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Piridoxina (vitamina B6)


¿Qué es?

La piridoxina es una vitamina. Se puede encontrar en algunos alimentos como los cereales, los frijoles (porotos), las verduras, el hígado, la carne y los huevos. También se puede sintetizar en el laboratorio.

La piridoxina se usa para la prevención y el tratamiento de los niveles bajos de piridoxina (deficiencia de piridoxina) y la anemia que puede resultar a causa de esta deficiencia. También se usa para las enfermedades del corazón; el colesterol alto; para reducir los niveles de homocisteína en la sangre, una sustancia química que podría estar vinculada a las enfermedades del corazón; y en el caso de las arterias bloqueadas se usa para ayudar a mantenerlas abiertas después de un procedimiento de balón para desbloquearlas (angioplastia coronaria con balón).

Las mujeres usan la piridoxina para el síndrome premenstrual (SPM) y otros problemas de la menstruación, para las “náuseas matinales” (náuseas y vómitos) al principio del embarazo, para parar el flujo de leche después del parto, para la depresión relacionada con el embarazo o el uso de píldoras anticonceptivas y para otros síntomas de la menopausia.

La piridoxina también se usa para la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), el síndrome de Down, el autismo, la diabetes y los dolores de nervio, la anemia de células falciformes, los dolores de cabeza de migraña, el asma, el síndrome del túnel carpiano, los calambres nocturnos en las piernas, los calambres musculares, la artritis, las alergias, el acné y varias otros trastornos de la piel y para la infertilidad. También se usa para los mareos, los mareos de viaje, para prevenir la enfermedad de los ojos llamada degeneración macular relacionada con la edad (AMD), las convulsiones, las convulsiones debido a la fiebre, para los trastornos de movimiento (diskinesia tardía, hiperkinesia, corea), para aumentar el apetito y para ayudar a la gente a recordar sus sueños.

Algunas personas usan la piridoxina para aumentar el sistema inmunológico, para las infecciones oculares, para las infecciones de la vejiga y para prevenir el cáncer y los cálculos renales.

La piridoxina también se usa para superar ciertos efectos secundarios dañinos que están relacionados con el tratamiento de radiación y el tratamiento con medicamentos tales como la mitomicina, la procarbazina, la cicloserina, el fluorouracil, la hidrazina, la isoniazida, la penicilamina y la vincristina.

La piridoxina se usa con frecuencia en combinación con otras vitaminas B en productos del complejo de vitaminas B.

Usted puede recordar un medicamento, de venta bajo receta médica, llamado Bendectin que se usaba para las náuseas matinales en el embarazo. Bendectin contenía piridoxina y un antihistamínico que produce sueño llamado doxilamina . En 1983 los fabricantes del Bendectin lo retiraron del mercado porque estaban gastando mucho dinero en la defensa legal de su producto. La gente que se oponía a su uso acusaba que podría producir defectos de nacimiento. Mientras tanto, un producto llamado Diclectin que es similar al Bendectin permaneció a la venta en Canadá, e investigaciones que se hicieron demostraron que ni la piridoxina ni el Bendectin parecen producir defectos congénitos en animales. Después de que el Bendectin fue retirado del mercado, no hubo una disminución en los nacimientos con defectos congénitos, pero la cantidad de hospitalizaciones por náuseas y vómitos relacionados con el embarazo se duplicó.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Eficaz para...

  • Para la prevención y el tratamiento de la deficiencia de piridoxina.
  • Para el tratamiento de un tipo de anemia llamada anemia sideroblástica.
  • Para el tratamiento de algunos tipos de convulsiones en infantes cuando se da por vía intravenosa (IV).

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • Reducir los niveles altos de homocisteína, una sustancia que se cree está involucrada en enfermedades del corazón.

