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Ginseng siberiano


¿Qué es?

El ginseng Siberiano es una planta. Para hacer los medicamentos la gente usa la raíz de la planta.

El ginseng Siberiano es a menudo llamado un “adaptógeno.” Este es un término no-médico que se usa para describir sustancias que supuestamente pueden fortalecer el cuerpo y aumentar la resistencia al estrés cotidiano.

Además de ser usado como un adaptógeno, el ginseng Siberiano se usa para trastornos del corazón y vasos sanguíneos tales como la presión arterial alta, la presión arterial baja, el endurecimiento de las arterias (arterioesclerosis) y la enfermedad reumática del corazón.

También se utiliza para las enfermedades renales, la enfermedad de Alzheimer, el trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), el síndrome de fatiga crónica, la diabetes, la fibromialgia, la artritis reumática (AR), la influenza, la bronquitis crónica y la tuberculosis. También se usa para el tratamiento de los efectos secundarios de la quimioterapia de cáncer.

Algunas personas usan el ginseng Siberiano para mejorar el rendimiento atlético y la habilidad para trabajar. También lo usan para el tratamiento de problemas de sueño (insomnio) y los síntomas de infecciones producidas por el hespes simple de tipo II.

Se utiliza también para reforzar el sistema inmunológico, para prevenir los resfríos y para estimular el apetito.

En la industria manufacturera se agrega el ginseng Siberiano a productos para el cuidado de la piel.

No confunda el ginseng Siberiano con otros tipos de ginseng. El ginseng Siberiano no es la misma hierba que el ginseng Americano o el ginseng Panax. Tenga cuidado con el producto que elija. El ginseng Americano y el ginseng Panax pueden ser mucho más caros. Se dice que años atrás, la Unión Soviética quería proporcionar a sus atletas todas las ventajas ofrecidas por el ginseng pero querían una versión menos cara. Así, el ginseng Siberiano se hizo popular, y es por eso que la mayoría de los estudios sobre el ginseng Siberiano se han llevado a cabo en Rusia.

Es necesario saber que la calidad del ginseng Siberiano varía mucho. Muchas veces el ginseng Siberiano es identificado erróneamente o contiene “adulterantes,” que son otros ingredientes que no contribuyen al beneficio del producto, pero ocupan lugar en el producto. La periploca es un adulterante común en el ginseng Siberiano.

Antes de tomar ginseng Siberiano, converse con su proveedor se salud si toma algún medicamento. Esta hierba interactúa con muchos medicamentos que se venden con receta médica.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Una infección viral llamada herpes simple 2. Al parecer, el tomar un extracto específico de ginseng Siberiano - que ha sido estandarizado para contener 0,3% de un ingrediente de ginseng determinado llamado eleuterósido (Elagen) - disminuye el número, la seriedad y la duración de las infecciones por el herpes simple 2.
  • Para aliviar los síntomas del resfrío común, cuando se usa en combinación con una hierba llamada andrographis. Algunas investigaciones clínicas muestran que el tomar un producto de combinación específico que contiene ginseng Siberiano y andrographis (Kan Jang, Swedish Herbal Institute) mejora en forma significativa los síntomas del resfrío común si se empieza a tomar dentro de 72 horas del comienzo de los síntomas. Algunos síntomas pueden mejorar después de 2 días de tratamiento. El máximo beneficio se obtiene de tomarlo por 4 a 5 días. Algunas investigaciones indican que el ginseng Siberiano y el andrographis alivian los síntomas del resfrío común en los niños mejor que la equinácea.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • La memoria. Hay algunas pruebas que sugieren que el ginseng Siberiano podría mejorar la memoria y el estado de ánimo en las personas de mediana edad.
  • El síndrome de fatiga crónica. El tomar ginseng Siberiano no parece reducir los síntomas de fatiga crónica.
  • La calidad de vida. Algunas investigaciones muestran que el ginseng Siberiano mejora en forma significativa la sociabilidad y el estado de ánimo en las personas mayores de 65 años después de 4 semanas de tratamiento. Pero los efectos parecen desaparecer después de 8 semanas.
  • La mejora del rendimiento atlético.
  • Los derrames cerebrales.
  • Las enfermedades del corazón.
  • Los problemas renales.
  • La enfermedad de Alzheimer.
  • El trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH).
  • El colesterol alto.
  • La fatiga.
  • La fibromialgia.
  • La influenza.
  • Los efectos secundarios de la quimioterapia.
  • La bronquitis.
  • La tuberculosis.
  • Los niveles bajos de oxígeno.
  • Los mareos por movimiento.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesitan más pruebas para poder evaluar el ginseng Siberiano para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

