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Aceite de pescado

¿Qué es?

Los aceites de pescado se pueden obtener ya sea comiendo pescado o tomando suplementos. Los pescados que son especialmente ricos en los aceites que son beneficiosos para el organismo y son conocidos con el nombre de ácidos grasos omega-3 incluyen a la macarela, el atún, el salmón, el esturión, el mújol, la anchoa, las anchovetas, las sardinas, el arenque, la trucha y el menhaden. Ellos proporcionan alrededor de 1 gramo de ácidos grasos omega-3 en alrededor de 3,5 onzas de pescado.

Los suplementos de aceite de pescado son hechos a partir de la macarela, el arenque, el atún, el dorado, la grasa de ballena o la grasa de lobo marino. Los suplementos de aceite de pescado a menudo contienen pequeñas cantidades de vitamina E para evitar que se echen a perder. También pueden estar combinados con calcio, hierro, o vitaminas A, B1, B2, B3, C o D.

El aceite de pescado se utiliza para una amplia gama de enfermedades. Es más frecuentemente usado para trastornos relacionados con el corazón y el sistema sanguíneo. Algunas personas usan el aceite de pescado para bajar la presión arterial o los niveles de triglicéridos (las grasas relacionadas con el colesterol). El aceite de pescado también ha sido probado para la prevención de cardiopatías o de los derrames cerebrales. La evidencia científica sugiere que el aceite de pescado realmente baja los triglicéridos altos y parece también prevenir las enfermedades del corazón y derrames cerebrales cuando se toma en las dosis recomendadas. Irónicamente, el tomar mucho aceite de pescado puede en realidad aumentar el riesgo de un derrame cerebral.

El pescado ha ganado la reputación de “alimento para el cerebro” debido a que algunas personas lo comen como ayuda para la depresión, la psicosis, el trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otros trastornos relacionados con el pensamiento.

Algunas personas usan el aceite de pescado para la sequedad de los ojos, el glaucoma, y la degeneración macular senil (DMS), un trastorno muy común en gente de edad avanzada y que puede llevar a serios problemas de visión.

Las mujeres a veces toman el aceite de pescado para la prevención de los dolores de menstruación, el dolor de los senos y las complicaciones asociadas con el embarazo tales como el aborto involuntario, la presión arterial elevada en los últimos meses de embarazo y el parto prematuro.

El aceite de pescado también se usa para la diabetes, el asma, los trastornos en el desarrollo de la coordinación, la dislexia, la obesidad, la debilidad de los huesos (osteoporosis), algunas enfermedades relacionadas con el dolor y la hinchazón tal como la psoriasis y para prevenir la pérdida de peso causada por el uso de algunos medicamentos para el cáncer.

El aceite de pescado a veces se usa después de la cirugía de trasplante de corazón para evitar el alza de la presión arterial y el daño a los riñones que puede ser provocado por la cirugía misma o por los medicamentos que se usan para disminuir las probabilidades de que el cuerpo rechace el nuevo corazón. El aceite de pescado a veces se usa después de la cirugía de desvío o bypass de las arterias coronarias. Al parecer sirve de ayuda para evitar que se cierren los vasos sanguíneos que han sido desviados.

Cuando se obtiene el aceite de pescado comiendo pescado, parece hacer diferencia la manera de preparación del pescado. Si se come el pescado a la parrilla o asado parece reducir el riesgo de enfermedades del corazón, pero si se come pescado frito o sándwiches de pescado no solamente se anulan los beneficios del aceite de pescado, pero se podría, de hecho, aumentar el riesgo de enfermedades del corazón.

Dos de los más importantes ácidos grasos omega-3 que contiene el aceite de pescado son el ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA) y el ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA).

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Eficaz para...

  • Los triglicéridos elevados. La investigación sugiere que los suplementos de aceite de pescado y las fuentes de alimentación pueden reducir los niveles de triglicéridos. Los mayores efectos de aceite de pescado parecen presentarse en personas con altos niveles de triglicéridos. Adicionalmente, la cantidad de aceite pescado consumido parece afectar directamente la disminución de los niveles de triglicéridos. Cierto suplemento de aceite de pescado llamado Lovaza ha sido aprobado por la FDA para bajar los triglicéridos. La cápsula de un gramo de Lovaza contiene 465 miligramos de EPA (ácido eicosapentaenoico) y 375 miligramos de DHA (ácido docosahexaenoico) en cápsulas de 1 gramo.

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • Las enfermedades del corazón. La investigación sugiere que el comsumo de aceite de pescado al comer pescado puede ser eficaz manteniendo a las personas con corazones sanos sin enfermedades del corazón. Las personas que ya tienen enfermedad del corazón también podrían ser capaces de reducir su riesgo de morir por enfermedad del corazón al comer pescado o tomar un suplemento de aceite de pescado. Sin embargo, para las personas que ya toman medicamentos para el corazón como una "estatina", añadir aceite de pescado podría no ofrecer ningún beneficio adicional".

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Prevención de una enfermedad ocular denominada Degeneración macular relacionada con la edad (DMRE). Existe cierta evidencia de que la ingesta de pescado más de una vez por semana disminuye el riesgo de desarrollar degeneración macular relacionda con la edad.
  • Prevención de una nueva obstrucción de los vasos sanguíneos después de la angioplastia, un procedimiento para abrir los vasos sanguíneos tapados. El aceite de pescado parece disminuir la tasa de una nueva obstrucción de los vasos sanguíneos en hasta un 45% cuando se lo consume durante al menos 3 semanas antes de una angioplastia y se continúa el consumo durante un mes después de la cirugía.
  • Aborto espontáneo en mujeres embarazadas con un trastorno autoinmune llamado síndrome antifosfolípido. La ingesta de aceite de pescado parece prevenir los abortos espontáneos y aumentar las tasas de nacimientos con vida en mujeres embarazadas on síndrome antifosfolípido.
  • Asma. Cierta investigación muestra que la ingesta de aceite de pescado mejora los síntomas y disminuye la necesidad de medicación en algunos, pero no todos, los niños con asma. Cierta investigación muestra que la ingesta de aceite de pescado puede disminuir la aparición de los episodios de asma en bebés y niños cuando lo consumen mujeres embarazadas, pero no durante la lactancia. Sin embargo, la ingesta de aceite de pescado no parece mejorar los síntomas de asma en los adultos.
  • Endurecimiento de las arterias (ateroesclerosis). El aceite de pescado parece disminuir o detener levemente el progreso de la ateroesclerosis en arterias que llevan sangre al corazón (arterias coronarias), pero no en aquellas que llevan sangre al cuello y a la cabeza (arteria carótida).
  • Trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH) en niños. Cierta investigación muestra que la ingesta de aceite de pescado mejora la atención, la función mental y el comportamiento en niños de 8-13 años con TDAH. Cierta investigación muestra que la ingesta de un suplemento específico qu contiene aceite de pescado y aceite de onagra (Eye Q, Novasel) mejora la función mental y el comportamiento en niños de 7-12 años con TDAH.
  • Trastorno bipolar. La ingesta de aceite de pescado con tratamientos convencionales para el trastorno bipolar parece mejorar los síntomas de la depresión y aumentar el intervalo entre los episodios de depresión. Sin embargo, la ingesta de aceite de pescado no parece mejorar los síntomas de maníacos en personas con trastornos de bipolaridad.
  • Pérdida de peso relacionada con el cáncer. La ingesta de una alta dosis de aceite de pescado parece disminuir la pérdida de peso en pacientes con cáncer. Una baja dosis de aceite de pescado no parece mostrar este efecto. Ciertos investigadores creen que los pacientes comen más porque el aceite de pescado combate la depresión u mejora el estado de ánimo.
  • Cirugía de derivación aortocoronaria. La ingesta de aceite de pescado previene una nueva obstrucción de derivación aortocoronaria después de una cirugía de derivación aortocoronaria.
  • Hipertensión arterial causada por la ciclosporina. La ciclosporina es un medicamento que reduce la probabilidad de rechazo de órgano después de un trasplante de órgano. La ingesta de aceite de pescado parece prevenir la hipertensión arterial causada por este medicamento.
  • Lesión renal causada por la ciclosporina. La ingesta de aceite de pescado previene la lesión renal en personas que ingieren ciclosporina. El aceite de pescado parece mejorar la función renal durante la fase de recuperación después del rechazo de un órgano trasplantado en personas que ingieren ciclosporina.
  • Trastorno del desarrollo de la coordinación (TDC). Una combinación de aceite de pescado (80%) y aceite de onagra (20%) parece mejorar la capacidad para leer, deletrear y el comportamiento cuando lo ingieren niños de 5-12 años con trastornos del desarrollo de la coordinación. Sin embargo, no parece mejorar la capacidad motriz.
  • Menstruación dolorosa (dismenorrea). La investigación muestra que el aceite de pescado, ingerido de manera aislada con vitamina B12, puede mejorar las menstruaciones dolorosas y reducir la necesidad de ingerir analgésicos en mujeres con dolores menstruales.
  • Trastorno motriz en niños (dispraxia). La ingesta de aceite de pescado que también contiene aceite de onagra, aceite de tomillo y vitamina E (Efalex) parece disminuir el trastorno motriz en niños con dispraxia.
  • Cáncer de endometrio. Existe cierta evidencia de que las mujeres que regularmente ingieren dos porciones de pescado con grasa por semana presentan mejor riesgo de desarrollar cancer de endometrio.
  • Insuficiencia cardiaca. La investigación muestra que una mayor ingesta de aceite de pescado en los alimentos o suplementos está ligada a una disminución de la insuficiencia cardiaca.
  • Trasplante de corazón. La ingesta de aceite de pescado parece prevenir la función renal y reducir la hipertensión arterial después de un transplante de corazón.
  • Prevención de obstrucción de injertos usados en diálisis de riñón. La ingesta a corto plazo de altas dosis de aceite de pescado parece ayudar a prevenir la información de coágulos de sangre en injertos de hemodiálisis. La ingesta por tiempo prolongado de dosis más bajas de aceite de pescado no parece mostrar este efecto.
  • Niveles anormales de colesterol causado por tratamiento de VIH/SIDA. Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta de aceite de pescado reduce los niveles de triglicéridos en personas con niveles anormales de colesterol causado por el tratamiento de VIH/SIDA. La ingesta de aceite de pescado podría reducir los niveles de colesterol total en estas personas, aunque los resultados son inconsistentes.
  • Hipertensión arterial. El aceite de pescado parece producir una leve disminución de la presión arterial en personas cuya presión arterial está levemente elevada. Ciertos tipos de aceite de pescado podría reducir la hipertensión arterial en personas con tensión arterial levemente alta, aunque los resultados son inconsistentes. El aceite de pescado parece tener efectos sobre algunos, no todos, los medicamentos hipotensores. No obstante, no parece disminuir la presión arterial en personas con hipertensión arterial incontrolable que ya están tomando medicamentos hipotensores.
  • Cierta enfermedad renal denominada nefropatía por IgA. Cierta investigación muestra que el uso prolongado de aceite de pescado puede retrasar la pérdida de la función renal en pacientes con alto riesgo de nefropatía IgA. El aceite de pescado podría tener un gran efecto cuando se lo consume en grandes dosis. Además, podría resultar más efectivo en personas con nefropatía IgA que presentan altos niveles de proteina en la orina.
  • Pérdida de peso. Cierta evidencia limitada muestra que la ingesta de pescado ayuda a la pérdida de peso y disminuye los niveles de azúcar en sangre en personas con sobrepeso y con hipertensión arterial. La investigación preliminar además muestra que la ingesta de un suplemento específico de aceite de pescado (Hi-DHA, NuMega) disminuye la masa corporal cuando se la combina con ejercicio físico. No obstante, otra evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de otro suplemento específico de aceite de pescado (Lovaza) no disminuye el peso corporal en personas obesas.
  • Debilidad ósea (osteoporosis). La investigación sugiere que la ingesta de aceite de pescado de manera aislado o junto con calcio y aceite de onagra parece disminuir la tasa de pérdida ósea y aumentar la densidad ósea en el hueso del muslo (fémur) y la médula espinal en personas ancianas con osteoporosis.
  • Psoriasis. Existe cierta evidencia de que la administración de aceite de pescado por vía intravenosa (VI) puede disminuir los síntomas graves de la psoriasis. Además, la aplicación de aceite de pescado en la piel también parece mejorar los síntomas de la psoriasis. No obstante, la ingesta por via oral de aceite de pescado no parece tener efectos sobre la psoriasis.
  • Psicosis. Cierta investigación muestra que la ingesta de un suplemento de aceite de pescado podría ayudar a prevenir el desarrollo de todos los síntomas de enfermedad psicótica y en jóvenes y adultos jóvenes con síntomas leves. Estos efectos de aceite de pescado no se ha probado en personas mayores.
  • Síndrome de Raynaud. Existe cierta evidencia de que la ingesta de aceite de pescado puede mejorar la tolerancia al frio en algunas personas con el síndrome de Raynaud. No obstante, los suplementos de aceite de pescado no parecen ser beneficioso en personas con síndrome de Raynaud causada por una condición llamada esclerosis sistémica progresiva.
  • Niveles anormales de colesterol después de un trasplante de riñón. Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta de aceite de pescado de manera aislada o junto con medicamentos hipocolesterolémicos puede mejorar los niveles de colesterol en personas con niveles de colesterol anormal después de un trasplante de riñón.
  • Artritis reumática (AR). La ingesta de aceite de pescado sólo o en combinación con el medicamento naproxeno (Naprosyn), parece ayudar a mejorar los síntomas de la AR. Las personas que toman aceite de pescado a veces pueden reducir el uso de medicamentos para el dolor tales como los medicamentos antiinflamatorios no esteroidales (AINE). Además, la administración de aceite de pescado por vía intravenosa (VI) reduce la inflamación y molestia en las articulaciones en personas con artritis reumatoidea (AR).
  • Accidente cerebrovascular. El consumo moderado de pescado (una o dos veces a la semana) parece disminuir en un 27% el riesgo de accidente cerebrovascular. Sin embargo, en aquellas personas que ya están tomando aspirina para la prevención, el comer pescado no baja el riesgo de sufrir un accidente cerebrovascular. Por otra parte, el consumo de grandes cantidades de pescado (más de 46 gramos de pescado al día) parece aumentar quizás doblar, el riesgo de sufrir un accidente cerebrovascular. La ingesta de pescado no disminuye el riesgo de sufrir de accidente cerebrovasculares en personas que toman aspirinas por prevención.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • Dolor de pecho (angina). La investigación sugiere que la ingesta de suplementos de aceite de pescado no reduce el riesgo de muerte ni mejora la salud del corazón en personas con dolor en el pecho. Cierta evidencia también sugiere que los suplementos de aceite de pescado podría de hecho aumentar el riesgo de muerte por problemas cardiacos en personas con dolor de pecho.
  • Cicatrices en el hígado (cirrosis). La ingesta por via oral de aceite de pescado no parece mejorar los problemas de riñón asociados con cicatrices en el hígado causadas por la enfermedad hepática avanzada.
  • Dolor en las piernas debido a problemas de irrigación sanguínea (claudicación). La ingesta por via oral de aceite de pescado no parece mejorar los problemas para caminar en personas con dolor de piernas debido a problemas de irrigación sanguínea.
  • Niveles de colesterol anormales causados por la clozapina. La clozapina es un medicamento usado para la esquizofrenia. Cierta evidencia preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de aceite de pescado reduce los niveles de triglicéridos, pero aumenta el colesterol total y el colesterol de lipoproteína de baja densidad (LDL o malo) en personas con niveles anormales de colesterol por la ingesta de clozapina.
  • Infeccion de las encías (gingivitis). La ingesta de aceite de pescado no parece mejorar la gingivitis.
  • Infección por Helicobacter pylori. La ingesta por via oral de aceite de pescado no parece mejorar las infecciones por Helicobacter pylori en comparación con los medicamentos convencionales.
  • VIH / SIDA. Cierta evidencia muestra que la ingesta de barras de proteína con aceite de pescado no incrementa el recuento de células CD4 en personas con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH).
  • Dolor en las mamas (mastalgia). La ingesta de aceite de pescado no parece disminuir el dolor prolongado en las mamas.
  • Cefaleas por migraña. La ingesta por via oral de aceite de pescado no parece disminuir el número o la gravedad de las cefaleas por migraña.
  • Artrosis. La evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de aceite de pescado junto con sulfato de glucosamina no disminuye los síntomas de artrosis en comparación con el sulfato de glucosamina ingerido de manera aislada.
  • Neumonía. Los estudios de población no muestran relación entre el consumo de pescado y el riesgo de desarrollar neumonía.

