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Coenzima Q-10


¿Qué es?

La coenzima Q-10 (CoQ-10) es una sustancia parecida a una vitamina que se encuentra presente en todo el cuerpo, pero especialmente en el corazón, hígado, riñones, y páncreas. Se come en pequeñas cantidades en carnes y mariscos. La coenzima Q-10 se puede también hacer en el laboratorio. Se usa como un medicamento.

Muchas personas usan la coenzima Q-10 para el tratamiento de las enfermedades del corazón y vasos sanguíneos tales como insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva, dolor de pecho (angina), presión arterial alta, y problemas cardiacos vinculados con algunos medicamentos que se usan para el cáncer. También se utiliza para la diabetes, las enfermedades de las encías (ya sea tomada por vía oral o aplicada directamente a las encías), para el cáncer de mamas, la enfermedad de Huntington, la enfermedad de Parkinson, la distrofia muscular, para aumentar la tolerancia al ejercicio, para el síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC) y para la enfermedad de Lyme. Algunas personas piensan que la coenzima Q-10 se puede usar para el tratamiento de la pérdida del cabello relacionada con el uso de warfarina (Coumadin), un medicamento que se usa para retardar la coagulación sanguínea.

Algunas personas también piensan que la coenzima Q-10 podría ayudar a aumentar la energía. Esto se debe a que la coenzima Q-10 cumple un rol en la producción de ATP, una molécula en las células del cuerpo que funciona como una batería recargable en la transferencia de energía. La coenzima Q-10 ha sido probada para el tratamiento de trastornos hereditarios o adquiridos que limitan la producción de energía en las células del cuerpo (trastornos del mitocondria) y para mejorar el rendimiento del ejercicio.

Algunas personas han también utilizado la coenzima Q-10 para reforzar el sistema inmunológico de las personas con VIH/SIDA, para la infertilidad masculina, para los dolores de cabeza de migraña, y para contrarrestar los dolores musculares causados a veces por las “estatinas” que son un grupo de medicamentos que se usan para bajar el colesterol.

La coenzima Q-10 ha sido probada también para ver si prolonga los años de vida útil. La idea nació debido a que los niveles más altos de coenzima Q-10 se observan en los primeros 20 años de vida. A los 80 años, los niveles de coenzima Q-10 pueden ser menores que los que eran al nacer. Algunas personas pensaron que si en los últimos años de vida se restauran los niveles de coenzima Q-10 se podría prolongar la vida de las personas. La idea funciona bien con las bacterias pero no con las ratas de laboratorio. Se necesita investigar más para ver si esto funciona en las personas.

No sólo el tiempo agota la coenzima Q-10 almacenada en el cuerpo. El fumar también lo hace.

La coenzima Q-10 fue identificada por primera vez en 1957. El “Q-10” se refiere a la composición química de la sustancia. Ahora, la coenzima Q-10 es utilizada en Japón por millones de personas para las enfermedades del corazón, especialmente para la insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva. La coenzima Q-10 es también usada extensamente en Europa y Rusia. La mayor parte de la coenzima Q-10 que se utiliza en los Estados Unidos y Canadá proviene de compañías japonesas. La coenzima Q-10 se obtiene de la fermentación de betarraga y azúcar de caña con cepas especiales de levadura.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • La deficiencia de coenzima Q-10. Esta es una enfermedad poco común. Los síntomas incluyen debilidad, fatiga y convulsiones.
  • Trastornos hereditarios o adquiridos que limitan la producción de energía en las células del cuerpo (trastornos del mitocondria). La mejora de los síntomas es lenta. Algunas personas tienen que tomar coenzima Q-10 por 6 meses para obtener el máximo beneficio.

