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Zinc


¿Qué es?

El zinc es un metal. Se le llama un “elemento traza esencial” porque muy pequeñas cantidades de zinc son necesarias para la salud de los seres humanos.

El zinc se utiliza para el tratamiento y la prevención de la deficiencia de zinc y sus consecuencias, que incluyen retraso en el crecimiento y diarrea aguda en niños y cicatrización lenta de las heridas.

Se usa también para aumentar el sistema inmunológico, para el tratamiento del resfrío común e infecciones recurrentes de oídos y para la prevención de infecciones agudas del tracto respiratorio inferior. También se usa para la malaria y otras enfermedades causadas por parásitos.

Algunas personas usan el zinc para una enfermedad de los ojos llamada degeneración macular, para la ceguera nocturna y las cataratas. También se usa para el asma; la diabetes, la presión arterial alta; el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA); y afecciones a la piel como psoriasis, eczema y, acné.

Otros usos incluyen el tratamiento del trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), de la disminución del sentido del gusto (hipogeusia), del zumbido de oidos (tinitos), de las lesiones graves a la cabeza, de la enfermedad de Crohn, de la enfermedad de Alzheimer, del síndrome de Down, de la enfermedad de Hansen,de la colitis ulcerosa, de las úlceras pépticas, y se usa también para promover el alza de peso en las personas que sufren de algún trastorno del comer tal como la anorexia nerviosa.

Algunas personas usan el zinc para la hiperplasia benigna de la próstata (HBP), la infertilidad masculina, la disfunción eréctil (DE), los huesos frágiles (osteoporosis), la artritis reumática, y los calambres musculares asociados con la enfermedad del hígado. También se usa para la anemia de células falciformes y para trastornos hereditarios como la acrodermatitis enteropática, la talasemia, y la enfermedad de Wilson.

Algunos atletas usan el zinc para mejorar su rendimiento atlético y fuerza.

El zinc también se aplica a la piel para el tratamiento del acné, el envejecimiento de la piel, las infecciones del herpes simple, y para acelerar la cicatrización de las heridas.

Hay un spray nasal de zinc que se puede usar en las fosas nasales para el tratamiento del resfrío común.

El sulfato de zinc se utiliza en los productos para el tratamiento de la irritación de los ojos.

El citrato de zinc se utiliza en las pastas de dientes y los enjuages bucales que se usan para prevenir la formación de sarro y la gingivitis.

Tenga en consideración que muchos productos también contienen otro metal llamado cadmio. Esto ocurre porque el zinc y cadmio son quimicamente similares y a menudo se encuentran juntos en la naturaleza. La exposición a altos niveles de cadmio por un tiempo prolongado puede conducir a insuficiencia renal. La concentración de cadmio en los suplementos que contienen zinc puede variar tanto como 37 veces. El gluconato de zinc invariablemente contiene la más baja concentración de cadmio.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Eficaz para...

  • La prevención y el tratamiento de los niveles demasiado bajos de zinc (deficiencia de zinc). La deficiencia de zinc puede producirse en casos graves de diarrea, en afecciones que hacen difícil para el intestino absorber los alimentos, en los casos de cirrosis hepática y alcoholismo, después de una cirugía mayor y durante el uso a largo plazo de la alimentación por sonda en el hospital. El tomar zinc por vía oral o por vía intravenosa (IV) ayuda a restablecer los niveles normales de zinc. Pero por regla general, no se recomienda el uso rutinario de suplementos de zinc.

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • Disminuir la diarrea en los niños desnutridos, o en los niños que tienen bajos niveles de zinc. La deficiencia de zinc es común en los países en desarrollo.
  • La enfermedad de Wilson, un trastorno genético muy poco común.

