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Jengibre


¿Qué es?

El jengibre es una hierba. El rizoma (tallo subterráneo) se utiliza como un condimento y también como un medicamento. Se puede usar fresco, seco y en polvo o como jugo o aceite.

El jengibre comúnmente se usa para el tratamiento de varios tipos de “problemas estomacales”, incluyendo los mareos inducidos por el movimiento, las náuseas debidas al embarazo, los cólicos, el malestar estomacal, la flatulencia, la diarrea, las náuseas causadas por el tratamiento para el cáncer, las náuseas y los vómitos despúes de una cirugía y además para la pérdida del apetito.

Otros usos incluyen el alivio del dolor de la artritis o el dolor muscular, el dolor menstrual, el tratamiento de las infecciones del tracto respiratorio superior, la tos y la bronquitis. El jengibre a veces también se usa para el dolor de pecho, el dolor bajo de la espalda y el dolor de estómago.

Algunas personas se ponen el jugo fresco sobre la piel para el tratamiento de quemaduras. El aceite hecho del jengibre a veces se aplica sobre la piel para aliviar el dolor.

En los alimentos y las bebidas, el jengibre se usa como un agente saborizante.

En la fabricación, el jengibre se usa como fragancia en los jabones y los cosméticos.

Una de los químicos en el jengibre se usa también como un ingrediente en los medicamentos laxantes, antiflatulentos y antiácidos.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Las náuseas y vómitos después de una cirugía. La mayoría de las investigaciones clínicas muestran que el tomar 1 gramo de jengibre una hora antes de una cirugía parece reducir las náuseas y los vómitos durante las primeras 24 horas después de la cirugía. Un estudio encontró que el jengibre redujo las náuseas y los vómitos en un 38%. Sin embargo, el jengibre podría no disminuir las nauseas y vómitos durante las 3 a 6 horas siguientes a una cirugía.
  • Los mareos. El tomar jengibre parece reducir los síntomas de mareos, incluyendo las náuseas.
  • El dolor menstrual. Algunas investigaciones muestran que el jengibre puede reducir los síntomas del dolor menstrual en algunas mujeres cuando se toma durante la menstruación. Un estudio muestra que tomar un extracto de jengibre específico (Zintoma, Goldaru) 250 mg cuatro veces al día durante 3 días en el comienzo del período menstrual, reduce los síntomas de dolor hasta en un 62% de las personas. Parece funcionar tan bien como los medicamentos ibuprofeno o ácido mefenámico.
  • La artritis. Algunas investigaciones muestran que el tomar el jengibre puede reducir modestamente el dolor en algunas personas con una forma de artritis llamada "osteoartritis." Un estudio muestra que tomar un extracto de jengibre específico (Zintona CE) 250 mg cuatro veces al día reduce el dolor de la artritis en la rodilla después de 3 meses de tratamiento. Otro estudio muestra que el uso de un extracto de jengibre diferente (Extracto Eurovita 77; ext EV-77), que combina un jengibre con alpinia también reduce el dolor al ponerse de pie, el dolor después de caminar, y la rigidez. Algunos estudios han comparado el jengibre a los medicamentos como el ibuprofeno. En un estudio, un extracto de jengibre específico (Extracto Eurovita 33; ext EV-33) no funcionó tan bien como tomar ibuprofeno 400 mg tres veces al día para reducir el dolor de la artritis. Sin embargo, en otro estudio, tomar extracto de jengibre 500 mg dos veces al día, funcionó tan bien como el ibuprofeno de 400 mg tres veces al día para el dolor de la cadera y la rodilla relacionado con la artritis.
  • La prevención de las náuseas del embarazo (discuta los posibles riesgos con su proveedor de atención médica). El jengibre parece disminuir las náuseas y los vómitos en algunas mujeres embarazadas. Pero el tomar cualquier hierba o medicamento durante el embarazo es una decisión muy grande. Antes de tomar jengibre, converse con su proveedor de atención médica acerca de los posibles riesgos.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • La prevención de mareos por movimiento y mareos marinos. Algunas personas dicen sentirse mejor después de tomar jengibre antes de viajar. Pero, no hay pruebas que indiquen que el jengibre realmente previene los síntomas de mareos por movimiento o mareos marinos.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • La artritis reumática (AR). Hay evidencia preliminar que indica que el jengibre podría ayudar a disminuir el dolor de las articulaciones de las personas con AR.
  • Las náuseas y vómitos debido al tratamiento de quimioterapia. Hay evidencia contradictoria acerca de la eficacia del jengibre para las náuseas y los vómitos producidos por la quimioterapia para el tratamiento del cáncer.
  • El dolor muscular después del ejercicio. Hay pruebas contradictorias acerca de si el jengibre ayuda para el dolor muscular causado por el ejercicio.
  • La falta de apetito.
  • Los resfríos.
  • La influenza.
  • Las migrañas.
  • Los dolores de cabeza de migraña.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para aprobar al jengibre para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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El jengibre contiene químicos que pueden disminuir las náuseas y la inflamación. Los investigadores creen que estos químicos trabajan principalmente en el estómago y los intestinos, pero también pueden trabajar en el cerebro y el sistema nervioso para controlar las náuseas.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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El jengibre PROBABLEMENTE ES SEGURO para la mayoría de la gente. Algunas personas pueden sufrir efectos secundarios leves que incluyen acidez, diarrea y molestias generales del estómago. Algunas mujeres han reportado sangrado menstrual extra mientras toman el jengibre.