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • La insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva (ICC). No hay evidencia que muestre que el tomar coenzima Q-10 sola puede ayudar a la insuficiencia cardiaca. Pero hay evidencia (aunque controvertida) de que podría ayudar cuando se toma en combinación con otros medicamentos para la insuficiencia cardiaca o se usa junto con otros tratamientos.
  • Disminuir el riesgo de tener problemas adicionales al corazón en las personas que han tenido un reciente ataque al corazón (infarto del miocardio, IM). Cuando se empieza a dar coenzima Q-10 a los pacientes dentro de las primeras 72 horas de un IM, y se toma por 1 año, al parecer disminuye en forma significativa el riesgo de sufrir otros problemas cardiacos incluyendo un IM no fatal.
  • La enfermedad de Huntington (una enfermedad neurológica genética poco común). Ubiquinol, la forma reducida de coenzima Q-10, ha recibido la designación de "fármaco huérfano” por la Administración de Drogas y Alimentos de los Estados Unidos (FDA). Esto le ha dado incentivos financieros a los fabricantes del Ubiquinol para estudiar su eficacia en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Huntington, un trastorno tan poco común que afecta a menos de 200.000 personas. Sin este incentivo, las compañías farmacéuticas probablemente no invertirían en el desarrollo de un medicamento para esta enfermedad. Sin embargo, el tomar coenzima Q-10 por vía oral en dosis de 600 mg o menos por día no parece ser eficaz para retardar la progresión de la enfermedad de Huntington.
  • Prevenir las complicaciones de los vasos sanguíneos producidas por cirugía de bypass (desviación) coronaria. Hay alguna evidencia de que el tomar coenzima Q-10 por vía oral durante una semana antes de una cirugía podría ayudar a disminuir el daño a los vasos sanguíneos. Pero no todas las investigaciones están de acuerdo con esto.
  • La presión arterial (hipertensión). El usar coenzima Q-10, ya sea sola o en combinación con otros medicamentos que se usan para el tratamiento de la presión arterial alta, parece ayudar a bajar aun mas la presión arterial.
  • La prevención de los dolores de cabeza de migraña. El tomar coenzima Q-10 por vía oral parece prevenir los dolores de cabeza de migraña. Estudios muestran que, en los adultos, puede disminuir en un 30% la frecuencia de los dolores de cabeza y en un 45% los días con nauseas relacionadas con el dolor de cabeza. El tomar coenzima Q-10 también parece reducir la frecuencia de las migrañas en los niños que tienen bajos niveles de coenzima Q-10. Puede demorar hasta 3 meses hasta que se obtenga un beneficio que sea significativo. Desgraciadamente, la coenzima Q-10 no parece ser eficaz para el tratamiento de migrañas una vez que éstas han empezado.
  • Enfermedad de Parkinson. Algunas investigaciones muestran que el tomar suplementos de coenzima Q-10 podría retardar el deterioro en las personas con principios de la enfermedad de Parkinson. Pero el suplemento de coenzima Q-10 no parece ayudar con los síntomas de la enfermedad de Parkinson ya declarada.
  • Mejorar el sistema inmunológico de las personas con VIH/SIDA.
  • La distrofia muscular, una enfermedad hereditaria que involucra pérdida muscular. El tomar coenzima Q-10 por vía oral parece mejorar el rendimiento físico en algunos pacientes con distrofia muscular.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • El colesterol alto. El tomar coenzima Q-10 no parece disminuir el colesterol o los triglicéridos.

Probablemente ineficaz para...