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Disminuir el tiempo que dura el resfrío común cuando se toma por vía oral como un caramelo (lozenge) de zinc. Sin embargo, si se usa el zinc en forma de píldora o de spray nasal no parece ayudar a prevenir los resfríos.
  • El acné. El tomar zinc por vía oral o aplicándolo sobre la piel como un ungüento que además contiene eritromicina parece ayudar a mejorar el acné.
  • Los huesos frágiles (osteoporosis). La ingesta de bajas cantidades de zinc parece estar vinculada a una menor masa ósea. El tomar un suplemento de zinc en combinación con cobre, manganeso y calcio también podría disminuir la pérdida de hueso en las mujeres posmenopáusicas.
  • El tratamiento de una enfermedad de los ojos llamada degeneración macular senil cuando se toma con otros medicamentos. El tomar zinc por vía oral en combinación con vitaminas antioxidantes (vitamina C, vitamina E y betacaroteno) podría retardar el empeoramiento de la degeneración macular senil avanzada (DMS). No se tiene suficiente información para determinar si el zinc más los antioxidantes ayuda a las personas con casos menos avanzados de DMS o si previene la DMS. El tomar solo zinc no parece beneficiar a las personas que ya sufren de DMS.
  • El tratamiento del trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH). El tomar zinc por vía oral en combinación con el tratamiento convencional, podría mejorar levemente los síntomas de hiperactividad, la impulsividad, y los problemas sociales en algunos niños con TDAH. Pero el zinc no mejora la atención. Algunos resultados de las investigaciones sugieren que los niños con TDAH tienen niveles más bajos de zinc en la sangre que los niños sin TDAH. Otros estudios sugieren que las personas con TDAH y bajos niveles de zinc no responden lo suficientemente bien al tratamiento con medicamentos de venta bajo receta médica para el TDAH (estimulantes). Algunos de los estudios que usan zinc para el TDAH han sido llevados a cabo en el Medio Oriente adonde la deficiencia de zinc es relativamente común en comparación a los países del mundo Occidental. No se sabe si el zinc podría ofrecer los mismos beneficios a las personas con TDAH de los países Occidentales.
  • El tratamiento de un trastorno hereditario llamado acrodermatitis enteropática.
  • La lepra, cuando se usa con otros medicamentos.
  • El virus del herpes simple, cuando se aplican preparaciones de zinc, hechas para la piel, directamente en la boca o en el área genital.
  • Promover el alza de peso y mejorar la depresión en las personas que sufren de un trastorno del comer tal como la anorexia nerviosa.
  • Para el tratamiento de la hipogeusia, una afección en la que el sentido del gusto es anormal.
  • La prevención y tratamiento de úlceras estomacales.
  • Prevenir las complicaciones asociadas con la anemia de células falciformes en las personas que tienen bajos niveles de zinc.
  • Prevenir los calambres musculares en las personas que tienen bajos niveles de zinc.
  • El tratamiento de las heridas en las piernas en las personas que tienen bajos niveles de zinc.
  • Usarlo como un enjuague bucal o para la prevención de sarro o gingivitis.
  • Mejorar la cicatrización de las heridas.
  • Aumentar los niveles de vitamina A en los niños desnutridos o en niños con bajos niveles de zinc.
  • La prevención y el tratamiento de la neumonía en los niños desnutridos en los países en desarrollo.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • Prevenir el cáncer de próstata. Algunas investigaciones preliminares sugieren que algunos hombres podrían obtener algún beneficio al tomar zinc junto con otras vitaminas y minerales para prevenir el cáncer de próstata. Pero otras investigaciones sugieren que el tomar zinc puede aumentar el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer y aumentar el riesgo de muerte por cáncer de próstata.
  • Elevar los niveles de hierro en la sangre en las mujeres embarazadas, cuando se toma con suplementos de hierro y ácido fólico.
  • Problemas de la piel como eczema, psoriasis y caída de pelo.
  • Muchos tipos de artritis.
  • La prevención o el tratamiento de cataratas.
  • La malaria en niños desnutridos.
  • La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal.
  • El zumbido de oídos (tinitos).
  • El síndrome del desgaste del SIDA (por diarrea).
  • Prevenir la influenza.
  • Aumentar el peso y el tiempo de gestación de los infantes nacidos de mujeres infectadas con el SIDA.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • La enfermedad de Alzheimer. Algunas investigaciones han demostrado que los suplementos de zinc podrían retardar levemente el empeoramiento de los síntomas en las personas con la enfermedad de Alzheimer.
  • Las arrugas en la piel. Una crema para la piel que contiene 10% de vitamina C (como ácido ascórbico-L), acetil tirosina, sulfato de zinc, hialuronato de sodio, y bioflavonoides (Cellex-C High Potency Serum) y que se aplica por 3 meses a la piel de la cara envejecida debido a la exposición al sol parece mejorar las arrugas finas y más marcadas de la piel y también parece mejorar el color amarillento, la aspereza, y la tonicidad de la piel.
  • Las infecciones relacionadas con el SIDA. Hay algunas pruebas que indican que el tomar zinc por vía oral en combinación con zidovudina (AZT, Retrovir, un componente de Combivir) podría prevenir las infecciones bacterianas y de hongos que podrían ocurrir en las personas con SIDA debido a que tienen un sistema inmunológico menos activo. Sin embargo, el tomar suplementos de zinc podría reducir el tiempo de supervivencia.
  • Los problemas sexuales masculinos. El tomar zinc por vía oral para el tratamiento de los problemas sexuales debido a una enfermedad o tratamiento médico han producido resultados variables.
  • La enfermedad de Crohn.
  • La colitis ulcerosa.
  • La diabetes.
  • El tratamiento del resfrío común cuando se usa como un spray nasal.
  • El asma.
  • El síndrome de Down.
  • Las infecciones recurrentes de los oídos.
  • Prevenir el cáncer.
  • El traumatismo craneoencefálico.
  • Ayudar a los bebés que son demasiado pequeños al nacer.
  • Prevenir el cáncer de esófago.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para aprobar al zinc para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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El zinc es necesario para el crecimiento y la mantención normal del cuerpo humano. Se encuentra presente en muchos sistemas y reacciones biológicas y se necesita para el funcionamiento del sistema inmunológico, para la cicatrización de las heridas, la coagulación de la sangre, el funcionamiento de la tiroides, y mucho más. La carne, los productos lácteos, las nueces, las legumbres, y los granos enteros tienen relativamente altos niveles de zinc.