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El ginseng Siberiano contiene muchas sustancias químicas que afectan al cerebro, al sistema inmunológico y a algunas hormonas. Podría también contener sustancias químicas que tienen actividad contra algunas bacterias y virus.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

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El ginseng Siberiano PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO para la mayoría de las personas cuando se usa a corto plazo. A pesar de que los efectos secundarios son poco frecuentes, algunas personas pueden tener somnolencia, cambios en el rítmo del corazón, melancolía, ansiedad, espasmos musculares y otros efectos secundarios. En dosis altas, puede aumentar la presión arterial.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: No se tiene suficiente información acerca del uso del ginseng Siberiano durante el embarazo y la lactancia. Sea precavida y evite su uso.

Problemas cardiacos: El ginseng Siberiano puede producir latidos fuertes del corazón, latidos irregulares y presión arterial alta. Las personas que tienen trastornos cardiacos (por ejemplo “endurecimiento de las arterias,” enfermedad reumática del corazón o historial de ataques al corazón) deben usar el ginseng Siberiano solo bajo la supervisión de un proveedor de salud médica.

Presión arterial alta: El ginseng Siberiano no debe ser usado por las personas que tienen una presión arterial mayor de 180/90. El ginseng Siberiano podría emperorar la presión arterial.

Trastornos sensibles a las hormonas tales como cáncer de mama, cáncer uterino, cáncer de ovarios, endometriosis o fibromas uterinos: El ginseng Siberiano podría actuar como estrógeno. No use ginseng Siberiano si tiene algún trastorno que puede empeorar por exposición al estrógeno.

Diabetes: El ginseng Siberiano puede afectar los niveles de azúcar en la sangre. Controle con cuidado su azúcar en la sangre si toma ginseng Siberiano y tiene diabetes.

Trastornos mentales tales mania o esquizofrenia: El ginseng Siberiano podría empeorar estas enfermedades. Utilícelo con precaución.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

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Moderadas

Tenga cuidado con esta combinación

Alcohol
El alcohol puede producir somnolencia. El ginseng Siberiano podría también producir somnolencia. El tomar grandes cantidades de ginseng Siberiano junto con alcohol podría producir demasiada somnolencia.

Digoxina (Lanoxin)
La digoxina ayuda al corazón a latir con más fuerza. Se encontró que una persona tenía un nivel muy alto de digoxina en la sangre cuando estaba tomando un producto natural que podría haber contenido ginseng Siberiano. No está claro si el ginseng Siberiano u otras hierbas en el suplemento fueron la causa de este aumento.

Litio
El ginseng Siberiano podría tener un efecto como "píldora de agua" o diurético. El tomar ginseng Siberiano podría disminuir lo bien que el cuerpo elimina el litio. Esto podría aumentar la cantidad de litio que hay en el cuerpo y producir serios efectos secundarios. Si está tomando litio, converse con su proveedor de atención médica antes de usar este producto. Podría ser necesario tener que cambiar la dosis del litio.

Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del citocromo P450 1A2 (CYP1A2))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. El ginseng Siberiano puede disminuir la rapidez con que el hígado descompone algunos de los medicamentos. El tomar ginseng Siberiano junto con otros medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado puede aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Antes de tomar ginseng Siberiano hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que pueden ser modificados por el hígado.