Cuando se aplica el jengibre sobre la piel, este puede causar irritación.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo: Hay controversias sobre el uso del jengibre durante el embarazo. Hay preocupación de que el jengibre podría afectar las hormonas sexuales del feto. También hay un informe de una mujer que sufrió un aborto involuntario después de haber tomado jengibre para las náuseas del embarazo. Sin embargo, los estudios que se han hecho en las mujeres embarazadas sugieren que el jengibre puede ser seguro de usar para las náuseas matutinas y no causa daño al feto. El riesgo de que ocurran malformaciones graves en los infantes de las mujeres que toman jengibre no parece ser superior al 1% a 3 % que existe habitualmente. Como todo medicamento que se usa durante el embarazo, es importante valorar el beneficio que puede ofrecer el medicamento contra el potencial de riesgo para el feto. Antes de usar jengibre durante el embarazo, converse con su proveedor de atención médica.

Lactancia: No se sabe lo suficiente acerca de la seguridad de usar el jengibre durante la lactancia. Permanezca en el lado seguro y evite el uso.

Trastornos de sangrado: El tomar jengibre podría aumentar su riesgo de sangrado.

Diabetes: El jengibre podría bajar el nivel de azúcar en la sangre. Puede que sea necesario que su proveedor de atención médica tenga que cambiar la dosis de sus medicamentos para la diabetes.

Problemas del corazón: Altas dosis de jengibre podrían empeorar algunas enfermedades del corazón.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Medicamentos que retardan la coagulación (Medicamentos Anticoagulantes/Antiplaquetarios)
El jengibre podría retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El tomar jengibre junto con medicamentos que también retardan la coagulación sanguínea podría aumentar las posibilidades de producir hematomas y pérdida de sangre.

Algunos medicamentos que retardan la coagulación incluyen aspirina, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, otros), ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin, otros), naproxeno (Anaprox, Naprosyn, otros), dalteparina (Fragmin), enoxaparina (Lovenox), heparina, warfarina (Coumadin), phenprocoumon (un medicamento anticoagulante disponible fuera de los Estados Unidos) y otros.

Phenprocoumon
El phenprocoumon se usa en Europa para retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El jengibre puede también retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El tomar jengibre junto con phenprocoumon podría aumentar las posibilidades de producir hematomas y pérdida de sangre. Asegúrese de controlar su sangre regularmente. Puede que sea necesario cambiar la dosis del phenprocoumon.

Warfarina (Coumadin)
La warfarina (Coumadin) se usa para retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El jengibre puede también retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El tomar jengibre junto con warfarina (Coumadin) podría aumentar las posibilidades de producir hematomas y pérdida de sangre. Asegúrese de controlar su sangre regularmente. Puede que sea necesario cambiar la dosis de la warfarina (Coumadin).

Menores

Preste atención a esta combinación

Medicamentos para la diabetes (Antidiabéticos)
El jengibre podría disminuir el nivel de azúcar en la sangre. Los medicamentos para la diabetes se usan para bajar el azúcar en la sangre. El tomar jengibre junto con medicamentos para la diabetes podría disminuir demasiado el azúcar en la sangre. Controle de cerca su nivel de azúcar en la sangre. Puede que sea necesario cambiar la dosis de su medicamento para la diabetes.