La deficiencia de zinc es común en el mundo entero, pero en los Estados Unidos no ocurre muy a menudo. Los síntomas incluyen bajo crecimiento, niveles bajos de insulina, falta de apetito, irritabilidad, caída de pelo generalizada, piel áspera y seca, cicatrización lenta de las heridas, poco sentido del gusto y del olfato, diarrea, y náusea. La deficiencia moderada de zinc está asociada con trastornos en el intestino que interfieren con la absorción de los alimentos (síndrome de mala absorción), con el alcoholismo, la insuficiencia renal crónica, y las enfermedades crónicas debilitantes.

El zinc juega un papel clave en el mantenimiento de la visión y está presente en altas concentraciones en los ojos. La deficiencia de zinc puede alterar la visión, y una deficiencia grave puede provocar cambios en la retina ( la parte de atrás del ojo adonde se enfoca la imagen).

El zinc podría también tener efectos contra los virus. Parece disminuir los síntomas del rinovirus (resfrío común), pero los investigadores todavía no pueden explicar exactamente como funciona esto. Además, hay algunas pruebas que indican que el zinc tiene cierta actividad contra el virus del herpes.

Puede haber una asociación entre los niveles bajos de zinc y la infertilidad masculina, la enfermedad de anemia de células falciformes, el VIH, la depresión mayor y la diabetes de tipo 2 y estas pueden ser combatidas tomando un suplemento de zinc.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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El zinc es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO para la mayoría de los adultos cuando se aplica a la piel .o cuando se toma por vía oral en cantidades no mayores de 40 mg por día. No se recomienda tomar suplementos de zinc en forma rutinaria sin el consejo de un profesional de la salud. En algunas personas el zinc podría causar náusea, vómitos, diarrea, sabor metálico, daño al riñón y al estómago, y otros efectos secundarios. El usar zinc en la piel dañada puede causar quemaduras, escosor, comezón, y hormigueo.