Probablemente ineficaz para...

  • Diabetes tipo 2. La ingesta de aceite de pescado no disminuye el azúcar en la sangre en las personas con diabetes de tipo 2. Sin embargo, el aceite de pescado puede proporcionar otros beneficios para las personas con diabetes, como reducir los niveles de grasa en la sangre llamados triglicéridos.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Alergias. Investigaciones preliminares sugieren que la incidencia de asma en los niños disminuye si las madres han tomado aceite de pescado durante la etapa final del embarazo.
  • Enfermedad de Alzheimer. Hay evidencia preliminar que indica que el aceite de pescado podría ayudar en la enfermedad de Alzheimer. Sin embargo, no parece ayudar a prevenir el deterioro de la destreza de pensamiento en la mayoría de las personas que ya han sido diagnosticados con la enfermedad de Alzheimer.
  • Picazón e inflamación de la piel (eccema). Es inconsistente la evidencia sobre la efectividad del aceite de pescado en la dermatitis atópica. La investigación preliminar sugiere que mujeres que ingieren suplementos de aceite de pescado durante el embarazo podrían disminuir la incidencia y severidad de la dermatitis atópica en los bebes y niños que tienen un riesgo de sufrir esta enfermedad. Otra investigación descubrió que el aceite de pescado no reduce el riesgo de dermatitis atópica en los bebés. El aceite de pescado no parece ser eficaz para el tratamiento de la dermatitis atópica.
  • Latidos irregulares del corazón (fibrilación auricular). La investigación sobre los efectos del aceite de pescado sobre los latidos irregulares del corazon han arojado resultados contraductorios. Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta regular de pescado disminuye el riesgo de frecuencia cardiaca anormal. No obstante, otra investigación sugiere que esto no ocurre.
  • Autismo. Cierta investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de aceite de pescado podría disminuir la hiperactividad en niños con autismo. No obstante, otra investigación sugiere que esto no ocurre.
  • Cáncer. Son contradictorios los resultados de la investigación sobre los efectos del aceite de pescado para prevenir el cáncer.
  • Cataratas. Existe cierta evidencia de que la ingesta de pescado tres veces por semana puede disminuir levemente el riesgo de desarrollar cataratas.
  • Síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC). Existe evidencia contradictoria sobre el uso de un producto específico (Efamol Marine) que combina aceite de pescado y aceite de onagra reduce los síntomas de SFC.
  • Enfermedad renal crónica. La evidencia preliminar muestra que el aceite de pescado es beneficioso para ciertas personas con enfermedad renal crónica que reciben tratamientos de diálisis.
  • Capacidad de razonamiento (función cognitiva). Son contradictorios los resultados de la investigación sobre los efectos del aceite de pescado para la función cognitiva.
  • Enfermedad de Crohn. Son contradictorios los resultados de la investigación sobre los efectos del aceite de pescado para la enfermedad de Crohn. Cierta investigación muestra que la ingesta de un producto de aceite de pescado (Purepa, Tillotts Pharma) puede reducir la recaída de la enfermedad de Crohn en personas recuperadas. No obstante, otra investigación muestra que el aceite de pescado no tiene tal efecto.
  • Fibrosis quística. Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta por vis oral de aceite de pescado puede mejorar la función pulmonar en personas con fibrosis quística. No obstante, la administración de aceite de pescado por via intravenosa (VI) no presenta este efecto.
  • Demencia. Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta de pescado la menos una vez por semana reduce el riesgo de desarrollar demencia. Otra investigación sugiere que existe relación entre el consumo de pescado y el riesgo de desarrollar demencia.
  • Depresión. Existe evidencia inconsistente sobre el efecto de la ingesta de aceite de pescado para la depresión. Algunas investigaciones muestran que la ingesta de pescado junto con un medicamento antidepresivo podría ayudar a mejorar los síntomas en algunas personas. Otra investigación muestra que el aceite de pescado no mejora los síntomas de la depresión.
  • Daño renal en personas con diabetes (nefropatía diabética). Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta por via oral de aceite de pescado no mejora la función renal en personas con nefropatía diabética.
  • Síndrome de los ojos secos. Algunas investigaciones muestran que la ingesta de pescado está vinculada con un menor riesgo en las mujeres de sufrir el síndrome de los ojos secos. Cierta investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de un producto específico que contiene aceite de pescado y aceite d linaza (TheraTears Nutrition) podría también disminuir los síntomas de sequedad de los ojos y aumentar la producción de lágrimas.
  • Dyslexia. La ingesta diaria de aceite de pescado no mejora la visión nocturna en niños con dislexia.
  • Niveles anormales de colesterol o de grasa en la sangre (dislipidemia). Existe evidencia contradictoria sobre la efectividad del aceite de pescado sobre los niveles de colesterol y grasa en la sangre. Cierta investigación muestra que la ingesta de aceite de pescado puede disminuir los niveles de triglicéridos, reducir el colesterol de lipoproteína (LDL o colesterol “malo”) y aumentar el colesterol de lipoproteína de alta densidad (LAD o "colesterol bueno”) en personas con niveles de colesterol anormales. No obstante, otra investigación muestra que la ingesta de aceite de pescado no presenta tal efecto.
  • Enfermedad renal en etapa avanzada (enfermedad renal en etapa terminal). Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta de aceite de pescado reduce los marcadores de inflamación en personas con enfermedad renal.
  • Dolor muscular debido al ejercicio físico. La investigación preliminar muestra que la ingesta de aceite de pescado antes y durante un ejercicio físico no parece prevenir el dolor muscular en el brazo. No obstante, otra evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de aceite de pescado parece reducir el dolor muscular después de ejercitar la apiernas.
  • Rendimiento atlético. Cierta evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de aceite de pescado puede mejorar la función pulmonar en atletas. No obstante, otra evidencia sugiere que la ingesta de aceite de pescado no mejora la resistencia, la recuperación, la frecuencia cardiaca y la duración del ejercicio físico.
  • Prediabetes. Estudios preliminares sugieren que la ingesta de aceite de pescado podría ser una ayuda a detener el avance de la prediabetes y evitar que se convierta en diabetes tipo 2.}
  • Desarrollo de los bebés. Existe cierta evidencia de que las madres que consumen pescado o suplementos de aceite de pescado durante el embarazo podría mejorar ciertos aspectos del desarrollo mental del bebe. La ingesta de aceite de pescado durante la lactancia no presenta ese afecto. No obstante, la alimentación con leche maternizada fortificada con aceite de pescado parece no mejorara ciertos aspectos de la visión del bebé de aproximadamente dos meses.
  • Esclerosis múltiple. La ingesta de un producto de aceite de pescado (MaxEPA) no parece mejorar la duración, frecuencia o gravedad de las recaídas en pacientes con esclerosis múltiple.
  • Inflamación del páncreas (pancreatitis). La evidencia sugiere que la alimentación por via intravenosa (VI) en la dieta que ha sido fortificada con aceite de pescado reduce el intervalo de la terapia renal sustitutiva necesaria en personas con inflamación severa en el páncreas.
  • Fenilcetonuria (PKU). Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta de suplementos de aceite de pescado mejora la capacidad motora y la visión en niños con un raro trastorno genético llamado fenilcetonuria.
  • Complicaciones del embarazo. Hay algunas pruebas que indican que el la ingesta de aceite de pescado o mariscos durante las últimas 10 semanas de embarazo pueden ayudar a prevenir los nacimientos prematuros. Sin embargo, el aceite de pescado no parece prevenir la presión arterial alta durante el embarazo.
  • Nacimientos prematuros. La leche maternizada enriquecida con ácido grasos derivado del aceite de pescado y del aceite borraja parece mejorar el crecimiento y desarrollo del sistema nervioso en los bebés prematuros, especialmente de los niños hombres.
  • Intolerancia a los salicilatos. Algunas investigaciones limitadas sugieren que el tomar aceite de pescado podría mejorar los síntomas de intolerancia al salicilato tales como los ataques de asma y la picazón.
  • Esquizofrenia. Hay un informe que indica que el aceite de pescado mejoró la esquizofrenia en una mujer embarazada.
  • Anemia drepanocítica. Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta de aceite de pescado puede reducir los episodios de dolor grave en personas con anemia drepanocítica.
  • Lupus sistémico eritematoso (LSE). Las investigaciones muestran resultados contradictorios. Algunos estudios sugieren que el aceite de pescado ayuda a mejorar los síntomas de LSE, mientras que otros estudios no muestran ningún efecto.
  • Colitis ulcerosa. Son contradictorios los resultados de la investigación sobre los efectos del aceite de pescado en el tratamiento de la colitis ulcerosa.
  • Latidos irregulares del corazón que afectan a los ventrículos (arritmia ventricular). Los estudios sobre los efectos del aceite de pescado en las arritmias ventriculares han producido resultados contradictorios.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para aprobar al aceite de pescado para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

Muchos de los beneficios del aceite de pescado parecen ser el resultado de los ácidos grasos omega 3 que contiene. Interesantemente, el cuerpo no produce sus propios ácidos grasos omega 3. El cuerpo tampoco puede hacer ácidos grasos omega 3 a partir de ácidos grasos omega 6 que son muy comunes en la dieta Occidental. Se han hecho muchas investigaciones sobre el EPA y el DHA, dos tipos de ácidos grasos omega 3, que muy a menudo están incluidos en los suplementos de aceite de pescado.