Algunos medicamentos que se usan para la diabetes incluyen glimepirida (Amaryl), gliburida (Diabeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulina, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazona (Actos), rosiglitazona (Avandia), clorpropamida (Diabinese), glipizida (Glucotrol), tolbutamida (Orinase) y otros.

Medicamentos para la presión arterial alta (Bloqueadores del canal de calcio)
El jengibre podría bajar la presión arterial de manera similar a como lo hacen los medicamentos para la presión y para las enfermedades del corazón. El tomar jengibre junto con estos medicamentos puede bajar demasiado la presión arterial y producir latidos cardíacos irregulares.

Algunos medicamentos para la presión arterial alta y las enfermedades del corazón incluyen nifedipina (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipina (Plendil), amlodipina (Norvasc) y otros.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Hierbas y suplementos que podrían retardar la coagulación sanguínea
El usar jengibre junto con hierbas que pueden retardar la coagulación sanguínea puede aumentar el riesgo de sangrado en algunas personas. Estas hierbas incluyen la angélica, el clavo de olor, la salvia, el ajo, el ginkgo, el ginseng Panax, y otras.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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Las siguientes dosis han sido estudiadas en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para las náuseas del embarazo: 250 mg de jengibre 4 veces al día.
  • Para las náuseas y vómitos postoperatorios: 1-2 gramos de polvo de raíz de jengibre una hora antes de la inducción de la anestesia.
  • Para la artritis: Muchos productos diferentes de extracto de jengibre se han utilizado en los estudios. La dosificación utilizada difiere dependiendo del producto tomado. Un extracto de jengibre (Extracto Eurovita 33; ext EV-33) 170 mg tres veces al día se ha utilizado. Otro extracto (Extracto Eurovita 77; ext EV-77), que combina un jengibre con un alpinia, 255 mg dos veces al día también se ha utilizado. Otro extracto de jengibre (Zintona CE) 250 mg cuatro veces al día también se ha utilizado.