El tomar dosis altas de zinc PROBABLEMENTE NO ES SEGURO. Dosis más altas que las cantidades recomendadas podrían producir fiebre, tos, dolor de estómago, fatiga, y muchos otros problemas.

El tomar más de 100 mg de suplemento de zinc diarios, o el tomar suplementos de zinc por 10 años o más, duplica el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de próstata. Hay también preocupación de que tomar grandes cantidades de una multivitamina más un suplemento aparte de zinc puede aumentar las probabilidades de morir de cáncer de próstata.

El tomar 450 mg de zinc o más diarios puede producir problemas con el hierro en la sangre. Una sola dosis de 10-30 gramos de zinc puede ser fatal.

Algunas investigaciones sugieren que el spray nasal de zinc POSIBLEMENTE NO ES SEGURO. Puede producir pérdida de la capacidad para oler. Hasta que no se tenga más información, evite usar el spray nasal de zinc (Zicam, Cold-Eeze).

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: El zinc es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO para la mayoría de las mujeres que están embarazadas o amamantando si se toma en las cantidades diarias recomendadas (RDA). Las mujeres embarazadas mayores de 18 años no deben tomar más de 40 mg de zinc por día; las mujeres embarazadas de 14 a 18 años no deben tomar más de 34 mg por día. Las mujeres mayores de 18 años que están amamantando no deben tomar más de 40 mg de zinc por día; las mujeres de 14 a 18 años que están amamantando no deben tomar más de 34 mg de zinc por día.

VIH (el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana)/SIDA: No tome zinc si tiene VIH/SIDA. El zinc podría reducir el tiempo de supervivencia.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Serias

No tome esta combinación

Penicilamina
La penicilamina se usa para la enfermedad de Wilson y la artritis reumática. El zinc podría disminuir la cantidad de penicilamina que el cuerpo absorbe y disminuir la eficacia de la penicilamina. Tome zinc y penicilamina por lo menos con 2 horas de separación.

Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Antibióticos (Antibióticos de quinolona)
El zinc podría disminuir la cantidad de antibiótico que el cuerpo absorbe. El tomar zinc junto con algunos antibióticos podría disminuir la eficacia de algunos antibióticos. Para evitar esta interacción, tome los antibióticos por lo menos 2 horas antes o 4 a 6 horas despúes de tomar suplementos de zinc.

Algunos de estos antibióticos que pueden interactuatr con el zinc incluyen a ciprofloxacina (Cipro), levofloxacina (Levaquin), ofloxacina (Floxin), moxifloxacina (Avelox), gatifloxacina (Tequin), enoxacina (Peneetrex), norfloxacina (Chibroxin, Noroxin), sparfloxacina (Zagam), trovafloxacina (Trovan), y grepafloxacina (Raxar).

Antibióticos (Antibióticos de tetraciclina)
El zinc se puede unir a las tetraciclinas en el estómago. Esto disminuye la cantidad de tetraciclinas que pueden ser absorbidas. El tomar zinc con tetraciclinas podría disminuir la eficacia de las tetraciclinas. Para evitar esta interacción, tome las tetraciclinas por lo menos 2 horas antes o 4 a 6 horas después de tomar suplementos de zinc.

Algunas tetraciclinas incluyen a demeclociclina (Declomycin), minociclina (Minocin), y tetraciclina (Achromycin, Sumycin).

Cisplatin (Platinol-AQ)
El cisplatin (Platinol-AQ) se usa en el tratamiento del cáncer. El tomar zinc junto con EDTA y cisplatin (Platinol-AQ) podría inactivar la terapia del cisplatin (Platinol-AQ). No se sabe con certeza, sin embargo, si la magnitud de la interferencia producida por el zinc es importante.