Los ácidos grasos omega 3 disminuyen el dolor e hinchazón. Esto puede explicar porqué el aceite de pescado es posiblemente eficaz para la psoriasis y la sequedad de ojos. Estos ácidos grasos también retardan la coagulación sanguínea, lo que podría hacer útil al aceite de pescado para el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades del corazón.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

El aceite de pescado PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO para la mayoría de las personas, incluyendo las mujeres embarazadas y amamantando, cuando se toma en dosis bajas (3 gramos o menos al día). Hay cierta preocupación sobre la seguridad del aceite de pescado cuando se toma en dosis altas. El tomar más de 3 gramos al día podría impedir la coagulación de la sangre y aumentar el riesgo de hemorragia.

Dosis altas de aceite de pescado podrían también disminuir la actividad del sistema inmune, disminuyendo así la habilidad del cuerpo para combatir infecciones. Esta es una preocupación especial para las personas que están tomando medicamentos para disminuir la actividad de su sistema inmune (los pacientes de trasplante de órganos, por ejemplo) y para las personas de edad avanzada.

Tome dosis altas de aceite de pescado solo bajo supervisión médica.

El aceite de pescado puede producir efectos secundarios que incluyen eructos, mal aliento, nausea, heces sueltas, erupciones y sangre de nariz. A menudo, se pueden disminuir estos efectos secundarios si se toma el aceite de pescado con las comidas o si se congela antes de tomar.

El consumo de altas dosis de aceite de pescado a partir de fuentes dietéticas POSIBLEMENTE NO ES SEGURO. Algunas carnes de pescados (especialmente el tiburón, el macarelo rey y el salmón de criadero) pueden estar contaminadas con mercurio y otras sustancias químicas ambientales, pero típicamente los suplementos de aceite de pescado no contienen estos contaminantes.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Enfermedad del hígado: El aceite de pescado podría aumentar el riesgo de hemorragia en personas con cicatrices en el hígado debido a la enfermedad hepática.

Alergia al pescado o a los mariscos: Algunas personas que son alérgicas a los mariscos como el pescado podrían también ser alérgicas a los suplementos de aceite de pescado. No hay información confiable que indique que probabilidad hay que las personas alérgicas a los mariscos sean alérgicas a los aceites de pescado. Sin embargo, hasta que no haya más información, recomiende a los pacientes con alergia a mariscos que eviten el uso o usen los suplementos de aceite de pescado con cuidado.

Trastorno bipolar: El tomar aceite de pescado podría aumentar los síntomas de esta afección.

Depresión: El tomar aceite de pescado podría aumentar los síntomas de esta afección.

Diabetes: Hay preocupación de que el tomar altas dosis de aceite de pescado podría hacer más difícil el control del azúcar en la sangre.

Presión arterial alta: El aceite de pescado puede bajar la presión arterial y podría bajar demasiado la presión arterial en las personas que están siendo tratadas con medicamentos para bajar la presión arterial.

VIH/SIDA y otros trastornos en los cuales la respuesta del sistema inmunológico es más baja: Dosis altas de aceite de pescado puede bajar la respuesta del sistema inmunológico del cuerpo. Esto podría ser un problema para las personas con un sistema inmunológico ya débil.

Desfibrilador implantable (un dispositivo colocado quirúrgicamente para prevenir los latidos irregulares del corazón): Algunas investigaciones, pero no todas, sugieren que el aceite de pescado podría aumentar el riesgo de tener latidos irregulares del corazón en los pacientes que tienen un desfibrilador implantado. Sea precavido y evite el uso de suplementos de aceite de pescado.

Poliposis adenomatosa familiar: Hay la preocupación de que el aceite de pescado podría aumentar aun más el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer en las personas con este problema.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Medicamentos para bajar la presión arterial alta (Fármacos antihipertensivos)
El usar aceite de pescado con medicamentos que pueden bajar la presión arterial puede aumentar los efectos de estos medicamentos y puede bajar demasiado la presión arterial.

Algunos de los medicamentos para la presión arterial incluyen captoprila (Capoten), enalaprila (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (ccardizem), amlodipina (Norvasc), hidroclorotiazida (HydroDIURIL), furosemida (Lasix) y muchos otros.
Orlistat (Xenical, Alli)
El orlistat (Xenical, Alli) podría impedir la absorción de los ácidos grasos que son beneficiosos para el cuerpo y que están presentes en el aceite de pescado. Se puede impedir que esto suceda si se toma el aceite de pescado y el orlistat con dos horas de separación.
Píldoras anticonceptivas
Hay cierta evidencia que indica que las píldoras anticonceptivas pueden interferir con los efectos que tienen los aceites de pescado para bajar los triglicéridos.

Algunas píldoras anticonceptivas incluyen etinil estradiol y levonorgestrel (Triphasil), etinil estradiol y noretindrona (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novun 7/7/7) y otras.
Menores
Preste atención a esta combinación
Medicamentos que retardan la coagulación sanguínea (Anticoagulantes / fármacos Antiplaquetarios)
El consumo de aceite de pescado con medicamentos que retardan la coagulación podría aumentar el riesgo de hemorragia.

Algunos de estos medicamentos incluyen aspirina, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), dipiridamol (Persantine), enoxaparina (Lovenox), heparina, ticlopidina (Ticlid), warfarina (Coumadin) y otros.
Warfarina (Coumadin)
La warfarina (Coumadin) ayuda a disminuir la coagulación de la sangre. El cuerpo descompone la warfarina (Coumadin) a fin de eliminarlo. El aceite de pescado podría mejorar la descomposición y disminuir la efectividad de la warfarina (Coumadin). La disminución de la efectividad de la warfarina (Coumadin) podría aumentar el riesgo de coagulación. Asegúrese de realizarse análisis de sangre regularmente. Podría ser necesario modificar la dosis de warfarina (Coumadin).

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Hierbas y suplementos que disminuyen la presión arterial (hierbas y suplementos hipotensores)
El aceite de pescado podría disminuir la presión arterial. Posee el valor agregado de disminuir la presion arterial al igual que otras hierbas y suplementos que también disminuyen la presion arterial. Otras hierbas y suplementos que pueden disminuir la presión arterial incluyen andrographis, péptidos de caseína, uña de gato, coenzima Q-10, L-arginina, licio, ortiga brava, teanina y entre otros.
Hierbas y suplementos que podrían retardar la coagulación de la sangre
Las dosis altas de aceite de pescado parecen retardar la coagulación. El usar aceite de pescado con hierbas que pueden retardar la coagulación puede causar pérdida de sangre en algunas personas. Estas hierbas incluyen angélica, clavos de olor, salvia miltiorrhiza, ajo, jengibre, ginkgo, ginseng Panax, trébol rojo, cúrcuma, sauce y otras.
Vitamina E
Los aceites de pescado pueden disminuir los niveles de vitamina E. Los investigadores no están seguros si el aceite de pescado impide la absorción de la vitamina E presente en los alimentos o si hace que el cuerpo utilice la vitamina E más rápido de lo que debería.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

La siguiente dosis se ha estudiado en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para triglicéridos altos: 1-4 gramos al día de aceites de pescado.
  • Para la presión arterial alta: Use ya sea 4 gramos de aceites de pescado o aceites de pescado que proporcionen 2,04 gramos de EPA y 1,4 gramos de DHA al día.
  • Para la fibrilación auricular (una de las cámaras del corazón no se vacía totalmente y esto aumenta el riesgo de formación de coágulos lo que puede producir un derrame cerebral): El comer atún o pescado, al horno o a la parrilla, los que proporcionan ácidos grasos omega 3 (aceites de pescado) una o más veces por semana a diferencia de consumir pescado una sola vez al mes parece reducir el riesgo de fibrilación auricular en pacientes de 65 años o más. Pero no se obtiene ningún beneficio si se come pescado frito o un sándwich de pescado.
  • Para problemas del riñón causados por el uso de ciclosporina para prevenir el rechazo de órgano después de un trasplante: use 12 gramos al día que contengan 2,2 gramos de EPA y 1,4 gramos de DHA.
  • Para disminuir el riesgo de muerte y muerte súbita en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria: Use aceites de pescado que proporcionen 0,3-6 gramos de EPA con 0,6 a 3,7 gramos de DHA.
  • Para el asma en los niños: use 17-26,8 mg/kg de EPA y 7,3 -11,5 mg/kg de DHA para disminuir los síntomas. Para prevenir el desarrollo de asma en los niños, durante la etapa final del embarazo, las madres deben ingerir tocoferol más 4 gramos diarios de aceite de pescado que provee 32% de EPA y 23% de DHA.
  • Para prevenir las alergias infantiles. Las madres deben ingerir tocoferol más 4 gramos de aceite de pescado que provee 32% de EPA y 23% de DHA.
  • Para prevenir la dermatitis atópica juvenil: Las madres deben ingerir tocoferol más 4 gramos de aceite de pescado que provee 32% de EPA y 23% de DHA.
  • Para el tratamiento de asma: use 17-26,8 mg/kg de EPA y 7,3 -11,5 mg/kg de DHA.
  • Para prevenir y revertir el endurecimiento de las arterias: 6 gramos al día de aceite de pescado por los primeros 3 meses y de ahí en adelante 3 gramos diarios.
  • Para la artritis reumática: aceites de pescado que proporcionen 3,8 gramos al día de EPA y 2 gramos al día de DHA.
  • Para el trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH): se usa un suplemento específico que contiene 400 mg de aceites de pescado y 100 mg de aceite de onagra (Eye q, Novasel) y se toman 6 cápsulas al día.
  • Para la prevención de abortos involuntarios en mujeres con el síndrome de antifosfolípidos y una historia de abortos se usan 5,1 gramos de aceites de pescado con una proporción de 1,5 EPA a 1 de DHA.
  • Para períodos dolorosos: se usa una dosis diaria de 1080 mg de EPA y 720 de DHA.
  • Para el síndrome de Raynaud: se usa una dosis diaria de 3,96 gramos de EPA y 2,64 gramos de DHA.
  • Para la pérdida de peso: coma una porción diaria de pescado de 2-7 onzas que contenga aproximadamente 3,65 gramos de ácidos grasos omega 3 (0,66 gramos de EPA y 0,60 gramos de DHA).
  • Para frenar la pérdida de peso en pacientes con cáncer: use 7,5 gramos/día de aceites de pescado que proporcionen 4,7 gramos de EPA y 2,8 gramos de DHA.
  • Para mejorar los trastornos de movilidad en niños con dispraxia (mala coordinación): use aceites de pescado que proporcionen 480 mg de DHA y combine con 35 mg de ácido araquidónico, 96 mg de ácido gama-alfa linoleico de aceite de onagra, 24 mg de aceite de tomillo y 80 mg de vitamina E (Efalex).
  • Para el trastorno de desarrollo de coordinación en niños: se usan aceites de pescado que proporcionen 558 mg de EPA y 174 mg de DHA y se toma en 3 dosis separadas.
  • Para la depresión junto con medicamentos antidepresivos convencionales: use 9,6 gramos al día de aceites de pescado.
  • Para prevenir que se desarrolle psicosis severa en las personas que tienen síntomas leves: Se usa 1,2 gramos/día de aceite de pescado.
  • Para mantener las venas abiertas después de la cirugía de bypass de las arterias coronarias: se usan 4 gramos al día de aceites de pescado que contienen 2,04 gramos de EPA y 1,3 gramos de DHA.
  • Para prevenir el colapso de las arterias abiertas por medio de la terapia de”globo” (PCTA): se usan 6 gramos al día de aceites de pescado. Se empieza un mes antes del PTCA; se continúa por un mes más después del PTCA y luego se usan 3 gramos de aceite de pescado por otros seis meses.
  • Para reducir y prevenir el alza continua de la presión arterial y para conservar la función renal después del trasplante de corazón: se usan 4 gramos al día de aceites de pescado (46,5% de EPA y 37,8% de DHA).
  • Para prevenir la coagulación después de la colocación de un tubo para la diálisis: se usan 6 gramos al día de aceites de pescado.
  • Para preservar la función renal en pacientes con nefropatía IgA, se han usado 4,8 gramos al día de aceite de pescado.
  • Para la combinación de triglicéridos altos y colesterol alto`: Para bajar el colesterol, el LDL, los triglicéridos y la proporción entre el colesterol total y el HDL y la proporción entre el LDL y el HDL se han usado aceites de pescado que proporcionen 1800-2160 mg de EPA y 1200-1440 mg de DHA combinados con 900-1200 mg al día de ajo en polvo.
  • Para la intolerancia a los salicilatos: 10 gramos diarios de aceite de pescado.