Otros nombres

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African Ginger, Amomum Zingiber, Ardraka, Black Ginger, Cochin Ginger, Gan Jiang, Gingembre, Gingembre Africain, Gingembre Cochin, Gingembre Indien, Gingembre Jamaïquain, Gingembre Noir, Ginger Essential Oil, Ginger Root, Huile Essentielle de Gingembre, Imber, Indian Ginger, Jamaica Ginger, Jiang, Kankyo, Kanshokyo, Nagara, Race Ginger, Racine de Gingembre, Rhizoma Zingiberi, Rhizoma Zingiberis, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, Shen Jiang, Sheng Jiang, Shoga, Shokyo, Shunthi, Srungavera, Sunth, Sunthi, Vishvabheshaja, Zingiber Officinale, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma, Zinzeberis, Zinziber Officinale, Zinziber Officinalis.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Jengibre, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/961.html.
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  161. Brown, A. C., Shah, C., Liu, J., Pham, J. T., Zhang, J. G., and Jadus, M. R. Ginger's (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) inhibition of rat colonic adenocarcinoma cells proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro. Phytother.Res 2009;23:640-645. View abstract.
  162. Nohr, L. A., Rasmussen, L. B., and Straand, J. Resin from the mukul myrrh tree, guggul, can it be used for treating hypercholesterolemia? A randomized, controlled study. Complement Ther.Med. 2009;17:16-22. View abstract.
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  164. Habib, S. H., Makpol, S., Abdul, Hamid NA, Das, S., Ngah, W. Z., and Yusof, Y. A. Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects on ethionine-induced hepatoma rats. Clinics.(Sao Paulo) 2008;63:807-813. View abstract.
  165. Jiang, S. Z., Wang, N. S., and Mi, S. Q. Plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of [6]-gingerol in rats. Biopharm.Drug Dispos. 2008;29:529-537. View abstract.
  166. Koh, E. M., Kim, H. J., Kim, S., Choi, W. H., Choi, Y. H., Ryu, S. Y., Kim, Y. S., Koh, W. S., and Park, S. Y. Modulation of macrophage functions by compounds isolated from Zingiber officinale. Planta Med 2009;75:148-151. View abstract.
  167. Zick, S. M., Ruffin, M. T., Lee, J., Normolle, D. P., Siden, R., Alrawi, S., and Brenner, D. E. Phase II trial of encapsulated ginger as a treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Support.Care Cancer 2009;17:563-572. View abstract.
  168. Yagihashi, S., Miura, Y., and Yagasaki, K. Inhibitory effect of gingerol on the proliferation and invasion of hepatoma cells in culture. Cytotechnology 2008;57:129-136. View abstract.
  169. Pozzatti, P., Scheid, L. A., Spader, T. B., Atayde, M. L., Santurio, J. M., and Alves, S. H. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54:950-956. View abstract.
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  171. Abdel Halim, A. S. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Musca domestica and Anopheles pharoensis. J Egypt Soc.Parasitol. 2008;38:385-392. View abstract.
  172. Szallasi, A. and Blumberg, P. M. Characterization of vanilloid receptors in the dorsal horn of pig spinal cord. Brain Res 5-3-1991;547:335-338. View abstract.
  173. Jorsaraei, S. G., Yousefnia, Y. R., Zainalzadeh, M., Moghadamnia, A. A., Beiky, A. A., and Damavandi, M. R. The effects of methanolic extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on human sperm parameters; an in vitro study. Pak.J Biol.Sci 7-1-2008;11:1723-1727. View abstract.
  174. Park, M., Bae, J., and Lee, D. S. Antibacterial activity of [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol isolated from ginger rhizome against periodontal bacteria. Phytother.Res 2008;22:1446-1449. View abstract.
  175. Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., Ahmed, T., Khalid, A., Nawaz, S. A., Agbedahunsi, J. M., Choudhary, M. I., and Houghton, P. J. Muscarinic, Ca(++) antagonist and specific butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of dried ginger extract might explain its use in dementia. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2008;60:1375-1383. View abstract.
  176. Hibino, T., Yuzurihara, M., Terawaki, K., Kanno, H., Kase, Y., and Takeda, A. Goshuyuto, a traditional Japanese medicine for migraine, inhibits platelet aggregation in guinea-pig whole blood. J Pharmacol.Sci 2008;108:89-94. View abstract.
  177. Nie, H., Meng, L. Z., Zhang, H., Zhang, J. Y., Yin, Z., and Huang, X. S. Analysis of anti-platelet aggregation components of Rhizoma Zingiberis using chicken thrombocyte extract and high performance liquid chromatography. Chin Med J (Engl.) 7-5-2008;121:1226-1229. View abstract.
  178. Zick, S. M., Djuric, Z., Ruffin, M. T., Litzinger, A. J., Normolle, D. P., Alrawi, S., Feng, M. R., and Brenner, D. E. Pharmacokinetics of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol and conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:1930-1936. View abstract.