  • Mejorar el rendimiento atlético.
  • Las enfermedades dentales (periodontales) cuando se aplica directamente sobre los dientes y las encías. Sin embargo, hay cierta evidencia preliminar que indica que la coenzima Q-10 tomada por vía oral podría ayudar en el tratamiento de las enfermedades periodontales, pero se necesita más evidencia.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • El síndrome de vómitos cíclicos. Investigaciones preliminares sugieren que el tomar coenzima Q-10 podría funcionar tan bien como los medicamentos de venta con receta que se usan para el síndrome de vómitos cíclicos.
  • La diabetes. Hay evidencia conflictiva acerca de la eficacia de la coenzima Q-10 para la diabetes. Algunas investigaciones muestran que el tomar coenzima Q-10 podria bajar los niveles del azúcar en la sangre mientras otros resultados no muestran ningún beneficio.
  • El cáncer de mamas. Hay evidencia preliminar que indica que el tomar coenzima Q-10 por vía oral podría ser útil en el cáncer de mamas avanzado junto a la cirugía y tratamientos convencionales y el uso de otros antioxidantes y ácidos grasos omega-3 y omega 6.
  • La infertilidad masculina. Hay algunas pruebas que indican que el tratamiento con coenzima Q-10 podría mejorar la motilidad y aumentar el número de los espermatozoides en los hombres con ciertos tipos de infertilidad.
  • El dolor de pecho (angina). Algunas investigaciones preliminares sugieren de que el tomar coenzima Q-10 por vía oral podría mejorar la tolerancia al ejercicio en los pacientes con angina.
  • La fibromialgia. Hay algunas investigaciones preliminares que sugieren que el tomar coenzima Q-10 junto con ginkgo podría aumentar la percepción y sensación de bienestar general y la reducción del dolor.
  • Un trastorno cardiaco llamado cardiomiopatía hipertrófica. El tomar coenzima Q-10 por vía oral parece disminuir el espesor de las paredes del corazón, y disminuir los síntomas de falta de aliento, y fatiga.
  • Un trastorno muscular llamado “miopatía inducida por las estatinas”. Las estatinas, una clase de medicamentos que se usan para bajar el colesterol, pueden a veces producir dolor muscular. Hay ciertas pruebas de que el tomar coenzima Q-10 podría disminuir este dolor, pero no toda la evidencia ha sido positiva.
  • La prevención de la preeclampsia. La preeclampsia es una complicación médica que algunas mujeres desarrollan durante el embarazo. Algunas investigaciones muestran que el riesgo de desarrollar esta enfermedad disminuye, si las mujeres que tienen este riesgo empiezan a tomar coenzima Q-10 desde la semana 20 del embarazo hasta el parto.
  • La pérdida del cabello relacionada con el uso de warfarina, un medicamento para adelgazar la sangre.
  • La fatiga.
  • La enfermedad de Lyme.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesitan más pruebas para poder aprobar a la coenzima Q-10 para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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La coenzima Q-10 es una importante sustancia, tipo vitamina, requerida para el funcionamiento normal de muchos órganos, y reacciones químicas en el cuerpo. Ayuda a proveer energía a las células. La coenzima Q-10 también parece tener actividad antioxidante. Las personas con ciertas enfermedades, tales como insuficiencia cardiaca congestiva, presión arterial alta, enfermedad periodontal, enfermedad de Parkinson, algunas enfermedades musculares, y SIDA, podrían tener niveles más bajos de coenzima Q-10.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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La coenzima Q-10 es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURA para la mayoría de los adultos cuando se toma por vía oral o se aplica directamente a las encías. A pesar de que la mayoría de la gente tolera bien la coenzima Q-10, podría producir algunos efectos secundarios leves que incluyen malestar estomacal, pérdida de apetito, nausea, vómitos, y diarrea. En algunas personas puede producir erupciones alérgicas en la piel. También podría bajar la presión arterial, de manera de que si tiene la presión arterial muy baja debe controlar cuidadosamente la presión arterial. Los efectos secundarios se pueden disminuir si se toma la dosis total diaria dividida en 2 o 3 porciones en vez de una cantidad grande una vez al día.

La coenzima Q-10 es POSIBLEMENTE SEGURA para los niños. Pero, no se debe usar la coenzima Q-10 en niños sin la supervisión de un médico.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: No se sabe lo suficiente sobre el uso de coenzima Q-10 durante el embarazo y la lactancia. Sea precavida y evite su uso.