Otros nombres

Acides Gras Oméga-3, Acides Gras Oméga 3, Acides Gras Oméga 3 Sous Forme Ester Éthylique, Acides Gras N-3, Acides Gras Polyinsaturés N-3, Acides Gras W3, ACPI, Cod Liver Oil, EPA/DHA Ethyl Ester, Ester Éthylique de l’AEP/ADH, Fish Body Oil, Herring Oil, Huile de Foie de Morue, Huile de Hareng, Huile de Menhaden, Huile de Poisson, Huile de Saumon, Huile de Thon, Huile Lipidique Marine, Huile Marine, Huiles Marines, Lipides Marins, Marine Lipid Concentrate, Marine Fish Oil, Marine Lipid Oil, Marine Lipids, Marine Oil, Marine Oils, Marine Triglyceride, Menhaden Oil, N-3 Fatty Acids, N3-polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Omega 3, Oméga 3, Omega-3, Oméga-3, Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Marine Triglycerides, PUFA, Salmon Oil, Triglycérides Marins, Tuna Fish Oil, Tuna Oil, W-3 Fatty Acids.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

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  161. Dyerberg, J. and Bang, H. O. Haemostatic function and platelet polyunsaturated fatty acids in Eskimos. Lancet 9-1-1979;2:433-435. View abstract.
  162. Faldella, G., Govoni, M., Alessandroni, R., Marchiani, E., Salvioli, G. P., Biagi, P. L., and Spano, C. Visual evoked potentials and dietary long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm infants. Arch.Dis.Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1996;75:F108-F112. View abstract.
  163. Mutanen, M. and Freese, R. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and platelet aggregation. Curr Opin.Lipidol. 1996;7:14-19. View abstract.
  164. Braga, M., Vignali, A., Gianotti, L., Cestari, A., Profili, M., and Di, Carlo, V. Benefits of early postoperative enteral feeding in cancer patients. Infusionsther.Transfusionsmed. 1995;22:280-284. View abstract.
  165. Hansen, G. V., Nielsen, L., Kluger, E., Thysen, M., Emmertsen, H., Stengaard-Pedersen, K., Hansen, E. L., Unger, B., and Andersen, P. W. Nutritional status of Danish rheumatoid arthritis patients and effects of a diet adjusted in energy intake, fish-meal, and antioxidants. Scand.J.Rheumatol. 1996;25:325-330. View abstract.
  166. Rossing, P., Hansen, B. V., Nielsen, F. S., Myrup, B., Holmer, G., and Parving, H. H. Fish oil in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care 1996;19:1214-1219. View abstract.
  167. Rivellese, A. A., Maffettone, A., Iovine, C., Di Marino, L., Annuzzi, G., Mancini, M., and Riccardi, G. Long-term effects of fish oil on insulin resistance and plasma lipoproteins in NIDDM patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Diabetes Care 1996;19:1207-1213. View abstract.
  168. Kremer, J. M., Malamood, H., Maliakkal, B., Rodgers, J. B., Ross, J. S., and Cooper, J. A. Fish oil dietary supplementation for prevention of indomethacin induced gastric and small bowel toxicity in healthy volunteers. J Rheumatol. 1996;23:1770-1773. View abstract.
  169. Loeschke, K., Ueberschaer, B., Pietsch, A., Gruber, E., Ewe, K., Wiebecke, B., Heldwein, W., and Lorenz, R. n-3 fatty acids only delay early relapse of ulcerative colitis in remission. Dig.Dis.Sci. 1996;41:2087-2094. View abstract.
  170. Roche, H. M. and Gibney, M. J. Postprandial triacylglycerolaemia: the effect of low-fat dietary treatment with and without fish oil supplementation. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:617-624. View abstract.
  171. Sarkkinen, E., Schwab, U., Niskanen, L., Hannuksela, M., Savolainen, M., Kervinen, K., Kesaniemi, A., and Uusitupa, M. I. The effects of monounsaturated-fat enriched diet and polyunsaturated-fat enriched diet on lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 1996;50:592-598. View abstract.
  172. Katz, D. P., Manner, T., Furst, P., and Askanazi, J. The use of an intravenous fish oil emulsion enriched with omega-3 fatty acids in patients with cystic fibrosis. Nutrition 1996;12:334-339. View abstract.
  173. Kang, J. X. and Leaf, A. Antiarrhythmic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Recent studies. Circulation 10-1-1996;94:1774-1780. View abstract.
  174. Gray, D. R., Gozzip, C. G., Eastham, J. H., and Kashyap, M. L. Fish oil as an adjuvant in the treatment of hypertension. Pharmacotherapy 1996;16:295-300. View abstract.
  175. Hau, M. F., Smelt, A. H., Bindels, A. J., Sijbrands, E. J., Van der, Laarse A., Onkenhout, W., van Duyvenvoorde, W., and Princen, H. M. Effects of fish oil on oxidation resistance of VLDL in hypertriglyceridemic patients. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc Biol 1996;16:1197-1202. View abstract.
  176. Plotnick, A. N. The role of omega-3 fatty acids in renal disorders. J Am Vet Med Assoc 9-1-1996;209:906-910. View abstract.
  177. Bell, S. J., Chavali, S., Bistrian, B. R., Connolly, C. A., Utsunomiya, T., and Forse, R. A. Dietary fish oil and cytokine and eicosanoid production during human immunodeficiency virus infection. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 1996;20:43-49. View abstract.
  178. Stevens, L. J., Zentall, S. S., Abate, M. L., Kuczek, T., and Burgess, J. R. Omega-3 fatty acids in boys with behavior, learning, and health problems. Physiol Behav. 1996;59(4-5):915-920. View abstract.
  179. Schindler, O. S. and Rost, R. [Effect of low dose omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in coronary patients with dyslipoproteinemia]. Z Ernahrungswiss. 1996;35:191-198. View abstract.
  180. Fasching, P., Rohac, M., Liener, K., Schneider, B., Nowotny, P., and Waldhausl, W. Fish oil supplementation versus gemfibrozil treatment in hyperlipidemic NIDDM. A randomized crossover study. Horm.Metab Res 1996;28:230-236. View abstract.
  181. Adams, P. B., Lawson, S., Sanigorski, A., and Sinclair, A. J. Arachidonic acid to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio in blood correlates positively with clinical symptoms of depression. Lipids 1996;31 Suppl:S157-S161. View abstract.
  182. Kang, J. X. and Leaf, A. The cardiac antiarrhythmic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid. Lipids 1996;31 Suppl:S41-S44. View abstract.
  183. Shapiro, J. A., Koepsell, T. D., Voigt, L. F., Dugowson, C. E., Kestin, M., and Nelson, J. L. Diet and rheumatoid arthritis in women: a possible protective effect of fish consumption. Epidemiology 1996;7:256-263. View abstract.
  184. Campan, P., Planchand, P. O., and Duran, D. [Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of experimental human gingivitis]. Bull Group Int Rech.Sci Stomatol.Odontol. 1996;39(1-2):25-31. View abstract.
  185. Zak, A., Zeman, M., Tvrzicka, E., and Stolba, P. [The effect of fish oil on metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with dyslipidemia]. Cas.Lek.Cesk. 5-29-1996;135:354-359. View abstract.
  186. Kooijmans-Coutinho, M. F., Rischen-Vos, J., Hermans, J., Arndt, J. W., and van der Woude, F. J. Dietary fish oil in renal transplant recipients treated with cyclosporin-A: no beneficial effects shown. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996;7:513-518. View abstract.
  187. Deutch, B. [Painful menstruation and low intake of n-3 fatty acids]. Ugeskr.Laeger 7-15-1996;158:4195-4198. View abstract.
  188. Pandalai, P. K., Pilat, M. J., Yamazaki, K., Naik, H., and Pienta, K. J. The effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on in vitro prostate cancer growth. Anticancer Res 1996;16:815-820. View abstract.
  189. Balestrieri, G. P., Maffi, V., Sleiman, I., Spandrio, S., Di Stefano, O., Salvi, A., and Scalvini, T. Fish oil supplementation in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Recenti Prog Med 1996;87:102-105. View abstract.
  190. Salvig, J. D., Olsen, S. F., and Secher, N. J. Effects of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy on blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1996;103:529-533. View abstract.
  191. Hodge, L., Salome, C. M., Peat, J. K., Haby, M. M., Xuan, W., and Woolcock, A. J. Consumption of oily fish and childhood asthma risk. Med J Aust. 2-5-1996;164:137-140. View abstract.
  192. Carlson, S. E., Werkman, S. H., and Tolley, E. A. Effect of long-chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation on visual acuity and growth of preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am.J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:687-697. View abstract.
  193. Kenler, A. S., Swails, W. S., Driscoll, D. F., DeMichele, S. J., Daley, B., Babineau, T. J., Peterson, M. B., and Bistrian, B. R. Early enteral feeding in postsurgical cancer patients. Fish oil structured lipid-based polymeric formula versus a standard polymeric formula. Ann.Surg. 1996;223:316-333. View abstract.
  194. Christensen, J. H., Gustenhoff, P., Korup, E., Aaroe, J., Toft, E., Moller, J., Rasmussen, K., Dyerberg, J., and Schmidt, E. B. Effect of fish oil on heart rate variability in survivors of myocardial infarction: a double blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ 3-16-1996;312:677-678. View abstract.
  195. Shoda, R., Matsueda, K., Yamato, S., and Umeda, N. Therapeutic efficacy of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in experimental Crohn's disease. J Gastroenterol. 1995;30 Suppl 8:98-101. View abstract.
  196. Grimminger, F., Grimm, H., Fuhrer, D., Papavassilis, C., Lindemann, G., Blecher, C., Mayer, K., Tabesch, F., Kramer, H. J., Stevens, J., and Seeger, W. Omega-3 lipid infusion in a heart allotransplant model. Shift in fatty acid and lipid mediator profiles and prolongation of transplant survival. Circulation 1-15-1996;93:365-371. View abstract.
  197. Nordoy, A., Hatcher, L. F., Ullmann, D. L., and Connor, W. E. Individual effects of dietary saturated fatty acids and fish oil on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in normal men. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:634-639. View abstract.
  198. Franzen, D., Geisel, J., Hopp, H. W., Oette, K., and Hilger, H. H. [Long-term effects of low dosage fish oil on serum lipids and lipoproteins]. Med Klin 3-15-1993;88:134-138. View abstract.
  199. Tato, F., Keller, C., and Wolfram, G. Effects of fish oil concentrate on lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in familial combined hyperlipidemia. Clin Investig. 1993;71:314-318. View abstract.
  200. Elmadfa, I., Stroh, S., Brandt, K., and Schlotzer, E. Influence of a single parenteral application of a 10% fish oil emulsion on plasma fatty acid pattern and the function of thrombocytes in young adult men. Ann Nutr Metab 1993;37:8-13. View abstract.
  201. Franzen, D., Schannwell, M., Oette, K., and Hopp, H. W. A prospective, randomized, and double-blind trial on the effect of fish oil on the incidence of restenosis following PTCA. Cathet.Cardiovasc.Diagn. 1993;28:301-310. View abstract.
  202. Ross, E. The role of marine fish oils in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Nutr.Rev. 1993;51:47-49. View abstract.
  203. Landmark, K., Thaulow, E., Hysing, J., Mundal, H. H., Eritsland, J., and Hjermann, I. Effects of fish oil, nifedipine and their combination on blood pressure and lipids in primary hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 1993;7:25-32. View abstract.
  204. Fleischhauer, F. J., Yan, W. D., and Fischell, T. A. Fish oil improves endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in heart transplant recipients. J Am Coll Cardiol 3-15-1993;21:982-989. View abstract.
  205. McVeigh, G. E., Brennan, G. M., Johnston, G. D., McDermott, B. J., McGrath, L. T., Henry, W. R., Andrews, J. W., and Hayes, J. R. Dietary fish oil augments nitric oxide production or release in patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 1993;36:33-38. View abstract.
  206. Morris, M. C., Taylor, J. O., Stampfer, M. J., Rosner, B., and Sacks, F. M. The effect of fish oil on blood pressure in mild hypertensive subjects: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:59-64. View abstract.
  207. Robinson, D. R., Xu, L. L., Tateno, S., Guo, M., and Colvin, R. B. Suppression of autoimmune disease by dietary n-3 fatty acids. J Lipid Res 1993;34:1435-1444. View abstract.
  208. Hansen, J. B., Olsen, J. O., Wilsgard, L., Lyngmo, V., and Svensson, B. Comparative effects of prolonged intake of highly purified fish oils as ethyl ester or triglyceride on lipids, haemostasis and platelet function in normolipaemic men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1993;47:497-507. View abstract.
  209. Connor, W. E., Prince, M. J., Ullmann, D., Riddle, M., Hatcher, L., Smith, F. E., and Wilson, D. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of fish oil in adult-onset diabetes without adverse glucose control. Ann N Y Acad Sci 6-14-1993;683:337-340. View abstract.
  210. Vessby, B. Dietary supplementation with N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in type 2 diabetes. Effects on glucose homeostasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 6-14-1993;683:244-249. View abstract.
  211. van der Heide, J. J., Bilo, H. J., Donker, J. M., Wilmink, J. M., and Tegzess, A. M. Effect of dietary fish oil on renal function and rejection in cyclosporine-treated recipients of renal transplants. N.Engl J Med 9-9-1993;329:769-773. View abstract.