Menores

Preste atención a esta combinación

Amilorida (Midamor)
La amilorida (Midamor) se usa como "una píldora de agua" para ayudar a remover el exceso de agua del cuerpo. El otro efecto de la amilorida (Midamor) es que puede aumentar la cantidad de zinc en el cuerpo. El tomar suplementos de zinc junto con amilorida (Midamor) podría aumentar mucho la cantidad de zinc en su cuerpo.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Ácido fólico
Los estudios sobre los efectos de los suplementos de ácido fólico en la absorción del zinc en la dieta han sido conflictivos. Dosis normales de ácido fólico probablemente no van a afectar el equilibrio de zinc en las personas que tienen una ingesta diaria adecuada de zinc.

Bromelina
Los metales como el zinc podrían disminuir los efectos de la bromelina. Sin embargo, no hay informes de esta interacción.

Calcio
Los suplementos de calcio podrían disminuir la absorción de zinc de la dieta. Usualmente esto no parece ser un gran problema. Sin embargo, se puede evitar esta interacción tomando los suplementos de calcio al acostarse en vez de tomarlo con las comidas.

Cobre
Grandes cantidades de zinc podrían disminuir la absorción del cobre. El tomar zinc en grandes dosis puede producir severa deficiencia de cobre y producir anemia, una afección en la cual la sangre no puede transportar suficiente oxígeno. Algunos síntomas de deficiencia de cobre también han ocurrido en personas que han estado tomando 150 mg/día o más de zinc por más de 2 años.

Cromo
Hay evidencia inicial que indica que si se toma el cromo y el zinc juntos podrían disminuir la absorción de ambos. Probablemente esto no significa ningún problema cuando se toman las dosis usuales de los suplementos de zinc y cromo.

EDTA
El EDTA es un compuesto químico que se le da a la gente para eliminar el exceso de metales que hay en el cuerpo, en especial el plomo. El EDTA funciona combinándose (por quelación) con el metal. Repetidas dosis altas de EDTA, como las que se usan en el tratamiento de quelación, pueden reducir el nivel de zinc en la sangre en hasta un 40%. Se han reportado síntomas de agotamiento de zinc, aún cuando se han dado suplementos de zinc (15 mg/día). Se debe controlar el nivel de zinc en la gente que está recibiendo tratamiento de quelación.

Hierro
Bajo algunas circunstancias el hierro y el zinc pueden interferir entre ellos mismos en la absorción de cada uno de ellos. Para evitar este efecto, tome estos suplementos con comida.

IP-6 (Ácido fítico)
El ácido fítico que se encuentra presente en forma natural en los alimentos puede combinarse con el zinc y disminuir su absorción; sin embargo, en las poblaciones Occidentales no se ha reportado deficiencia de zinc debido al consumo de una dieta con altos niveles de ácido fítico. Evite los suplementos de IP-6, que contienen ácido fítico, si tiene otros factores de riesgo que pueden producir deficiencia de zinc.

Magnesio
Altas dosis de suplementos de zinc (142 mg/día) o la ingesta alta de zinc (53 mg/día) parecen disminuir el equilibrio del magnesio. Pero se desconoce la importancia de esta interacción.

Manganeso
Investigaciones sugieren que los suplementos de zinc pueden aumentar al doble la cantidad de manganeso que se absorbe de los suplementos.

Riboflavina (Vitamina B2)
Investigaciones sugieren que la riboflavina puede mejorar la absorción del zinc. Pero se desconoce la importancia de esta interacción.

Vitamina D
Investigaciones sugieren que la vitamina D está involucrada en la absorción del zinc, pero no está claro si la vitamina aumenta o disminuye la absorción del zinc.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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Café
El tomar el sulfato de zinc con café sin azúcar en vez de tomarlo con agua disminuye a la mitad la absorción del zinc. Los investigadores no saben por qué ocurre esto o de lo importante que puede ser esta interacción.