  179. Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P., Singh, P., De Heluani, C. S., De Lampasona, M. P., and Catalan, C. A. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3295-3302. View abstract.
  180. Ahui, M. L., Champy, P., Ramadan, A., Pham, Van L., Araujo, L., Brou, Andre K., Diem, S., Damotte, D., Kati-Coulibaly, S., Offoumou, M. A., Dy, M., Thieblemont, N., and Herbelin, A. Ginger prevents Th2-mediated immune responses in a mouse model of airway inflammation. Int Immunopharmacol. 12-10-2008;8:1626-1632. View abstract.
  181. Pan, M. H., Hsieh, M. C., Hsu, P. C., Ho, S. Y., Lai, C. S., Wu, H., Sang, S., and Ho, C. T. 6-Shogaol suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced up-expression of iNOS and COX-2 in murine macrophages. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52:1467-1477. View abstract.
  182. Ajith, T. A., Aswathy, M. S., and Hema, U. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale roscoe against anticancer drug doxorubicin-induced acute nephrotoxicity. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2008;46:3178-3181. View abstract.
  183. Han, L. K., Morimoto, C., Zheng, Y. N., Li, W., Asami, E., Okuda, H., and Saito, M. [Effects of zingerone on fat storage in ovariectomized rats]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128:1195-1201. View abstract.
  184. Hickok, J. T., Roscoe, J. A., Morrow, G. R., and Ryan, J. L. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study. Support.Cancer Ther 9-1-2007;4:247-250. View abstract.
  185. Choi, K. M., Gang, J., and Yun, J. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii RH strain activity of herbal extracts used in traditional medicine. Int J Antimicrob.Agents 2008;32:360-362. View abstract.
  186. Rahuman, A. A., Gopalakrishnan, G., Venkatesan, P., Geetha, K., and Bagavan, A. Mosquito larvicidal activity of isolated compounds from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Phytother.Res 2008;22:1035-1039. View abstract.
  187. Isa, Y., Miyakawa, Y., Yanagisawa, M., Goto, T., Kang, M. S., Kawada, T., Morimitsu, Y., Kubota, K., and Tsuda, T. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol, the pungent of ginger, inhibit TNF-alpha mediated downregulation of adiponectin expression via different mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 8-29-2008;373:429-434. View abstract.
  188. El Abhar, H. S., Hammad, L. N., and Gawad, H. S. Modulating effect of ginger extract on rats with ulcerative colitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 8-13-2008;118:367-372. View abstract.
  189. Bailey-Shaw, Y. A., Williams, L. A., Junor, G. A., Green, C. E., Hibbert, S. L., Salmon, C. N., and Smith, A. M. Changes in the contents of oleoresin and pungent bioactive principles of Jamaican ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) during maturation. J Agric.Food Chem. 7-23-2008;56:5564-5571. View abstract.
  190. Levine, M. E., Gillis, M. G., Koch, S. Y., Voss, A. C., Stern, R. M., and Koch, K. L. Protein and ginger for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea. J Altern.Complement Med 2008;14:545-551. View abstract.
  191. Buddhakala, N., Talubmook, C., Sriyotha, P., Wray, S., and Kupittayanant, S. Inhibitory effects of ginger oil on spontaneous and PGF2alpha-induced contraction of rat myometrium. Planta Med 2008;74:385-391. View abstract.
  192. Kim, J. S., Lee, S. I., Park, H. W., Yang, J. H., Shin, T. Y., Kim, Y. C., Baek, N. I., Kim, S. H., Choi, S. U., Kwon, B. M., Leem, K. H., Jung, M. Y., and Kim, D. K. Cytotoxic components from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Arch Pharm.Res 2008;31:415-418. View abstract.
  193. Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., and Janssen, L. J. Ginger attenuates acetylcholine-induced contraction and Ca2+ signalling in murine airway smooth muscle cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86:264-271. View abstract.
  194. Wu, K. L., Rayner, C. K., Chuah, S. K., Changchien, C. S., Lu, S. N., Chiu, Y. C., Chiu, K. W., and Lee, C. M. Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. Eur.J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2008;20:436-440. View abstract.
  195. Pan, M. H., Hsieh, M. C., Kuo, J. M., Lai, C. S., Wu, H., Sang, S., and Ho, C. T. 6-Shogaol induces apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cells via ROS production, caspase activation, and GADD 153 expression. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52:527-537. View abstract.
  196. Perez, M. E. and Youssef, N. N. Dyspepsia in childhood and adolescence: insights and treatment considerations. Curr.Gastroenterol.Rep. 2007;9:447-455. View abstract.