  212. Morris, M. C., Sacks, F., and Rosner, B. Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 1993;88:523-533. View abstract.
  213. Meydani, S. N., Lichtenstein, A. H., Cornwall, S., Meydani, M., Goldin, B. R., Rasmussen, H., Dinarello, C. A., and Schaefer, E. J. Immunologic effects of national cholesterol education panel step-2 diets with and without fish-derived N-3 fatty acid enrichment. J Clin Invest 1993;92:105-113. View abstract.
  214. Gapinski, J. P., VanRuiswyk, J. V., Heudebert, G. R., and Schectman, G. S. Preventing restenosis with fish oils following coronary angioplasty. A meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 7-12-1993;153:1595-1601. View abstract.
  215. Henneicke-von Zepelin, H. H., Mrowietz, U., Farber, L., Bruck-Borchers, K., Schober, C., Huber, J., Lutz, G., Kohnen, R., Christophers, E., and Welzel, D. Highly purified omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids for topical treatment of psoriasis. Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study. Br J Dermatol 1993;129:713-717. View abstract.
  216. Arteaga, A., Villanueva, C. L., Skorin, C., Guasch, V., Solis, de Ovando, Velasco, N., Acosta, A. M., and Leighton, F. [Dyslipidemic patients with coronary cardiopathy. Effect of different doses of OMEGA-3 fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins]. Rev Med Chil. 1993;121:618-625. View abstract.
  217. Olszewski, A. J. and McCully, K. S. Fish oil decreases serum homocysteine in hyperlipemic men. Coron.Artery Dis 1993;4:53-60. View abstract.
  218. Pelikanova, T., Kohout, M., Valek, J., Kazdova, L., and Base, J. Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in type 2 (non-insulin- dependent) diabetic patients. Ann N Y Acad Sci 6-14-1993;683:272-278. View abstract.
  219. Aucamp, A. K., Schoeman, H. S., and Coetzee, J. H. Pilot trial to determine the efficacy of a low dose of fish oil in the treatment of angina pectoris in the geriatric patient. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1993;49:687-689. View abstract.
  220. Contacos, C., Barter, P. J., and Sullivan, D. R. Effect of pravastatin and omega-3 fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Arterioscler.Thromb. 1993;13:1755-1762. View abstract.
  221. Gonzalez, M. J., Schemmel, R. A., Dugan, L., Jr., Gray, J. I., and Welsch, C. W. Dietary fish oil inhibits human breast carcinoma growth: a function of increased lipid peroxidation. Lipids 1993;28:827-832. View abstract.
  222. Bartram, H. P., Gostner, A., Scheppach, W., Reddy, B. S., Rao, C. V., Dusel, G., Richter, F., Richter, A., and Kasper, H. Effects of fish oil on rectal cell proliferation, mucosal fatty acids, and prostaglandin E2 release in healthy subjects. Gastroenterology 1993;105:1317-1322. View abstract.
  223. Ventura, H. O., Milani, R. V., Lavie, C. J., Smart, F. W., Stapleton, D. D., Toups, T. S., and Price, H. L. Cyclosporine-induced hypertension. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in patients after cardiac transplantation. Circulation 1993;88(5 Pt 2):II281-II285. View abstract.
  224. Schut, N. H., Bilo, H. J., Popp-Snijders, C., Goedhart, P. T., and Wilmink, J. M. Erythrocyte deformability, endothelin levels, and renal function in cyclosporin-treated renal transplant recipients: effects of intervention with fish oil and corn oil. Scand.J.Clin.Lab Invest 1993;53:499-506. View abstract.
  225. Donnelly, J. P., McGrath, L. T., and Brennan, G. M. Lipid peroxidation, LDL glycosylation and dietary fish oil supplementation in type II diabetes mellitus. Biochem Soc Trans. 1994;22:34S. View abstract.
  226. Nordoy, A., Hatcher, L., Goodnight, S., FitzGerald, G. A., and Conner, W. E. Effects of dietary fat content, saturated fatty acids, and fish oil on eicosanoid production and hemostatic parameters in normal men. J Lab Clin Med 1994;123:914-920. View abstract.
  227. Tomei, R., Rossi, L., Carbonieri, E., Franceschini, L., Cemin, C., Ghebremariam-Tesfau, K., and Zardini, P. [Efficacy and tolerability of simvastatin and omega-3 fatty acid combination in patients with coronary disease, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia]. Cardiologia 1993;38:773-778. View abstract.
  228. Clark, W. F. and Parbtani, A. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in clinical and experimental lupus nephritis. Am J Kidney Dis 1994;23:644-647. View abstract.
  229. Mori, T. A., Vandongen, R., Beilin, L. J., Burke, V., Morris, J., and Ritchie, J. Effects of varying dietary fat, fish, and fish oils on blood lipids in a randomized controlled trial in men at risk of heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1060-1068. View abstract.
  230. Howe, P. R., Lungershausen, Y. K., Cobiac, L., Dandy, G., and Nestel, P. J. Effect of sodium restriction and fish oil supplementation on BP and thrombotic risk factors in patients treated with ACE inhibitors. J Hum Hypertens. 1994;8:43-49. View abstract.
  231. Appel, L. J., Miller, E. R., III, Seidler, A. J., and Whelton, P. K. Does supplementation of diet with 'fish oil' reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Arch Intern Med 6-28-1993;153:1429-1438. View abstract.
  232. Pyzh, M. V., Gratsianskii, N. A., and Dobrovol'skii, A. B. [The effect of the long-term use of a diet enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition, fibrinolytic system indices and lipid spectrum of the blood in patients with ischemic heart disease]. Kardiologiia. 1993;33:46-50. View abstract.
  233. Henderson, W. R., Jr., Astley, S. J., McCready, M. M., Kushmerick, P., Casey, S., Becker, J. W., and Ramsey, B. W. Oral absorption of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with cystic fibrosis who have pancreatic insufficiency and in healthy control subjects. J Pediatr 1994;124:400-408. View abstract.
  234. Lawrence, R. and Sorrell, T. Eicosapentaenoic acid in cystic fibrosis: evidence of a pathogenetic role for leukotriene B4. Lancet 8-21-1993;342:465-469. View abstract.
  235. Henderson, W. R., Jr., Astley, S. J., and Ramsey, B. W. Liver function in patients with cystic fibrosis ingesting fish oil. J Pediatr 1994;125:504-505. View abstract.
  236. Faarvang, K. L., Nielsen, G. L., Thomsen, B. S., Teglbjaerg, K. L., Hansen, T. M., Lervang, H. H., Schmidt, E. B., Dyerberg, J., and Ernst, E. [Fish oils and rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized and double-blind study]. Ugeskr Laeger 6-6-1994;156:3495-3498. View abstract.
  237. Pettersson, E. E., Rekola, S., Berglund, L., Sundqvist, K. G., Angelin, B., Diczfalusy, U., Bjorkhem, I., and Bergstrom, J. Treatment of IgA nephropathy with omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids: a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Clin Nephrol 1994;41:183-190. View abstract.
  238. Soyland, E., Funk, J., Rajka, G., Sandberg, M., Thune, P., Rustad, L., Helland, S., Middelfart, K., Odu, S., Falk, E. S., and . Dietary supplementation with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids in patients with atopic dermatitis. A double-blind, multicentre study. Br J Dermatol 1994;130:757-764. View abstract.
  239. Olsen, S. F., Soorensen, J. D., Secher, N. J., Hedegaard, M., Henriksen, T. B., Hansen, H. S., and Grant, A. [Fish oil supplementation and duration of pregnancy. A randomized controlled trial]. Ugeskr Laeger 2-28-1994;156:1302-1307. View abstract.
  240. Geusens, P., Wouters, C., Nijs, J., Jiang, Y., and Dequeker, J. Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. A 12-month, double-blind, controlled study. Arthritis Rheum. 1994;37:824-829. View abstract.
  241. Burr, M. L., Sweetham, P. M., and Fehily, A. M. Diet and reinfarction. Eur Heart J 1994;15:1152-1153. View abstract.
  242. Salachas, A., Papadopoulos, C., Sakadamis, G., Styliadis, J., Voudris, V., Oakley, D., and Saynor, R. Effects of a low-dose fish oil concentrate on angina, exercise tolerance time, serum triglycerides, and platelet function. Angiology 1994;45:1023-1031. View abstract.
  243. Anti, M., Armelao, F., Marra, G., Percesepe, A., Bartoli, G. M., Palozza, P., Parrella, P., Canetta, C., Gentiloni, N., De, Vitis, I, and . Effects of different doses of fish oil on rectal cell proliferation in patients with sporadic colonic adenomas. Gastroenterology 1994;107:1709-1718. View abstract.
  244. Donadio, J. V., Jr., Bergstralh, E. J., Offord, K. P., Spencer, D. C., and Holley, K. E. A controlled trial of fish oil in IgA nephropathy. Mayo Nephrology Collaborative Group. N.Engl.J Med 11-3-1994;331:1194-1199. View abstract.
  245. Uauy, R., Hoffman, D. R., Birch, E. E., Birch, D. G., Jameson, D. M., and Tyson, J. Safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in the nutrition of very low birth weight infants: soy oil and marine oil supplementation of formula. J Pediatr 1994;124:612-620. View abstract.
  246. Grossman, E., Peleg, E., Shiff, E., and Rosenthal, T. Hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of fish oil in hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens. 1993;6:1040-1045. View abstract.
  247. Grundt, H., Nilsen, D. W., Hetland, O., Aarsland, T., Baksaas, I., Grande, T., and Woie, L. Improvement of serum lipids and blood pressure during intervention with n-3 fatty acids was not associated with changes in insulin levels in subjects with combined hyperlipidaemia. J Intern Med 1995;237:249-259. View abstract.
  248. Mackness, M. I., Bhatnagar, D., Durrington, P. N., Prais, H., Haynes, B., Morgan, J., and Borthwick, L. Effects of a new fish oil concentrate on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:859-865. View abstract.
  249. Maachi, K., Berthoux, P., Burgard, G., Alamartine, E., and Berthoux, F. Results of a 1-year randomized controlled trial with omega-3 fatty acid fish oil in renal transplantation under triple immunosuppressive therapy. Transplant.Proc 1995;27:846-849. View abstract.
  250. Bennett, W. M., Carpenter, C. B., Shapiro, M. E., Strom, T. B., Hefty, D., Tillman, M., Abrams, J., Ryan, D., and Kelley, V. R. Delayed omega-3 fatty acid supplements in renal transplantation. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Transplantation 2-15-1995;59:352-356. View abstract.
  251. Weksler, B. B. Omega 3 fatty acids have multiple antithrombotic effects. World Rev Nutr Diet 1994;76:47-50. View abstract.
  252. Lorenz, R. and Loeschke, K. Placebo-controlled trials of omega 3 fatty acids in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1994;76:143-145. View abstract.
  253. Sorensen, J. D. and Olsen, S. F. Effects of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy on prostaglandin metabolism. World Rev Nutr Diet 1994;76:122-125. View abstract.
  254. Lungershausen, Y. K., Abbey, M., Nestel, P. J., and Howe, P. R. Reduction of blood pressure and plasma triglycerides by omega-3 fatty acids in treated hypertensives. J Hypertens. 1994;12:1041-1045. View abstract.
  255. Kurlandsky, L. E., Bennink, M. R., Webb, P. M., Ulrich, P. J., and Baer, L. J. The absorption and effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on serum leukotriene B4 in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr.Pulmonol. 1994;18:211-217. View abstract.
  256. Dyerberg, J., Bang, H. O., Stoffersen, E., Moncada, S., and Vane, J. R. Eicosapentaenoic acid and prevention of thrombosis and atherosclerosis? Lancet 7-15-1978;2:117-119. View abstract.
  257. Guallar, E., Hennekens, C. H., Sacks, F. M., Willett, W. C., and Stampfer, M. J. A prospective study of plasma fish oil levels and incidence of myocardial infarction in U.S. male physicians. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;25:387-394. View abstract.
  258. Schwartz, J. and Weiss, S. T. The relationship of dietary fish intake to level of pulmonary function in the first National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES I). Eur Respir.J 1994;7:1821-1824. View abstract.
  259. Hoffman, D. R., Uauy, R., and Birch, D. G. Metabolism of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Exp Eye Res 1995;60:279-289. View abstract.
  260. Sekine, K. Hepatic role in the storage and utilization of fish oil fatty acids in humans: studies on liver surgery patients. Intern Med 1995;34:139-143. View abstract.
  261. Lau, C. S., McLaren, M., and Belch, J. J. Effects of fish oil on plasma fibrinolysis in patients with mild rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1995;13:87-90. View abstract.
  262. Sacks, F. M., Hebert, P., Appel, L. J., Borhani, N. O., Applegate, W. B., Cohen, J. D., Cutler, J. A., Kirchner, K. A., Kuller, L. H., Roth, K. J., and . The effect of fish oil on blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol levels in phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. J Hypertens.Suppl 1994;12:S23-S31. View abstract.
  263. Prisco, D., Filippini, M., Francalanci, I., Paniccia, R., Gensini, G. F., and Serneri, G. G. Effect of n-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplementation on fatty acid composition of the single platelet phospholipids and on platelet functions. Metabolism 1995;44:562-569. View abstract.
  264. Simon, J. A., Fong, J., Bernert, J. T., Jr., and Browner, W. S. Serum fatty acids and the risk of stroke. Stroke 1995;26:778-782. View abstract.
