exercise training: effect on obese women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29:992-8. View abstract.
  356. Mohamedshah FY, Moser-Veillon PB, Yamini S, et al. Distribution of a stable isotope of chromium (53Cr) in serum, urine, and breast milk in lactating women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:1250-5. View abstract.
  357. Urberg M, Zemel MB. Evidence for synergism between chromium and nicotinic acid in the control of glucose tolerance in elderly humans. Metabolism 1987;36:896-9. View abstract.
  358. Fox GN, Sabovic Z. Chromium picolinate supplementation for diabetes mellitus. J Fam Pract 1998;46:83-6. View abstract.
  359. Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449-52. View abstract.
  360. Speetjens JK, Collins RA, Vincent JB, Woski SA. The nutritional supplement chromium(III) tris(picolinate) cleaves DNA. Chem Res Toxicol 1999;12:483-7. View abstract.
  361. Heymsfield SB, Allison DB, Vasselli JR, et al. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid) as a potential antiobesity agent: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998;280:1596-600. View abstract.
  362. Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Gauthier I, et al. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:428-31. View abstract.
Mostrar más referencias
Mostrar menos referencias
Documento revisado - 11/08/2011




Página actualizada 27 octubre 2014