  197. Krishnaswamy, K. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:265-268. View abstract.
  198. Ueki, S., Miyoshi, M., Shido, O., Hasegawa, J., and Watanabe, T. Systemic administration of [6]-gingerol, a pungent constituent of ginger, induces hypothermia in rats via an inhibitory effect on metabolic rate. Eur.J Pharmacol. 4-14-2008;584:87-92. View abstract.
  199. Pushpanathan, T., Jebanesan, A., and Govindarajan, M. The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol.Res 2008;102:1289-1291. View abstract.
  200. Ensiyeh, J. and Sakineh, M. A. Comparing ginger and vitamin B6 for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Midwifery 2009;25:649-653. View abstract.
  201. Gagne, S., Laterreur, J., Mahrouche, L., Sorensen, D., Gauthier, J. Y., Truong, V. L., Chauret, N., and Levesque, J. F. Selective isolation of in vitro phase II conjugates using a lipophilic anionic exchange solid phase extraction method. J Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life Sci 3-1-2008;863:242-248. View abstract.
  202. Zhao, X. X., Lu, M., Zhu, X., Gao, P., Li, Y. L., Wang, X. M., Ma, D. Y., Guo, X. H., Tong, B. Y., Yang, X. L., Du, W. W., Zhou, S. F., Liu, H. M., Ran, P. F., and Lu, X. R. [Multi-central clinical evaluation of ginger-partitioned moxibustion for treatment of leukopenia induced by chemotherapy]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2007;27:715-720. View abstract.
  203. Mallikarjuna, K., Sahitya, Chetan P., Sathyavelu, Reddy K., and Rajendra, W. Ethanol toxicity: rehabilitation of hepatic antioxidant defense system with dietary ginger. Fitoterapia 2008;79:174-178. View abstract.
  204. Chen, C. Y., Chen, C. H., Kung, C. H., Kuo, S. H., and Kuo, S. Y. [6]-gingerol induces Ca2+ mobilization in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. J Nat.Prod. 2008;71:137-140. View abstract.
  205. Tao, Q. F., Xu, Y., Lam, R. Y., Schneider, B., Dou, H., Leung, P. S., Shi, S. Y., Zhou, C. X., Yang, L. X., Zhang, R. P., Xiao, Y. C., Wu, X., Stockigt, J., Zeng, S., Cheng, C. H., and Zhao, Y. Diarylheptanoids and a monoterpenoid from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale: antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. J Nat.Prod. 2008;71:12-17. View abstract.
  206. Rhode, J., Fogoros, S., Zick, S., Wahl, H., Griffith, K. A., Huang, J., and Liu, J. R. Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2007;7:44. View abstract.
  207. Lee, S. H., Cekanova, M., and Baek, S. J. Multiple mechanisms are involved in 6-gingerol-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Mol.Carcinog. 2008;47:197-208. View abstract.
  208. Minghetti, P., Sosa, S., Cilurzo, F., Casiraghi, A., Alberti, E., Tubaro, A., Loggia, R. D., and Montanari, L. Evaluation of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of ginger dry extracts from solutions and plasters. Planta Med 2007;73:1525-1530. View abstract.
  209. Shukla, Y., Prasad, S., Tripathi, C., Singh, M., George, J., and Kalra, N. In vitro and in vivo modulation of testosterone mediated alterations in apoptosis related proteins by [6]-gingerol. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2007;51:1492-1502. View abstract.
  210. Imokawa, G. Recent advances in characterizing biological mechanisms underlying UV-induced wrinkles: a pivotal role of fibrobrast-derived elastase. Arch Dermatol.Res 2008;300 Suppl 1:S7-20. View abstract.
  211. Lee, S., Khoo, C., Halstead, C. W., Huynh, T., and Bensoussan, A. Liquid chromatographic determination of 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol in ginger (Zingiber officinale) as the raw herb and dried aqueous extract. J AOAC Int 2007;90:1219-1226. View abstract.
  212. Aimbire, F., Penna, S. C., Rodrigues, M., Rodrigues, K. C., Lopes-Martins, R. A., and Sertie, J. A. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Zingiber officinalis rhizomes on LPS-induced rat airway hyperreactivity and lung inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2007;77(3-4):129-138. View abstract.
  213. Pumbwe, L., Skilbeck, C. A., and Wexler, H. M. Induction of multiple antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides fragilis by benzene and benzene-derived active compounds of commonly used analgesics, antiseptics and cleaning agents. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 2007;60:1288-1297. View abstract.
  214. Chen, J. C., Huang, L. J., Wu, S. L., Kuo, S. C., Ho, T. Y., and Hsiang, C. Y. Ginger and its bioactive component inhibit enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea in mice. J Agric.Food Chem. 10-17-2007;55:8390-8397. View abstract.
  215. Bhattarai, S., Tran, V. H., and Duke, C. C. Stability of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 11-30-2007;45:648-653. View abstract.