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • El malestar estomacal y vómitos durante el embarazo. Algunas investigaciones sugieren que la piridoxina no mejora tanto los síntomas de las náuseas cuando estas son sólo leves y no severas. El Colegio Americano de Obstetricia y Ginecología considera a la piridoxina como el tratamiento recomendado para las náuseas y vómitos debido al embarazo. Para las personas que no muestran una mejoría con sólo piridoxina se recomienda la adición del medicamento doxilamina.
  • Los síntomas del síndrome premenstrual (SPM) tales como dolor de los senos y la depresión. Se debe usar la dosis más baja que sea eficaz. Las dosis más altas aumentan el riesgo de efectos secundarios.
  • Los cálculos renales. Hay cierta evidencia que muestra que el tomar piridoxina sola o combinada con magnesio puede disminuir el riesgo de cálculos renales en las personas con hiperoxaluria primaria de tipo I, una enfermedad hereditaria. Pero no parece ayudar a otras personas con otros tipos de cálculos renales.
  • El trastorno de movimiento (diskinesia tardía) en las personas tomando medicamentos para desórdenes mentales.
  • Los problemas de comportamiento en los niños con bajo nivel de una sustancia química llamada serotonina.
  • Reducir el riesgo de cáncer al pulmón en los hombres que fuman.
  • La degeneración macular. Algunas investigaciones muestran que el tomar piridoxina con otras vitaminas, incluyendo ácido fólico y vitamina B12 podría ayudar a prevenir la enfermedad de los ojos llamada degeneración macular relacionada con la edad.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • El autismo.
  • El síndrome del túnel carpiano.
  • Prevenir otro derrame cerebral.
  • La enfermedad de Alzheimer.
  • Para mejorar el pensamiento y la memoria en las personas de 65 años y mayores, cuando se usa en combinación con ácido fólico y vitamina B12.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Evitar que se vuelvan a bloquear los vasos sanguíneos después de la angioplastia.
  • Aumentar el sistema inmunológico.
  • Los calambres musculares.
  • Los problemas oculares.
  • Los problemas renales.
  • Los calambres nocturnos en las piernas.
  • La artritis.
  • Las alergias.
  • El trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH).
  • La enfermedad de Lyme.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para evaluar a la piridoxina para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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La piridoxina es requerida para el funcionamiento apropiado de los azúcares, las grasas y las proteínas en el cuerpo. Es necesaria también para el crecimiento y desarrollo adecuado del cerebro, de los nervios, de la piel y de muchas otras partes del cuerpo.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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La piridoxina PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURA para la mayoría de las personas. En algunas personas la piridoxina puede producir náuseas, vómitos, dolor de estómago, pérdida de apetito, dolor de cabeza, hormigueo, sueño y otros efectos secundarios.

El uso a largo plazo de dosis altas POSIBLEMENTE NO ES SEGURO. Podría producir ciertos problemas cerebrales y de los nervios.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: La piridoxina PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURA para las mujeres embarazadas cuando se toma bajo la supervisión de un profesional de la salud. Se usa a veces durante el embarazo para controlar las náuseas de embarazo. Las dosis altas NO SON SEGURAS. Las dosis altas puede producir convulsiones en los recién nacidos.

La piridoxina PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURA para las personas amamantando cuando se usa en cantidades no mayores de 2 mg por día (la ingesta dietética recomendada). Evite el uso de cantidades mayores. No se tiene suficiente información acerca del uso de piridoxina en dosis más altas en las mujeres amamantando.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Serias

No tome esta combinación

Fenitoína (Dilantin)
El cuerpo descompone la fenitoína (Dilantin) para eliminarla. La piridoxina (vitamina B6) puede aumentar la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone la fenitoína. El tomar piridoxina (vitamina B6) y fenitoína (Dilantin) podría disminuir la eficacia de la fenitoína (Dilantin) y aumentar la posibilidad de convulsiones. No tome dosis grandes de piridoxina (vitamina B6) si está tomando fenitoína (Dilantin).

Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Amiodarone (Cordarone)
La amiodarona (Cordarone) podría aumentar su sensibilidad al sol. El tomar vitamina B6 (piridoxina) junto con amiodarona (Cordarone) podría aumentar las posibilidades de quemaduras solares y ampollas o erupciones en las áreas de la piel expuestas al sol. Asegúrese de usar bloqueador de sol y ropa protectora cuando pase tiempo bajo el sol.