Fibra
El consumo de fibra puede disminuir la absorción del zinc. Sin embargo, con el transcurso del tiempo el cuerpo se adapta al mayor consumo de fibra y aumenta la absorción del zinc.

Fitato (Ácido fítico, mioinositol hexafosfato, IP6)
El fitato es una molécula que se encuentra en los granos (por ejemplo, maíz, sorgo) las legumbres, las semillas (por ejemplo, las semillas de maravilla, de zapallo), y en la soja. El fitato puede disminuir la absorción del zinc. Algunos alimentos con alto contenido de fitatos tienen también un contenido más alto de zinc (por ejemplo, el pan integral versus el pan blanco), y por lo tanto se contrarresta el efecto del fitato en la absorción del zinc. Algunas personas en los países del Medio Oriente, tienen deficiencia de zinc porque comen maíz y pan sin levadura que contienen fitatos. En las poblaciones Occidentales las personas que tienen un riesgo mayor son aquellas que consumen una dieta rica en granos sin refinar, legumbres, proteínas de soja y calcio, y una dieta pobre en proteínas animales. Sin embargo, después de un tiempo el cuerpo se adapta y absorbe el zinc y reduce las pérdidas de zinc en forma más eficiente.

Productos lácteos, alimentos enriquecidos con calcio
El calcio puede disminuir la absorción del zinc. El riesgo de perder mucho zinc no es muy importante a menos de que se consuma gran cantidad de productos lácteos junto con suplementos de calcio. Sin embargo, después de un tiempo, el cuerpo se adapta y absorbe el zinc y reduce las pérdidas de zinc en forma más eficiente.

Proteina
El zinc se combina con las proteínas y solo una vez que la proteína es digerida está disponible para ser absorbido. El tipo de proteína determina la cantidad de zinc que es absorbida. Las proteínas animales generalmente aumentan la absorción de zinc, a pesar de que hay una proteína en la leche de vaca que retarda la absorción. Las proteínas de soja también disminuyen la absorción de zinc, probablemente debido a su contenido de fitato. Estos efectos pueden influenciar el equilibrio de zinc en los infantes; los bebés obtienen la mayor parte del zinc de la leche materna, menos de la leche de vaca, y aún menos de la leche de soja. No se sabe si las dietas ricas en proteínas influyen en el equilibrio de zinc en los adultos.

Vegetarianismo
Las dietas vegetarianas son a menudo ricas en granos y legumbres de manera que contienen más fitatos. La absorción de zinc es probablemente más baja, de manera que este tipo de dieta se considera que produce un mayor riesgo de agotamiento del zinc. Sin embargo, después de un tiempo el cuerpo se adapta y absorbe el zinc en forma más eficiente y reduce la pérdida de zinc.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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Las siguientes dosis han sido estudiadas en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para el tratamiento del resfrío común: Se disuelve en la boca - cada 2 horas mientras esté despierto y mientras estén presentes los síntomas del resfrío - un caramelo (lozenge) de gluconato o acetato de zinc que proporcione 9-24 mg de zinc elemental.
  • Para la diarrea en los niños desnutridos o deficientes en zinc: 10-40 mg de zinc elemental al día.
  • Para la prevención y tratamiento de la neumonía en niños desnutridos en los países en desarrollo: 10-70 mg al día.
  • Para la hipogeusia (anormalidad en el sentido del olfato): 25-100 mg de zinc.
  • Para el trastorno de anorexia nerviosa: 100 mg de gluconato de zinc al día.
  • Para el tratamiento de las úlceras estomacales: 200 mg sulfato de zinc tres veces al día.
  • Para los calambres musculares en pacientes con enfermedad hepática, deficientes en zinc: 220 mg de sulfato de zinc dos veces al día.
  • Para la osteoporosis: Se han usado 15 mg de zinc en combinación con 5 mg de manganeso, 1000 mg de calcio y 2.5 mg de cobre.
  • Para la enfermedad de células falciformes: 220 mg de sulfato de zinc tres veces al día.
  • Para aumentar el crecimiento y el peso en los niños que tienen la enfermedad de células falciformes y todavía no han alcanzado la pubertad: 10 mg de zinc elemental al día.
  • Para el tratamiento del trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) en niños: dosis de 55-150 mg de sulfato de zinc (15-40 mg de zinc elemental) al día.
  • Para el tratamiento del acné: 30-135 mg de zinc elemental al día.
  • Para el tratamiento de la degeneración macular senil: 80 mg de zinc elemental más 500 mg de vitamina C, 400 IU de vitamina E y 15 mg de betacaroteno y se toman una vez al día.
El Instituto de Medicina ha establecido que los niveles de Consumo Adecuado (AI) de zinc para los infantes desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 meses son de 2 mg/día. Para los infantes mayores de 6 meses, para los niños y para los adultos se han establecido las cantidades de Ingesta Diaria Recomendadas (RDA) de zinc como sigue: para los infantes y niños de 7 meses a 3 años: 3 mg/día; de 4 a 8 años: 5 mg/día; de 9-13 años: 8 mg/día; niñas de 14 a 18 años: 9 mg/día; niños y hombres de 14 años y mayores: 11 mg/día; mujeres de 19 años y mayores: 8 mg/día; mujeres embarazadas de 14 a 18 años: 13 mg/día; mujeres embarazadas de 19 años y mayores: 11 mg/día; mujeres amamantando de 14 a 18 años: 14 mg/día; mujeres amamantando de 19 años y mayores: 12 mg/día.