  216. Ishiguro, K., Ando, T., Maeda, O., Ohmiya, N., Niwa, Y., Kadomatsu, K., and Goto, H. Ginger ingredients reduce viability of gastric cancer cells via distinct mechanisms. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 10-12-2007;362:218-223. View abstract.
  217. Verma, R. J. and Asnani, V. Ginger extract ameliorates paraben induced biochemical changes in liver and kidney of mice. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2007;64:217-220. View abstract.
  218. Lee, H. S., Seo, E. Y., Kang, N. E., and Kim, W. K. [6]-Gingerol inhibits metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. J Nutr.Biochem. 2008;19:313-319. View abstract.
  219. Asnani, V. and Verma, R. J. Antioxidative effect of rhizome of Zinziber officinale on paraben induced lipid peroxidation: an in vitro study. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2007;64:35-37. View abstract.
  220. Ajith, T. A., Hema, U., and Aswathy, M. S. Zingiber officinale Roscoe prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity by enhancing hepatic antioxidant status. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45:2267-2272. View abstract.
  221. Lam, R. Y., Woo, A. Y., Leung, P. S., and Cheng, C. H. Antioxidant actions of phenolic compounds found in dietary plants on low-density lipoprotein and erythrocytes in vitro. J Am.Coll.Nutr. 2007;26:233-242. View abstract.
  222. Schwertner, H. A. and Rios, D. C. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol in ginger-containing dietary supplements, spices, teas, and beverages. J Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life Sci 9-1-2007;856(1-2):41-47. View abstract.
  223. Ghayur, M. N., Khan, A. H., and Gilani, A. H. Ginger facilitates cholinergic activity possibly due to blockade of muscarinic autoreceptors in rat stomach fundus. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 2007;20:231-235. View abstract.
  224. Riyazi, A., Hensel, A., Bauer, K., Geissler, N., Schaaf, S., and Verspohl, E. J. The effect of the volatile oil from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale), its fractions and isolated compounds on the 5-HT3 receptor complex and the serotoninergic system of the rat ileum. Planta Med 2007;73:355-362. View abstract.
  225. Mishra, C., Sharma, S., and Kakkar, P. A study to evaluate heavy metals and organochlorine pesticide residue in Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from different ecological zones of India. Bull Environ.Contam Toxicol. 2007;79:95-98. View abstract.
  226. Kim, D. S., Kim, J. Y., and Han, Y. S. Alzheimer's disease drug discovery from herbs: neuroprotectivity from beta-amyloid (1-42) insult. J Altern.Complement Med. 2007;13:333-340. View abstract.
  227. Cortright, D. N., Krause, J. E., and Broom, D. C. TRP channels and pain. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2007;1772:978-988. View abstract.
  228. Kim, J. K., Kim, Y., Na, K. M., Surh, Y. J., and Kim, T. Y. [6]-Gingerol prevents UVB-induced ROS production and COX-2 expression in vitro and in vivo. Free Radic.Res 2007;41:603-614. View abstract.
  229. Vijaya, Padma, V, Arul Diana, Christie S., and Ramkuma, K. M. Induction of apoptosis by ginger in HEp-2 cell line is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2007;100:302-307. View abstract.
  230. Chrubasik, J. E., Roufogalis, B. D., and Chrubasik, S. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain. Phytother Res 2007;21:675-683. View abstract.
  231. Affeltranger, M. A., McBurney, D. H., and Balaban, C. D. Temporal interactions between oral irritants: piperine, zingerone, and capsaicin. Chem.Senses 2007;32:455-462. View abstract.
  232. Niforatos, W., Zhang, X. F., Lake, M. R., Walter, K. A., Neelands, T., Holzman, T. F., Scott, V. E., Faltynek, C. R., Moreland, R. B., and Chen, J. Activation of TRPA1 channels by the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor 3'-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597). Mol.Pharmacol. 2007;71:1209-1216. View abstract.
  233. Siddaraju, M. N. and Dharmesh, S. M. Inhibition of gastric H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori growth by phenolic antioxidants of Zingiber officinale. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2007;51:324-332. View abstract.
  234. Tripathi, S., Maier, K. G., Bruch, D., and Kittur, D. S. Effect of 6-gingerol on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and costimulatory molecule expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Surg.Res 2007;138:209-213. View abstract.
  235. Ajith, T. A., Nivitha, V., and Usha, S. Zingiber officinale Roscoe alone and in combination with alpha-tocopherol protect the kidney against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45:921-927. View abstract.