Algunos de estos medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado incluyenclozapina (Clozaril), ciclobenzaprina (Flexeril), fluvoxamina (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramina (Tofranil), Mexiletina (Mexitil), olanzapina (Zyprexa), pentazocina (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), Tacrina (Cognex), teofilina, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptano (Zomig) y otros.

Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del citocromo P450 2C9 (CYP2C9))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. El ginseng Siberiano puede disminuir la rapidez con que el hígado descompone algunos de los medicamentos. El tomar ginseng Siberiano junto con otros medicamentos que son alterados por el hígado puede aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Antes de tomar ginseng Siberiano hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que pueden ser alterados por el hígado.

Algunos de los medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado incluyen amitriptilina (Elavil), diazepam (Valium), zileuton (Zyflo), celecoxib (Celebrex), dicloflenac (Voltaren), fluvastin (Lescol), glipizida (Glucotrol), ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), fenitoina (Dilantin), piroxicam (feldene), tamoxifeno (Nolvadex), tolbutamida (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), warfarina (Coumadin) y otros.

Medicamentos para la diabetes (Antidiabéticos)
El ginseng Siberiano puede afectar el azúcar en la sangre, ya sea disminuyendo o aumentando los niveles de azúcar en la sangre. Los medicamentos para la diabetes se usan para bajar el azúcar en la sangre. El tomar ginseng Siberiano junto con medicamentos para la diabetes podría hacer que su azúcar baje demasiado o hacer que sus medicamentos para la diabetes sean menos efectivos Controle de cerca el nivel de azúcar en su sangre. Puede que sea necesario cambiar la dosis de su medicamento para la diabetes.

Algunos de los medicamentos usados para la diabetes incluyen glimepirida (Amaryl), gliburida (Diabeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulina, pioglitazona (Actos), rosiglitazona (Avandia), clorpropamida (Diabinese), glipizida (Glucotrol), tolbutamida (Orinase) y otros.

Medicamentos que retardan la coagulación sanguínea (Fármacos anticoagulantes / antiplaquetarios)
El ginseng Siberiano puede retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El tomar ginseng Siberiano junto con medicamentos que también retardan la coagulación podría aumentar las posibilidades de tener hematomas y pérdida de sangre.

Algunos de los medicamentos que retardan la coagulación sanguínea incluyen aspirina, clopidrogel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, otros), ibuprofeno (Advil, Motrin, otros), naproxeno (Anaprox, Naprosyn, otros), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparina, warfarina (Coumadin), y otros.

Medicamentos sedantes (Depresores del SNC)
El ginseng Siberiano podría producir somnolencia. Los medicamentos que producen somnolencia se llaman sedantes. El tomar ginseng Siberiano junto con medicamentos sedantes podría causar mucha somnolencia.

Algunos de los medicamentos sedantes incluyen clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), fenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien) y otros.

Menores

Preste atención a esta combinación

Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del citocromo P450 2D6 (CYP2D6))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. El ginseng siberiano puede disminuir la rapidez con que el hígado descompone algunos de los medicamentos. El tomar ginseng Siberiano junto con otros medicamentos que son alterados por el hígado puede aumentar los efectos y efectos secundarios de algunos medicamentos. Antes de tomar ginseng Siberiano hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado.

Algunos de los medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado incluyen amitriptilina (Elavil), clozapine (Clozaril), codeina, desipramina (Norpramin), donepezil (Aricept), fentanyl (Duragesic), flecainida (Tambocor), fluoxetina (Prozac), meperidina (Demerol), metadona (Dolophine), metoprolol (Lopressor, ToprolXL), olanzapina (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), tramadol (Ultram), trazodona (Desyrel) y otros.