  265. Eritsland, J., Seljeflot, I., Arnesen, H., Westvik, A. B., and Kierulf, P. Effect of long-term, moderate-dose supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on monocyte procoagulant activity and release of interleukin-6 in patients with coronary artery disease. Thromb.Res 2-15-1995;77:337-346. View abstract.
  266. Hansen, J. M., Lokkegaard, H., Hoy, C. E., Fogh-Andersen, N., Olsen, N. V., and Strandgaard, S. No effect of dietary fish oil on renal hemodynamics, tubular function, and renal functional reserve in long-term renal transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol 1995;5:1434-1440. View abstract.
  267. Morgan, W. A., Raskin, P., and Rosenstock, J. A comparison of fish oil or corn oil supplements in hyperlipidemic subjects with NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1995;18:83-86. View abstract.
  268. Robinson, D. R., Knoell, C. T., Urakaze, M., Huang, R., Taki, H., Sugiyama, E., Xu, L. L., Yeh, E. T., Olesiak, W., Guo, M., and . Suppression of autoimmune disease by omega-3 fatty acids. Biochem Soc Trans. 1995;23:287-291. View abstract.
  269. Kasim-Karakas, S. E., Herrmann, R., and Almario, R. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on intravascular lipolysis of very-low- density lipoproteins in humans. Metabolism 1995;44:1223-1230. View abstract.
  270. Kremer, J. M., Lawrence, D. A., Petrillo, G. F., Litts, L. L., Mullaly, P. M., Rynes, R. I., Stocker, R. P., Parhami, N., Greenstein, N. S., Fuchs, B. R., and . Effects of high-dose fish oil on rheumatoid arthritis after stopping nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Clinical and immune correlates. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38:1107-1114. View abstract.
  271. Williams, M. A., Zingheim, R. W., King, I. B., and Zebelman, A. M. Omega-3 fatty acids in maternal erythrocytes and risk of preeclampsia. Epidemiology 1995;6:232-237. View abstract.
  272. Deutch, B. Menstrual pain in Danish women correlated with low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:508-516. View abstract.
  273. Eritsland, J., Arnesen, H., Berg, K., Seljeflot, I., and Abdelnoor, M. Serum Lp(a) lipoprotein levels in patients with coronary artery disease and the influence of long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation. Scand.J.Clin.Lab Invest 1995;55:295-300. View abstract.
  274. Rhodes, L. E., Durham, B. H., Fraser, W. D., and Friedmann, P. S. Dietary fish oil reduces basal and ultraviolet B-generated PGE2 levels in skin and increases the threshold to provocation of polymorphic light eruption. J.Invest Dermatol. 1995;105:532-535. View abstract.
  275. Caygill, C. P. and Hill, M. J. Fish, n-3 fatty acids and human colorectal and breast cancer mortality. Eur J Cancer Prev 1995;4:329-332. View abstract.
  276. Kim, D. N., Eastman, A., Baker, J. E., Mastrangelo, A., Sethi, S., Ross, J. S., Schmee, J., and Thomas, W. A. Fish oil, atherogenesis, and thrombogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1-17-1995;748:474-480. View abstract.
  277. Culp, B. R., Lands, W. E., Lucches, B. R., Pitt, B., and Romson, J. The effect of dietary supplementation of fish oil on experimental myocardial infarction. Prostaglandins 1980;20:1021-1031. View abstract.
  278. Harris, W. S. and Connor, W. E. The effects of salmon oil upon plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and triglyceride clearance. Trans.Assoc Am Physicians 1980;93:148-155. View abstract.
  279. Lorenz, R., Spengler, U., Fischer, S., Duhm, J., and Weber, P. C. Platelet function, thromboxane formation and blood pressure control during supplementation of the Western diet with cod liver oil. Circulation 1983;67:504-511. View abstract.
  280. Sanders, T. A. and Hochland, M. C. A comparison of the influence on plasma lipids and platelet function of supplements of omega 3 and omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Br J Nutr 1983;50:521-529. View abstract.
  281. Mortensen, J. Z., Schmidt, E. B., Nielsen, A. H., and Dyerberg, J. The effect of N-6 and N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on hemostasis, blood lipids and blood pressure. Thromb.Haemost. 8-30-1983;50:543-546. View abstract.
  282. Woodcock, B. E., Smith, E., Lambert, W. H., Jones, W. M., Galloway, J. H., Greaves, M., and Preston, F. E. Beneficial effect of fish oil on blood viscosity in peripheral vascular disease. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 2-25-1984;288:592-594. View abstract.
  283. Fischer, S. and Weber, P. C. Prostaglandin I3 is formed in vivo in man after dietary eicosapentaenoic acid. Nature 1-12-1984;307:165-168. View abstract.
  284. Fischer, S. and Weber, P. C. Thromboxane A3 (TXA3) is formed in human platelets after dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega 3). Biochem Biophys.Res Commun 11-15-1983;116:1091-1099. View abstract.
  285. Nagakawa, Y., Orimo, H., Harasawa, M., Morita, I., Yashiro, K., and Murota, S. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on the platelet aggregation and composition of fatty acid in man. A double blind study. Atherosclerosis 1983;47:71-75. View abstract.
  286. Saynor, R. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum lipids. Lancet 9-22-1984;2:696-697. View abstract.
  287. Thorngren, M. and Gustafson, A. Effects of 11-week increases in dietary eicosapentaenoic acid on bleeding time, lipids, and platelet aggregation. Lancet 11-28-1981;2:1190-1193. View abstract.
  288. Siess, W., Roth, P., Scherer, B., Kurzmann, I., Bohlig, B., and Weber, P. C. Platelet-membrane fatty acids, platelet aggregation, and thromboxane formation during a mackerel diet. Lancet 3-1-1980;1:441-444. View abstract.
  289. Ahmed, A. A. and Holub, B. J. Alteration and recovery of bleeding times, platelet aggregation and fatty acid composition of individual phospholipids in platelets of human subjects receiving a supplement of cod-liver oil. Lipids 1984;19:617-624. View abstract.
  290. Natvig, H., Borchgrevink, C. F., Dedichen, J., Owren, P. A., Schiotz, E. H., and Westlund, K. A controlled trial of the effect of linolenic acid on incidence of coronary heart disease. The Norwegian vegetable oil experiment of 1965- 66. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 1968;105:1-20. View abstract.
  291. Leren, P. The effect of plasma cholesterol lowering diet in male survivors of myocardial infarction. A controlled clinical trial. Acta Med.Scand.Suppl 1966;466:1-92. View abstract.
  292. Borchgrevink, C. F., Skaga, E., Berg, K. J., and Skjaeggestad, O. Absence of prophylactic effect of linolenic acid in patients with coronary heart-disease. Lancet 7-23-1966;2:187-189. View abstract.
  293. Phillipson, B. E., Rothrock, D. W., Connor, W. E., Harris, W. S., and Illingworth, D. R. Reduction of plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apoproteins by dietary fish oils in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. N.Engl.J.Med. 5-9-1985;312:1210-1216. View abstract.
  294. Kelley, V. E., Ferretti, A., Izui, S., and Strom, T. B. A fish oil diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid reduces cyclooxygenase metabolites, and suppresses lupus in MRL-lpr mice. J Immunol 1985;134:1914-1919. View abstract.
  295. Green, D., Barreres, L., Borensztajn, J., Kaplan, P., Reddy, M. N., Rovner, R., and Simon, H. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil concentrate (MaxEpa) in stroke patients. Stroke 1985;16:706-709. View abstract.
  296. Simons, L. A., Hickie, J. B., and Balasubramaniam, S. On the effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids (Maxepa) on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in patients with hyperlipidaemia. Atherosclerosis 1985;54:75-88. View abstract.
  297. Carroll, K. K. Biological effects of fish oils in relation to chronic diseases. Lipids 1986;21:731-732. View abstract.
  298. Reddy, B. S. and Maruyama, H. Effect of dietary fish oil on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. Cancer Res 1986;46:3367-3370. View abstract.
  299. Robinson, D. R., Prickett, J. D., Makoul, G. T., Steinberg, A. D., and Colvin, R. B. Dietary fish oil reduces progression of established renal disease in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice and delays renal disease in BXSB and MRL/1 strains. Arthritis Rheum 1986;29:539-546. View abstract.
  300. Sperling, R. I., Weinblatt, M., Robin, J. L., Ravalese, J., III, Hoover, R. L., House, F., Coblyn, J. S., Fraser, P. A., Spur, B. W., Robinson, D. R., and . Effects of dietary supplementation with marine fish oil on leukocyte lipid mediator generation and function in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1987;30:988-997. View abstract.
  301. Herold, P. M. and Kinsella, J. E. Fish oil consumption and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease: a comparison of findings from animal and human feeding trials. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:566-598. View abstract.
  302. Harris, W. S., Zucker, M. L., and Dujovne, C. A. Omega-3 fatty acids in hypertriglyceridemic patients: triglycerides vs methyl esters. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:992-997. View abstract.
  303. Fox, P. L. and DiCorleto, P. E. Fish oils inhibit endothelial cell production of platelet-derived growth factor-like protein. Science 7-22-1988;241:453-456. View abstract.
  304. Demke, D. M., Peters, G. R., Linet, O. I., Metzler, C. M., and Klott, K. A. Effects of a fish oil concentrate in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis 1988;70(1-2):73-80. View abstract.
  305. Arm, J. P., Horton, C. E., Mencia-Huerta, J. M., House, F., Eiser, N. M., Clark, T. J., Spur, B. W., and Lee, T. H. Effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil lipids on mild asthma. Thorax 1988;43:84-92. View abstract.
  306. Vandongen, R., Mori, T. A., Codde, J. P., Stanton, K. G., and Masarei, J. R. Hypercholesterolaemic effect of fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Med J Aust 2-1-1988;148:141-143. View abstract.
  307. Ritter, J. M. and Taylor, G. W. Fish oil in asthma. Thorax 1988;43:81-83. View abstract.
  308. Mehta, J. L., Lopez, L. M., Lawson, D., Wargovich, T. J., and Williams, L. L. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Effects on indices of platelet and neutrophil function and exercise performance. Am J Med 1988;84:45-52. View abstract.
  309. Magaro, M., Altomonte, L., Zoli, A., Mirone, L., De, Sole P., Di, Mario G., Lippa, S., and Oradei, A. Influence of diet with different lipid composition on neutrophil chemiluminescence and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann.Rheum.Dis. 1988;47:793-796. View abstract.
  310. Schectman, G., Kaul, S., and Kissebah, A. H. Effect of fish oil concentrate on lipoprotein composition in NIDDM. Diabetes 1988;37:1567-1573. View abstract.
  311. Leslie, C. A., Conte, J. M., Hayes, K. C., and Cathcart, E. S. A fish oil diet reduces the severity of collagen induced arthritis after onset of the disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 1988;73:328-332. View abstract.
  312. Zucker, M. L., Bilyeu, D. S., Helmkamp, G. M., Harris, W. S., and Dujovne, C. A. Effects of dietary fish oil on platelet function and plasma lipids in hyperlipoproteinemic and normal subjects. Atherosclerosis 1988;73:13-22. View abstract.
  313. Harris, W. S., Dujovne, C. A., Zucker, M., and Johnson, B. Effects of a low saturated fat, low cholesterol fish oil supplement in hypertriglyceridemic patients. A placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 9-15-1988;109:465-470. View abstract.
  314. Cathcart, E. S., Leslie, C. A., Meydani, S. N., and Hayes, K. C. A fish oil diet retards experimental amyloidosis, modulates lymphocyte function, and decreases macrophage arachidonate metabolism in mice. J Immunol 9-15-1987;139:1850-1854. View abstract.
  315. Kristensen, S. D., Schmidt, E. B., Andersen, H. R., and Dyerberg, J. Fish oil in angina pectoris. Atherosclerosis 1987;64:13-19. View abstract.
  316. Norris, P. G., Jones, C. J., and Weston, M. J. Effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil on systolic blood pressure in mild essential hypertension. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 7-12-1986;293:104-105. View abstract.
  317. Gibson, R. A. The effect of diets containing fish and fish oils on disease risk factors in humans. Aust.NZ J Med 1988;18:713-722. View abstract.
  318. Miller, J. P., Heath, I. D., Choraria, S. K., Shephard, N. W., Gajendragadkar, R. V., Harcus, A. W., Batson, G. A., Smith, D. W., and Saynor, R. Triglyceride lowering effect of MaxEPA fish lipid concentrate: a multicentre placebo controlled double blind study. Clin Chim.Acta 12-30-1988;178:251-259. View abstract.
  319. Stacpoole, P. W., Alig, J., Kilgore, L. L., Ayala, C. M., Herbert, P. N., Zech, L. A., and Fisher, W. R. Lipodystrophic diabetes mellitus. Investigations of lipoprotein metabolism and the effects of omega-3 fatty acid administration in two patients. Metabolism 1988;37:944-951. View abstract.
  320. Gorlin, R. The biological actions and potential clinical significance of dietary omega-3 fatty acids. Arch Intern Med 1988;148:2043-2048. View abstract.