El típico hombre Norte Americano consume alrededor de 13 mg/día de zinc en la dieta; las mujeres consumen aproximadamente 9 mg/día.

El Nivel Máximo de Ingesta Tolerable (UL) de zinc para la gente que no está recibiendo zinc bajo supervisión médica es: infantes desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 meses: 4 mg/día; de 7-12 meses: 5 mg/día; niños de 1 a 3 años: 7 mg/día; de 4 a 8 años: 12 mg/día; de 9 a 13 años: 23 mg/día; de 14 a 18 años (incluyendo el embarazo y la lactancia): 34 mg/día; adultos de 19 años y mayores (incluyendo el embarazo y la lactancia): 40 mg/día.

Las diferentes sales de zinc proporcionan diferentes cantidades de zinc elemental. El sulfato de zinc contiene 23% de zinc elemental; 220 mg de sulfato de zinc contiene 50 mg de zinc. El gluconato de zinc contiene 14.3% de zinc elemental; 10 mg de gluconato de zinc contiene 1.43 mg de zinc.

APLICADO A LA PIEL:
  • Para el acné vulgar: se usa una loción de 1.2% de acetato de zinc y 4% de eritromicina y se aplica dos veces al día.
  • Para las infecciones del herpes simple: se aplica 0.25% de sulfato de zinc entre 8 a 10 veces al día o 0.3% de óxido de zinc con glicina que se aplica cada 2 horas mientras esté despierto.

Otros nombres

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Acétate de Zinc, Acexamate de Zinc, Aspartate de Zinc, Atomic Number 30, Chlorure de Zinc, Citrate de Zinc, Gluconate de Zinc, Méthionine de Zinc, Monométhionine de Zinc, Numéro Atomique 30, Orotate de Zinc, Oxyde de Zinc, Picolinate de Zinc, Pyrithione de Zinc, Sulfate de Zinc, Zinc Acetate, Zinc Acexamate, Zinc Aspartate, Zinc Chloride, Zinc Citrate, Zinc Difumarate Hydrate, Zinc Gluconate, Zinc Methionine, Zinc Monomethionine, Zinc Murakab, Zinc Orotate, Zinc Oxide, Zinc Picolinate, Zinc Pyrithione, Zinc Sulfate, Zinc Sulphate, Zincum Aceticum, Zincum Gluconicum, Zincum Metallicum, Zincum Valerianicum, Zn.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Zinc, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/982.html.
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