Phenobarbital (Luminal)
El cuerpo descompone el fenobarbital para eliminarlo. La piridoxina puede aumentar la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone el fenobarbital (Luminal). Esto podría disminuir la eficacia del fenobarbital (Luminal).

Menores

Preste atención a esta combinación

Levodopa
El cuerpo descompone la levodopa para eliminarla. La vitamina B6 (piridoxina) puede aumentar la rapidez con que el cuerpo descompone y elimina la levodopa. Pero esto solo es un problema si está tomando levodopa por sí sola. La mayoría de las personas toman levodopa junto con carbidopa (Sinemet). La carbidopa evita que esta interacción ocurra. Si usted está tomando levodopa sin carbidopa no tome vitamina B6.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con hierbas y suplementos.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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Las siguientes dosis han sido estudiadas en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para la deficiencia de vitamina B6 en los adultos: la dosis típica es de 2,5-25 mg diarios por 3 semanas y después 1,5-2,5 mg por día como un tratamiento de mantención.
  • Para la deficiencia de vitamina B6 en las mujeres tomando píldoras anticonceptivas: la dosis es de 25-30 mg por día.
  • Para los síntomas del síndrome premenstrual (SPM), la dosis diaria es 50-100 mg.
  • Se han usado dosis tan grandes como 500 mg por día, pero dosis diarias de más de 100 mg no parecen ofrecer un beneficio adicional y puede aumentar el riesgo de efectos secundarios nocivos.
  • Para la anemia sideroblástica hereditaria se usan: 200-600 mg por día para empezar y luego de una mejoría se disminuye a 30-50 mg por día.
  • Para los cálculos de los riñones: se han usado 25-500 mg diarios.
  • Para el tratamiento de diskinesia tardía: se empieza con 100 mg por día y se aumenta cada semana en forma gradual hasta 400 mg por día, distribuida en 2 dosis.
  • Para prevenir la degeneración macular: se toma 50 mg de vitamina B6 en combinación con 1000 mcg de vitamina B12 (cianocobalamina) y 2500 mcg de ácido fólico.
  • Para las náuseas en el embarazo: Se ha usado 10-25 mg de piridoxina tres o cuatro veces al día; alternativamente una combinación de 75 mg de piridoxina de liberación sostenida y 12 mcg de vitamina B12 (cianocobalamina), 1 mg de ácido fólico y 200 mg de calcio (PremesisRX) se usa diariamente como un medicamento de receta médica aprobado por el FDA para las náuseas durante el embarazo.
La ingesta diaria recomendada (RDAs) de vitamina B6 es: Infantes de 0-6 meses:0,1 mg; Infantes de 7-12 meses: 0,3 mg; Niños de 1-3 años: 0,5 mg; Niños de 4-8 años; 0,6 mg; Niños de 9-13 años: 1 mg; Hombres de 14-50 años:1,3 mg; Hombres mayores de 50 años: 1,7 mg; Mujeres de 14-18 años: 1,2 mg; Mujeres de 19-50 años: 1,3 mg; Mujeres mayores de 50 años: 1,5 mg; Mujeres embarazadas: 1,9 mg; Mujeres amamantando: 2 mg. Algunos investigadores piensan que la dosis diaria permitida para las mujeres debería ser aumentada a 1,5-1,7 mg por día. La ingesta diaria máxima recomendada es : Niños de 1-3 años: 30 mg; Niños de 4-8 años: 40 mg; Niños de 9-13 años: 60 mg; Para adultos, mujeres embarazadas y amamantando de 14-18 años: 80 mg. Para adultos, mujeres embarazadas y amamantando mayores de 18 años: 100 mg.

Otros nombres

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Adermine Chlorhydrate, Adermine Hydrochloride, B Complex Vitamin, B6, Chlorhydrate de pyridoxine, Complexe de Vitamines B, Phosphate de Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxal Phosphate, Pyridoxal 5 Phosphate, Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxine HCl, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Pyridoxine-5-Phosphate, P5P, P-5-P, Vitamin B-6, Vitamine B6.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Piridoxina (vitamina B6), por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/934.html.
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