  321. Popp-Snijders, C., Schouten, J. A., Heine, R. J., van der, Meer J., and van der Veen, E. A. Dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves insulin sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes Res 1987;4:141-147. View abstract.
  322. Kremer, J. M., Jubiz, W., Michalek, A., Rynes, R. I., Bartholomew, L. E., Bigaouette, J., Timchalk, M., Beeler, D., and Lininger, L. Fish-oil fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blinded, controlled, crossover study. Ann Intern Med 1987;106:497-503. View abstract.
  323. Fisher, M., Upchurch, K. S., Levine, P. H., Johnson, M. H., Vaudreuil, C. H., Natale, A., and Hoogasian, J. J. Effects of dietary fish oil supplementation on polymorphonuclear leukocyte inflammatory potential. Inflammation 1986;10:387-392. View abstract.
  324. Payan, D. G., Wong, M. Y., Chernov-Rogan, T., Valone, F. H., Pickett, W. C., Blake, V. A., Gold, W. M., and Goetzl, E. J. Alterations in human leukocyte function induced by ingestion of eicosapentaenoic acid. J.Clin.Immunol. 1986;6:402-410. View abstract.
  325. Haines, A. P., Sanders, T. A., Imeson, J. D., Mahler, R. F., Martin, J., Mistry, M., Vickers, M., and Wallace, P. G. Effects of a fish oil supplement on platelet function, haemostatic variables and albuminuria in insulin-dependent diabetics. Thromb.Res 9-15-1986;43:643-655. View abstract.
  326. von, Schacky C. and Weber, P. C. Metabolism and effects on platelet function of the purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in humans. J Clin Invest 1985;76:2446-2450. View abstract.
  327. von Schacky, C., Fischer, S., and Weber, P. C. Long-term effects of dietary marine omega-3 fatty acids upon plasma and cellular lipids, platelet function, and eicosanoid formation in humans. J Clin Invest 1985;76:1626-1631. View abstract.
  328. Barcelli, U., Glas-Greenwalt, P., and Pollak, V. E. Enhancing effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on plasma fibrinolysis in normal subjects. Thromb.Res 8-1-1985;39:307-312. View abstract.
  329. Galloway, J. H., Cartwright, I. J., Woodcock, B. E., Greaves, M., Russell, R. G., and Preston, F. E. Effects of dietary fish oil supplementation on the fatty acid composition of the human platelet membrane: demonstration of selectivity in the incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid into membrane phospholipid pools. Clin Sci (Colch.) 1985;68:449-454. View abstract.
  330. Carlson, S. E., Rhodes, P. G., Rao, V. S., and Goldgar, D. E. Effect of fish oil supplementation on the n-3 fatty acid content of red blood cell membranes in preterm infants. Pediatr.Res 1987;21:507-510. View abstract.
  331. Kremer, J. M., Bigauoette, J., Michalek, A. V., Timchalk, M. A., Lininger, L., Rynes, R. I., Huyck, C., Zieminski, J., and Bartholomew, L. E. Effects of manipulation of dietary fatty acids on clinical manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 1-26-1985;1:184-187. View abstract.
  332. Cleland, L. G., French, J. K., Betts, W. H., Murphy, G. A., and Elliott, M. J. Clinical and biochemical effects of dietary fish oil supplements in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1988;15:1471-1475. View abstract.
  333. Goodnight, S. H., Jr. Effects of dietary fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids on platelets and blood vessels. Semin Thromb.Hemost. 1988;14:285-289. View abstract.
  334. Dehmer, G. J., Popma, J. J., van den Berg, E. K., Eichhorn, E. J., Prewitt, J. B., Campbell, W. B., Jennings, L., Willerson, J. T., and Schmitz, J. M. Reduction in the rate of early restenosis after coronary angioplasty by a diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids. N.Engl.J Med 9-22-1988;319:733-740. View abstract.
  335. Minoura, T., Takata, T., Sakaguchi, M., Takada, H., Yamamura, M., Hioki, K., and Yamamoto, M. Effect of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Res 9-1-1988;48:4790-4794. View abstract.
  336. Kirsch, C. M., Payan, D. G., Wong, M. Y., Dohlman, J. G., Blake, V. A., Petri, M. A., Offenberger, J., Goetzl, E. J., and Gold, W. M. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid in asthma. Clin Allergy 1988;18:177-187. View abstract.
  337. Bjorneboe, A., Smith, A. K., Bjorneboe, G. E., Thune, P. O., and Drevon, C. A. Effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids on clinical manifestations of psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1988;118:77-83. View abstract.
  338. Bjorneboe, A., Soyland, E., Bjorneboe, G. E., Rajka, G., and Drevon, C. A. Effect of dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Br.J Dermatol 1987;117:463-469. View abstract.
  339. Schmidt, E. B., Ernst, E., Varming, K., Pedersen, J. O., and Dyerberg, J. The effect of n-3 fatty acids on lipids and haemostasis in patients with type IIa and type IV hyperlipidaemia. Thromb.Haemost. 9-29-1989;62:797-801. View abstract.
  340. Urakaze, M., Hamazaki, T., Kashiwabara, H., Omori, K., Fischer, S., Yano, S., and Kumagai, A. Favorable effects of fish oil concentrate on risk factors for thrombosis in renal allograft recipients. Nephron 1989;53:102-109. View abstract.
  341. Endres, S., Ghorbani, R., Kelley, V. E., Georgilis, K., Lonnemann, G., van der Meer, J. W., Cannon, J. G., Rogers, T. S., Klempner, M. S., Weber, P. C., and . The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. N.Engl.J Med 2-2-1989;320:265-271. View abstract.
  342. Sarris, G. E., Fann, J. I., Sokoloff, M. H., Smith, D. L., Loveday, M., Kosek, J. C., Stephens, R. J., Cooper, A. D., May, K., Willis, A. L., and . Mechanisms responsible for inhibition of vein-graft arteriosclerosis by fish oil. Circulation 1989;80(3 Pt 1):I109-I123. View abstract.
  343. Friday, K. E., Childs, M. T., Tsunehara, C. H., Fujimoto, W. Y., Bierman, E. L., and Ensinck, J. W. Elevated plasma glucose and lowered triglyceride levels from omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in type II diabetes. Diabetes Care 1989;12:276-281. View abstract.
  344. Burr, M. L. Fish and the cardiovascular system. Prog.Food Nutr Sci 1989;13(3-4):291-316. View abstract.
  345. Warner, J. G., Jr., Ullrich, I. H., Albrink, M. J., and Yeater, R. A. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids in hyperlipidemic persons. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1989;21:498-505. View abstract.
  346. Wilt, T. J., Lofgren, R. P., Nichol, K. L., Schorer, A. E., Crespin, L., Downes, D., and Eckfeldt, J. Fish oil supplementation does not lower plasma cholesterol in men with hypercholesterolemia. Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Ann Intern Med 12-1-1989;111:900-905. View abstract.
  347. Stacpoole, P. W., Alig, J., Ammon, L., and Crockett, S. E. Dose-response effects of dietary marine oil on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in normal subjects and patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Metabolism 1989;38:946-956. View abstract.
  348. Harris, W. S. Fish oils and plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in humans: a critical review. J Lipid Res 1989;30:785-807. View abstract.
  349. Deck, C. and Radack, K. Effects of modest doses of omega-3 fatty acids on lipids and lipoproteins in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. A randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 1989;149:1857-1862. View abstract.
  350. Gupta, A. K., Ellis, C. N., Tellner, D. C., Anderson, T. F., and Voorhees, J. J. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of fish oil and low-dose UVB in the treatment of psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1989;120:801-807. View abstract.
  351. Urakaze, M., Hamazaki, T., Yano, S., Kashiwabara, H., Oomori, K., and Yokoyama, T. Effect of fish oil concentrate on risk factors of cardiovascular complications in renal transplantation. Transplant.Proc 1989;21(1 Pt 2):2134-2136. View abstract.
  352. Bjorneboe, A., Soyland, E., Bjorneboe, G. E., Rajka, G., and Drevon, C. A. Effect of n-3 fatty acid supplement to patients with atopic dermatitis. J Intern.Med.Suppl 1989;225:233-236. View abstract.
  353. Lorenz, R., Weber, P. C., Szimnau, P., Heldwein, W., Strasser, T., and Loeschke, K. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from fish oil in chronic inflammatory bowel disease--a randomized, placebo-controlled, double- blind cross-over trial. J Intern.Med.Suppl 1989;225:225-232. View abstract.
  354. Kristensen, S. D., Schmidt, E. B., and Dyerberg, J. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human platelet function: a review with particular emphasis on implications for cardiovascular disease. J Intern Med Suppl 1989;225:141-150. View abstract.
  355. Knapp, H. R. and FitzGerald, G. A. The antihypertensive effects of fish oil. A controlled study of polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements in essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 4-20-1989;320:1037-1043. View abstract.
  356. Lehtonen, A., Raiha, I., Puumalainen, R., Seppanen, A., and Marniemi, J. The effect of the short-term administration of fish oil on serum lipoproteins in old people. Gerontology 1989;35(5-6):311-314. View abstract.
  357. Radack, K. and Deck, C. The effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood pressure: a methodologic analysis of the evidence. J Am Coll Nutr 1989;8:376-385. View abstract.
  358. Reis, G. J., Boucher, T. M., Sipperly, M. E., Silverman, D. I., McCabe, C. H., Baim, D. S., Sacks, F. M., Grossman, W., and Pasternak, R. C. Randomised trial of fish oil for prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty. Lancet 7-22-1989;2:177-181. View abstract.
  359. McCall, T. B., O'Leary, D., Bloomfield, J., and O'Morain, C. A. Therapeutic potential of fish oil in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther 1989;3:415-424. View abstract.
  360. Vacek, J. L., Harris, W. S., and Haffey, K. Short-term effects of omega-3 fatty acids on exercise stress test parameters, angina and lipoproteins. Biomed.Pharmacother. 1989;43:375-379. View abstract.
  361. Hui, R., St Louis, J., and Falardeau, P. Antihypertensive properties of linoleic acid and fish oil omega-3 fatty acids independent of the prostaglandin system. Am J Hypertens 1989;2:610-617. View abstract.
  362. Steiner, A., Oertel, R., Battig, B., Pletscher, W., Weiss, B., Greminger, P., and Vetter, W. Effect of fish oil on blood pressure and serum lipids in hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. J Hypertens.Suppl 1989;7:S73-S76. View abstract.
  363. Smith, D. L., Willis, A. L., Nguyen, N., Conner, D., Zahedi, S., and Fulks, J. Eskimo plasma constituents, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit the release of atherogenic mitogens. Lipids 1989;24:70-75. View abstract.
  364. Arm, J. P., Horton, C. E., Spur, B. W., Mencia-Huerta, J. M., and Lee, T. H. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil lipids on the airways response to inhaled allergen in bronchial asthma. Am Rev Respir.Dis 1989;139:1395-1400. View abstract.
  365. Bates, D., Cartlidge, N. E., French, J. M., Jackson, M. J., Nightingale, S., Shaw, D. A., Smith, S., Woo, E., Hawkins, S. A., Millar, J. H., and . A double-blind controlled trial of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:18-22. View abstract.
  366. Bennett, W. M., Walker, R. G., and Kincaid-Smith, P. Treatment of IgA nephropathy with eicosapentanoic acid (EPA): a two- year prospective trial. Clin Nephrol 1989;31:128-131. View abstract.
  367. Grigg, L. E., Kay, T. W., Valentine, P. A., Larkins, R., Flower, D. J., Manolas, E. G., O'Dea, K., Sinclair, A. J., Hopper, J. L., and Hunt, D. Determinants of restenosis and lack of effect of dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid on the incidence of coronary artery restenosis after angioplasty. J Am Coll Cardiol. 3-1-1989;13:665-672. View abstract.
  368. Milner, M. R., Gallino, R. A., Leffingwell, A., Pichard, A. D., Brooks-Robinson, S., Rosenberg, J., Little, T., and Lindsay, J., Jr. Usefulness of fish oil supplements in preventing clinical evidence of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Am.J Cardiol. 8-1-1989;64:294-299. View abstract.
  369. Sweny, P., Wheeler, D. C., Lui, S. F., Amin, N. S., Barradas, M. A., Jeremy, J. Y., Mikhailidis, D. P., Varghese, Z., Fernando, O. N., and Moorhead, J. F. Dietary fish oil supplements preserve renal function in renal transplant recipients with chronic vascular rejection. Nephrol Dial.Transplant. 1989;4:1070-1075. View abstract.
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  569. Mischoulon, D., Papakostas, G. I., Dording, C. M., Farabaugh, A. H., Sonawalla, S. B., Agoston, A. M., Smith, J., Beaumont, E. C., Dahan, L. E., Alpert, J. E., Nierenberg, A. A., and Fava, M. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate for major depressive disorder. J.Clin.Psychiatry 2009;70:1636-1644. View abstract.
  570. Thusgaard, M., Christensen, J. H., Morn, B., Andersen, T. S., Vige, R., Arildsen, H., Schmidt, E. B., and Nielsen, H. Effect of fish oil (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Scand.J.Infect.Dis. 2009;41:760-766. View abstract.