Medicamentos modificados por el hígado (Sustratos del citocromo P450 3A4 (CYP3A4))
Algunos medicamentos son modificados y descompuestos por el hígado. El ginseng Siberiano puede afectar la rapidez con que el hígado descompone algunos medicamentos y producir una variedad de efectos y efectos secundarios. Antes de tomar ginseng Siberiano hable con su proveedor de atención médica si va a tomar medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado.

Algunos de los medicamentos que son modificados por el hígado incluyen lovastatina (Mevacor), ketoconazol (Nizoral), itraconazol (Sporanox), fexofenadina (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion) y muchos otros.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

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Hierbas que pueden bajar el azucar en la sangre
El ginseng Siberiano puede bajar el azúcar en la sangre. El tomar ginseng Siberiano junto con hierbas y suplementos que también bajan el azúcar en la sangre podría bajar mucho su azúcar o hacer que sus medicamentos para la diabetes sean menos efectivos. Algunos de estos productos incluyen al melón amargo, el jengibre, la galega, el fenugreco, el kudzu, la gimnema y otros.

Hierbas que pueden causar somnolencia
El ginseng Siberiano podría actuar como un sedante. Eso es, puede causar somnolencia. El usar ginseng Siberiano junto con otras hierbas que también actúan como sedantes podría producir demasiado somnolencia. Hierbas con efectos sedantes incluyen el cálamo, la amapola Californiana, la hierba gatera, la manzanilla Alemana, el gotu cola, el lúpulo, el chijol, la kava, el bálsamo de limón, la salvia, la hierba de San Juan, el sásafras, la escularia, la valeriana, la zanahoria silvestre, la lechuga silvestre y otras.

Hierbas y suplementos que pueden retardar la coagulacion sanguinea
El ginseng Siberiano puede retardar la coagulación sanguínea. El tomar ginseng Siberiano junto con hierbas y suplementos que también retardan la coagulación podría aumentar las posibilidades de tener hematomas y pérdida de sangre. Algunas de esta hierbas incluyen la angélica, el clavo de olor, la salvia miltiorrhiza, el aceite de pescado, el ajo, el jengibre, el ginseng Panax, el trébol rojo, la cúrcuma, la vitamina E y otras.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

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No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

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Las siguientes dosis se han estudiado en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para infecciones de herpes simple tipo 2: Se usa un extracto de ginseng Siberiano que ha sido estandarizado para que contenga 0,3% de eleuterósido E y se toman 400 mg al día.
  • Para el resfrío común: Se usa 400 mg de una combinación de ginseng Siberiano más un extracto específico de andrographis, estandarizado para que contenga 4-5,6 mg de andrographolidos (Kan Jang, Swedish Herbal Institute) y se toma tres veces al día.

Otros nombres

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Acanthopanax Obovatus, Acanthopanax Obovatus Hoo, Acanthopanax senticosus, Buisson du Diable, Ci Wu Jia, Ciwujia, Ciwujia Root, Ciwujia Root Extract, Devil's Bush, Devil's Shrub, Éleuthéro, Eleuthero Extract, Eleuthero Ginseng, Eleuthero Root, Eleutherococci Radix, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Éleuthérocoque, Ginseng de Sibérie, Ginseng des Russes, Ginseng Root, Ginseng Sibérien, Hedera senticosa, North Wu Jia Pi, Phytoestrogen, Plante Secrète des Russes, Poivre Sauvage, Prickly Eleutherococcus, Racine d’Eleuthérocoque, Racine de Ginseng, Racine Russe, Russian Root, Shigoka, Siberian Eleuthero, Siberian Ginseng, Thorny Bearer of Free Berries, Touch-Me-Not, Untouchable, Ussuri, Ussurian Thorny Pepperbrush, Wild Pepper, Wu Jia Pi, Wu-jia.

Metodología

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Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología metodología (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/methodology-sp.html) de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

Referencias

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Para ver todas las referencias de la página de Ginseng siberiano, por favor diríjase a http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/985.html.
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Página actualizada 27 octubre 2014