  236. Ansari, M. N., Bhandari, U., and Pillai, K. K. Ethanolic Zingiber officinale R. extract pretreatment alleviates isoproterenol-induced oxidative myocardial necrosis in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2006;44:892-897. View abstract.
  237. Woo, H. M., Kang, J. H., Kawada, T., Yoo, H., Sung, M. K., and Yu, R. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes. Life Sci. 2-13-2007;80:926-931. View abstract.
  238. Iwasaki, Y., Morita, A., Iwasawa, T., Kobata, K., Sekiwa, Y., Morimitsu, Y., Kubota, K., and Watanabe, T. A nonpungent component of steamed ginger--[10]-shogaol--increases adrenaline secretion via the activation of TRPV1. Nutr.Neurosci. 2006;9(3-4):169-178. View abstract.
  239. Shukla, Y. and Singh, M. Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45:683-690. View abstract.
  240. Nonn, L., Duong, D., and Peehl, D. M. Chemopreventive anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin and other phytochemicals mediated by MAP kinase phosphatase-5 in prostate cells. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:1188-1196. View abstract.
  241. Rai, S., Mukherjee, K., Mal, M., Wahile, A., Saha, B. P., and Mukherjee, P. K. Determination of 6-gingerol in ginger (Zingiber officinale) using high-performance thin-layer chromatography. J Sep.Sci 2006;29:2292-2295. View abstract.
  242. Pfeiffer, E., Heuschmid, F. F., Kranz, S., and Metzler, M. Microsomal hydroxylation and glucuronidation of [6]-gingerol. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-15-2006;54:8769-8774. View abstract.
  243. Wu, C. X., Wei, X. B., Ding, H., Sun, X., and Cheng, X. M. [Protective effect of effective parts of Zingiber Offecinal on vascular endothelium of the experimental hyperlipidemic rats]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2006;29:810-813. View abstract.
  244. Park, Y. J., Wen, J., Bang, S., Park, S. W., and Song, S. Y. [6]-Gingerol induces cell cycle arrest and cell death of mutant p53-expressing pancreatic cancer cells. Yonsei Med J 10-31-2006;47:688-697. View abstract.
  245. Chopra, A., Lavin, P., Patwardhan, B., and Chitre, D. A 32-week randomized, placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of RA-11, an Ayurvedic drug, on osteoarthritis of the knees. J Clin Rheumatol. 2004;10:236-245. View abstract.
  246. Liu, H. L. and Wang, L. P. [Randomized controlled study on ginger-salt-partitioned moxibustion at shenque (CV 8) on urination disorders poststroke]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2006;26:621-624. View abstract.
  247. Kuhad, A., Tirkey, N., Pilkhwal, S., and Chopra, K. 6-Gingerol prevents cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in rats. Biofactors 2006;26:189-200. View abstract.
  248. Sookkongwaree, K., Geitmann, M., Roengsumran, S., Petsom, A., and Danielson, U. H. Inhibition of viral proteases by Zingiberaceae extracts and flavones isolated from Kaempferia parviflora. Pharmazie 2006;61:717-721. View abstract.
  249. Yemitan, O. K. and Izegbu, M. C. Protective effects of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother.Res 2006;20:997-1002. View abstract.
  250. Kato, A., Higuchi, Y., Goto, H., Kizu, H., Okamoto, T., Asano, N., Hollinshead, J., Nash, R. J., and Adachi, I. Inhibitory effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe derived components on aldose reductase activity in vitro and in vivo. J Agric.Food Chem. 9-6-2006;54:6640-6644. View abstract.
  251. Kyung, K. S., Gon, J. H., Geun, K. Y., Sup, J. J., Suk, W. J., and Ho, K. J. 6-Shogaol, a natural product, reduces cell death and restores motor function in rat spinal cord injury. Eur.J Neurosci. 2006;24:1042-1052. View abstract.
  252. Ramirez-Ahumada, Mdel C., Timmermann, B. N., and Gang, D. R. Biosynthesis of curcuminoids and gingerols in turmeric (Curcuma longa) and ginger (Zingiber officinale): identification of curcuminoid synthase and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases. Phytochemistry 2006;67:2017-2029. View abstract.
  253. Yu, Y., Huang, T., Yang, B., Liu, X., and Duan, G. Development of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with microwave distillation and simultaneous solid-phase microextraction for rapid determination of volatile constituents in ginger. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 1-4-2007;43:24-31. View abstract.
  254. Bidinotto, L. T., Spinardi-Barbisan, A. L., Rocha, N. S., Salvadori, D. M., and Barbisan, L. F. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on DNA damage and development of urothelial tumors in a mouse bladder carcinogenesis model. Environ.Mol.Mutagen. 2006;47:624-630. View abstract.
  255. Ghayur, M. N. and Gilani, A. H. Species differences in the prokinetic effects of ginger. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2006;57(1-2):65-73. View abstract.
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