Presión arterial alta o presión arterial baja: La coenzima Q-10 podría bajar la presión arterial. Podría aumentar los efectos de los medicamentos que se usan para bajar la presión arterial. Si tiene problemas de presión arterial discuta el uso de coenzima Q-10 con su proveedor de salud médica.

Cirugía: La coenzima Q-10 podría interferir con el control de la presión arterial durante y después de una cirugía. Deje de tomar coenzima Q-10 por lo menos 2 semanas antes de someterse a una cirugía.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Medicamentos para el cáncer (Quimioterapia)
La coenzima Q-10 es un antioxidante. Hay un poco de preocupación de que los antioxidantes podrían disminuir la eficacia de algunos medicamentos que se usan para el cáncer. Pero es demasiado pronto para saber si esta interacción ocurre.

Medicamentos para la presión arterial alta (Fármacos antihipertensivos)
La coenzima Q-10 parece disminuir la presión arterial. El tomar coenzima Q-10 junto con medicamentos para la presión arterial alta podría bajar demasiado su presión arterial.

Algunos medicamentos para la presión arterial alta incluyen captopril (Capoten), enalaprila (Vasotec), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipina (Norvasc), hydroclorotiazida (HydroDiuril), furosemida (Lasix) y muchos otros.

Warfarina (Coumadin)
La warfarina (Coumadin) se usa para retardar la coagulación sanguínea mientras que la coenzima Q-10 podría acelerar la coagulación sanguínea. Al ayudar a la coagulación de la sangre, la coenzima Q-10 podría disminuir la eficacia de la warfarina (Coumadin) y aumentar el riesgo de producir coágulos que pueden ser peligrosos. Asegúrese de controlar su sangre regularmente. La dosis de warfarina (Coumadin) podría necesitar ser cambiada.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Levadura roja
La levadura roja podría reducir los niveles de coenzima Q-10.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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La siguiente dosis se ha estudiado en investigaciones científicas:

  • Para una deficiencia conocida de coenzima Q-10: 150 mg diarios.
  • Para enfermedades mitocondriales (encefalomiopatias mitocondriales): 150-160 mg, o 2 mg/kg/día. En algunos casos, la dosis puede ser aumentada gradualmente hasta 3000 mg por día.
  • Para la insuficiencia cardiaca en adultos: 100 mg al día divididos en 2 o 3 dosis.
  • Para disminuir el riesgo de eventos cardiacos futuros en aquellos pacientes con un reciente infarto del miocardio: 120 mg diarios divididos en 2 dosis.
  • Para la presión arterial alta: 120-200 mg al día divididos en 2 dosis.
  • Para la hipertensión sistólica aislada: 60 mg dos veces al día.
  • Para la prevención de dolores de cabeza de migraña: 100 mg tres veces al día. Una dosis de 1-3 mg/kg también se ha usado en los pacientes pediátricos y adolescentes.
  • Para la enfermedad de Parkinson: 300 mg, 600 mg, 1200 mg y 2400 mg por día divididos en 3 o 4 dosis.
  • Para VIH/SIDA: 200 mg por día.
  • Para la infertilidad masculina: 200-300 mg al día.
  • Para la distrofia muscular: 100 mg por día.
  • Para la preeclampsia: 100 mg dos veces al día a partir de la semana 20 del embarazo hasta el parto.
Dividiendo la dosis diaria y tomando cantidades más pequeñas 2 o 3 veces al día en vez de una sola cantidad grande puede ayudar a reducir los efectos secundarios.

Otros nombres

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Co Q10, Co Q-10, Co-Enzyme 10, Coenzyme Q 10, Coenzyme Q10, Co-Enzyme Q10, Co-Enzyme Q-10, Co-Q 10, CoQ10, Co-Q10, CoQ-10, Ubidcarenone, Ubidécarénone, Ubiquinone-10.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Coenzima Q-10, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/938.html.
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Página actualizada 27 octubre 2014