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Riboflavina (vitamina B2)


¿Qué es?

La riboflavina es una vitamina B. Se puede encontrar en ciertos alimentos como la leche, la carne, los huevos, las nueces, la harina enriquecida y las verduras de color verde. La riboflavina es con frecuencia utilizada en combinación con otras vitaminas B en productos de vitaminas del complejo B. El complejo de vitamina B generalmente incluye la vitamina B1 (tiamina), la vitamina B2 (riboflavina), la vitamina B3 (niacina/niacinamida), la vitamina B5 (ácido pantoténico), la vitamina B6 (piridoxina), la vitamina B12 (cianocobalamina) y el ácido fólico. Sin embargo, algunos productos no contienen todos estos ingredientes y algunos pueden incluir otros, como biotina, ácido para-aminobenzoico (PABA), bitartrato de colina e inositol.

La riboflavina es utilizada para la prevención de bajos niveles de riboflavina (deficiencia de riboflavina), para el cáncer cervical y los dolores de cabeza de migraña. También se utiliza para el tratamiento de la deficiencia de riboflavina, del acné, de los calambres musculares, del ardor en los pies, del síndrome del túnel carpiano y para trastornos de la sangre como la metahemoglobinemia congénita y la aplasia de células rojas de la sangre. Algunas personas usan la riboflavina para las enfermedades oculares como la fatiga ocular, las cataratas y el glaucoma.

También se utiliza para aumentar los niveles de energía; estimular el sistema inmunológico; para el mantenimiento sano del cabello, de la piel, de las mucosas y de las uñas; para frenar el envejecimiento; para aumentar el rendimiento deportivo; para la promoción de la función reproductiva saludable; para las aftas; para la pérdida de memoria, incluyendo la enfermedad de Alzheimer; para las úlceras; las quemaduras; el alcoholismo; la enfermedad hepática; la anemia de células falciformes; y para el tratamiento de la acidosis láctica debido al tratamiento con una clase de medicamentos contra el SIDA medicamentos INTR.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Eficaz para...

  • La prevención y tratamiento de la deficiencia de riboflavina y enfermedades relacionadas con la deficiencia de riboflavina.

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • La prevención de los dolores de cabeza de migraña. El tomar dosis altas de riboflavina (400 mg/día) parece reducir significativamente el número de ataques de migraña. Sin embargo, el tomar riboflavina no parece disminuir el dolor o el tiempo que dura una migraña.
  • La prevención de las cataratas, una enfermedad de los ojos.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • La acidosis láctica (un grave desequilibrio del ácido en la sangre) en las personas con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA). Hay evidencia clínica preliminar que indica que la riboflavina puede ser útil para tratar la acidosis láctica en los pacientes con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA), causado por medicamentos llamados inhibidores de los nucleósidos de la transcriptasa reversa (INTI).
  • La prevención del cáncer del cuello uterino. Hay pruebas que indican que el aumento de la ingesta de riboflavina de fuentes dietéticas y de suplementos, junto con tiamina, ácido fólico y vitamina B12, podría disminuir el riesgo de desarrollar manchas precancerosas en el cuello uterino.
  • El acné.
  • Los calambres musculares.
  • Impulsar el sistema inmunológico.
  • El envejecimiento.
  • El mantenimiento saludable de la piel y el cabello.
  • Las aftas.
  • La pérdida de memoria como en la enfermedad de Alzheimer.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesitan más pruebas para evaluar la riboflavina para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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La riboflavina es necesaria para el adecuado desarrollo y funcionamiento de la piel, del revestimiento del tracto digestivo, de las células de la sangre y muchas otras partes del cuerpo.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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La riboflavina PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURA para la mayoría de la gente. En algunas personas, la riboflavina puede hacer que la orina se vuelva de color amarillo-anaranjado. Cuando se toma en dosis altas, la riboflavina puede producir diarrea, un aumento de la la cantidad de orina y otros efectos secundarios.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: La riboflavina PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURA para las mujeres embarazadas o amamantando cuando se toma en las cantidades recomendadas. Las cantidades recomendadas son de 1,4 mg por día para las mujeres embarazadas y de 1,6 mg por día para las mujeres durante la lactancia. No se tiene suficiente información acerca de la seguridad de tomar dosis mayores durante el embarazo o la lactancia.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Menores

Preste atención a esta combinación

Fenobarbital (Luminal)
El cuerpo descompone la riboflavina. El fenobarbital podría aumentar la rapidez con la que se descompone la riboflavina en el cuerpo. No está claro si esta interacción es importante.

Medicamentos para la depresión (Antidepresivos tricíclicos)
Algunos medicamentos para la depresión pueden reducir la cantidad de riboflavina en el cuerpo. Esta interacción no es una gran preocupación, ya que sólo ocurre con cantidades muy grandes de algunos medicamentos para la depresión.

Medicamentos que secan las secreciones (Medicamentos anticolinérgicos)
Algunos medicamentos que secan las secreciones pueden afectar el estómago y los intestinos. El tomar estos medicamentos que secan las secreciones junto con riboflavina (vitamina B2) puede aumentar la cantidad de riboflavina que el cuerpo absorbe. Pero no se sabe si esta interacción es importante.

Probenecid (Benemid)
El probenecid (Benemid) puede aumentar la cantidad de riboflavina que hay en el cuerpo. Esto podría hacer que haya demasiada riboflavina en el cuerpo. Pero no se sabe si esta interacción debe ser una gran preocupación.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Hierro
Los suplementos de riboflavina pueden mejorar la manera como funcionan los suplementos de hierro en algunas personas que no tienen suficiente hierro. Este efecto es probablemente importante sólo en las personas con deficiencia de riboflavina.

Psyllium
En las mujeres sanas, el psyllium reduce la absorción de riboflavina de los suplementos. No está claro si esto también pasa con la riboflavina en la dieta, o si es realmente importante para la salud.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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Comida
La absorción de riboflavina de los suplementos aumenta cuando se toman con comida.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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Las siguientes dosis se han estudiado en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para el tratamiento de los niveles bajos de riboflavina (deficiencia de riboflavina) en adultos: 5-30 mg de riboflavina (vitamina B2) al día en dosis divididas.
  • Para la prevención de los dolores de cabeza de migraña: 400 mg de riboflavina (vitamina B2) por día. Puede tomar hasta tres meses para obtener los mejores resultados.
  • Para la prevención de las cataratas: Se ha utilizado una ingesta diaria de aproximadamente 2,6 mg de riboflavina (vitamina B2). También se ha usado una combinación de 3 mg de riboflavina (vitamina B2), más 40 mg de niacina al día.
  • La Ingesta Diaria Recomendada (RDA) de riboflavina (vitamina B2) es: Para bebés de 0-6 meses, 0,3 mg; bebés de 7-12 meses, 0,4 mg; niños de 1-3 años, 0,5 mg; niños de 4-8 años, 0,6 mg; niños de 9-13 años, 0,9 mg; hombres mayores de 14 años 1,3 mg; mujeres de 14-18 años, 1 mg; mujeres mayores de 18 años, 1,1 mg; mujeres embarazadas, 1.4 mg y mujeres que amamantan, 1.6 mg.

Otros nombres

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B Complex Vitamin, Complexe de Vitamines B, Flavin, Flavine, Lactoflavin, Lactoflavine, Riboflavine, Vitamin B-2, Vitamin G, Vtamine B2, Vitamine G.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Riboflavina (vitamina B2), por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/957.html.
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