  571. Oien, T., Storro, O., and Johnsen, R. Do early intake of fish and fish oil protect against eczema and doctor-diagnosed asthma at 2 years of age? A cohort study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2010;64:124-129. View abstract.
  572. Safarinejad, M. R., Hosseini, S. Y., Dadkhah, F., and Asgari, M. A. Relationship of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with semen characteristics, and anti-oxidant status of seminal plasma: a comparison between fertile and infertile men. Clin Nutr 2010;29:100-105. View abstract.
  573. Sjoberg, N. J., Milte, C. M., Buckley, J. D., Howe, P. R., Coates, A. M., and Saint, D. A. Dose-dependent increases in heart rate variability and arterial compliance in overweight and obese adults with DHA-rich fish oil supplementation. Br J Nutr 2010;103:243-248. View abstract.
  574. Sartorelli, D. S., Damiao, R., Chaim, R., Hirai, A., Gimeno, S. G., and Ferreira, S. R. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid and omega-3: omega-6 fatty acid ratio predict improvement in glucose disturbances in Japanese Brazilians. Nutrition 2010;26:184-191. View abstract.
  575. Sadovsky, R. and Kris-Etherton, P. Prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters for the treatment of very high triglycerides. Postgrad.Med 2009;121:145-153. View abstract.
  576. Heidt, M. C., Vician, M., Stracke, S. K., Stadlbauer, T., Grebe, M. T., Boening, A., Vogt, P. R., and Erdogan, A. Beneficial effects of intravenously administered N-3 fatty acids for the prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a prospective randomized study. Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 2009;57:276-280. View abstract.
  577. Kaushik, M., Mozaffarian, D., Spiegelman, D., Manson, J. E., Willett, W. C., and Hu, F. B. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2009;90:613-620. View abstract.
  578. Pot, G. K., Brouwer, I. A., Enneman, A., Rijkers, G. T., Kampman, E., and Geelen, A. No effect of fish oil supplementation on serum inflammatory markers and their interrelationships: a randomized controlled trial in healthy, middle-aged individuals. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009;63:1353-1359. View abstract.
  579. Cussons, A. J., Watts, G. F., Mori, T. A., and Stuckey, B. G. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases liver fat content in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial employing proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2009;94:3842-3848. View abstract.
  580. Pratt, C. M., Reiffel, J. A., Ellenbogen, K. A., Naccarelli, G. V., and Kowey, P. R. Efficacy and safety of prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters for the prevention of recurrent symptomatic atrial fibrillation: a prospective study. Am Heart J 2009;158:163-169. View abstract.
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  589. Pooya, Sh, Jalali, M. D., Jazayery, A. D., Saedisomeolia, A., Eshraghian, M. R., and Toorang, F. The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine and malondialdehyde levels of type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr.Metab Cardiovasc.Dis. 2010;20:326-331. View abstract.
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  591. Tartibian, B., Maleki, B. H., and Abbasi, A. The effects of omega-3 supplementation on pulmonary function of young wrestlers during intensive training. J Sci Med Sport 2010;13:281-286. View abstract.
  592. Bouwens, M., van de Rest, O., Dellschaft, N., Bromhaar, M. G., de Groot, L. C., Geleijnse, J. M., Muller, M., and Afman, L. A. Fish-oil supplementation induces antiinflammatory gene expression profiles in human blood mononuclear cells. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2009;90:415-424. View abstract.
  593. Hoy, S. M. and Keating, G. M. Omega-3 ethylester concentrate: a review of its use in secondary prevention post-myocardial infarction and the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia. Drugs 5-29-2009;69:1077-1105. View abstract.
  594. Damsgaard, C. T., Lauritzen, L., Calder, P. C., Kjaer, T. R., and Frokiaer, H. Reduced ex vivo interleukin-6 production by dietary fish oil is not modified by linoleic acid intake in healthy men. J Nutr 2009;139:1410-1414. View abstract.
  595. Furuhjelm, C., Warstedt, K., Larsson, J., Fredriksson, M., Bottcher, M. F., Falth-Magnusson, K., and Duchen, K. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy and lactation may decrease the risk of infant allergy. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98:1461-1467. View abstract.
  596. Ramel, A., Martinez, J. A., Kiely, M., Bandarra, N. M., and Thorsdottir, I. Moderate consumption of fatty fish reduces diastolic blood pressure in overweight and obese European young adults during energy restriction. Nutrition 2010;26:168-174. View abstract.
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  598. Strom, M., Mortensen, E. L., Halldorsson, T. I., Thorsdottir, I., and Olsen, S. F. Fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and risk of postpartum depression: a prospective study based on a large national birth cohort. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2009;90:149-155. View abstract.
  599. Kroger, E., Verreault, R., Carmichael, P. H., Lindsay, J., Julien, P., Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P., and Laurin, D. Omega-3 fatty acids and risk of dementia: the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:184-192. View abstract.
  600. Devore, E. E., Grodstein, F., van Rooij, F. J., Hofman, A., Rosner, B., Stampfer, M. J., Witteman, J. C., and Breteler, M. M. Dietary intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids in relation to long-term dementia risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:170-176. View abstract.
  601. Raatz, S. K., Redmon, J. B., Wimmergren, N., Donadio, J. V., and Bibus, D. M. Enhanced absorption of n-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil. J Am Diet Assoc 2009;109:1076-1081. View abstract.
  602. Bowden, R. G., Wilson, R. L., Deike, E., and Gentile, M. Fish oil supplementation lowers C-reactive protein levels independent of triglyceride reduction in patients with end-stage renal disease. Nutr.Clin.Pract. 2009;24:508-512. View abstract.
  603. Tartibian, B., Maleki, B. H., and Abbasi, A. The effects of ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids on perceived pain and external symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness in untrained men. Clin J Sport Med 2009;19:115-119. View abstract.
  604. Freund-Levi, Y., Hjorth, E., Lindberg, C., Cederholm, T., Faxen-Irving, G., Vedin, I., Palmblad, J., Wahlund, L. O., Schultzberg, M., Basun, H., and Eriksdotter, Jonhagen M. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma in Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study. Dement.Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009;27:481-490. View abstract.
  605. Belanger, S. A., Vanasse, M., Spahis, S., Sylvestre, M. P., Lippe, S., L'heureux, F., Ghadirian, P., Vanasse, C. M., and Levy, E. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Paediatr.Child Health 2009;14:89-98. View abstract.
  606. Arsenault, L. N., Matthan, N., Scott, T. M., Dallal, G., Lichtenstein, A. H., Folstein, M. F., Rosenberg, I., and Tucker, K. L. Validity of estimated dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intakes determined by interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire among older adults with mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment or dementia. Am J Epidemiol 7-1-2009;170:95-103. View abstract.
  607. de Groot, R. H., van Boxtel, M. P., Schiepers, O. J., Hornstra, G., and Jolles, J. Age dependence of plasma phospholipid fatty acid levels: potential role of linoleic acid in the age-associated increase in docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations. Br J Nutr 2009;102:1058-1064. View abstract.
  608. Rizza, S., Tesauro, M., Cardillo, C., Galli, A., Iantorno, M., Gigli, F., Sbraccia, P., Federici, M., Quon, M. J., and Lauro, D. Fish oil supplementation improves endothelial function in normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis 2009;206:569-574. View abstract.
  609. Anandan, C., Nurmatov, U., and Sheikh, A. Omega 3 and 6 oils for primary prevention of allergic disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy 2009;64:840-848. View abstract.
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  612. Hanwell, H. E., Kay, C. D., Lampe, J. W., Holub, B. J., and Duncan, A. M. Acute fish oil and soy isoflavone supplementation increase postprandial serum (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and isoflavones but do not affect triacylglycerols or biomarkers of oxidative stress in overweight and obese hypertriglyceridemic men. J Nutr 2009;139:1128-1134. View abstract.
  613. Mindrescu, C., Gupta, R. P., Hermance, E. V., DeVoe, M. C., Soma, V. R., Coppola, J. T., and Staniloae, C. S. Omega-3 fatty acids plus rosuvastatin improves endothelial function in South Asians with dyslipidemia. Vasc.Health Risk Manag. 2008;4:1439-1447. View abstract.
  614. Bent, S., Bertoglio, K., and Hendren, R. L. Omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder: a systematic review. J Autism Dev.Disord 2009;39:1145-1154. View abstract.
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  620. Watanabe, N., Watanabe, Y., Kumagai, M., and Fujimoto, K. Administration of dietary fish oil capsules in healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish consumption. Int.J.Food Sci.Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 5:136-142. View abstract.
  621. Ryan, A. M., Reynolds, J. V., Healy, L., Byrne, M., Moore, J., Brannelly, N., McHugh, A., McCormack, D., and Flood, P. Enteral nutrition enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) preserves lean body mass following esophageal cancer surgery: results of a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Ann.Surg. 2009;249:355-363. View abstract.
  622. Dawczynski, C., Schubert, R., Hein, G., Muller, A., Eidner, T., Vogelsang, H., Basu, S., and Jahreis, G. Long-term moderate intervention with n-3 long-chain PUFA-supplemented dairy products: effects on pathophysiological biomarkers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Br.J.Nutr. 2009;101:1517-1526. View abstract.
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  627. Turner, D., Zlotkin, S. H., Shah, P. S., and Griffiths, A. M. Omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;:CD006320. View abstract.
  628. Clayton, E. H., Hanstock, T. L., Hirneth, S. J., Kable, C. J., Garg, M. L., and Hazell, P. L. Reduced mania and depression in juvenile bipolar disorder associated with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2009;63:1037-1040. View abstract.
  629. Biltagi, M. A., Baset, A. A., Bassiouny, M., Kasrawi, M. A., and Attia, M. Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn supplementation in asthmatic children: a randomized self-controlled study. Acta Paediatr. 2009;98:737-742. View abstract.
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  632. Lehr, H. A., Hubner, C., Finckh, B., Nolte, D., Beisiegel, U., Kohlschutter, A., and Messmer, K. Dietary fish oil reduces leukocyte/endothelium interaction following systemic administration of oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein. Circulation 1991;84:1725-1731. View abstract.
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  888. Romieu, I., Tellez-Rojo, M. M., Lazo, M., Manzano-Patino, A., Cortez-Lugo, M., Julien, P., Belanger, M. C., Hernandez-Avila, M., and Holguin, F. Omega-3 fatty acid prevents heart rate variability reductions associated with particulate matter. Am J Respir.Crit Care Med 12-15-2005;172:1534-1540. View abstract.
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  1032. Dichi, I., Frenhane, P., Dichi, J. B., Correa, C. R., Angeleli, A. Y., Bicudo, M. H., Rodrigues, M. A., Victoria, C. R., and Burini, R. C. Comparison of omega-3 fatty acids and sulfasalazine in ulcerative colitis. Nutrition 2000;16:87-94. View abstract.
  1033. Burns, C. P., Halabi, S., Clamon, G. H., Hars, V., Wagner, B. A., Hohl, R. J., Lester, E., Kirshner, J. J., Vinciguerra, V., and Paskett, E. Phase I clinical study of fish oil fatty acid capsules for patients with cancer cachexia: cancer and leukemia group B study 9473. Clin Cancer Res 1999;5:3942-3947. View abstract.
  1034. Schwartz, J. Role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in lung disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):393S-396S. View abstract.
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  1036. Donadio, J. V., Jr. Use of fish oil to treat patients with immunoglobulin a nephropathy. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):373S-375S. View abstract.
  1037. Conquer, J. A., Cheryk, L. A., Chan, E., Gentry, P. A., and Holub, B. J. Effect of supplementation with dietary seal oil on selected cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic variables in healthy male subjects. Thromb.Res 11-1-1999;96:239-250. View abstract.
  1038. Rose, D. P. and Connolly, J. M. Omega-3 fatty acids as cancer chemopreventive agents. Pharmacol Ther 1999;83:217-244. View abstract.
  1039. Woltil, H. A., van Beusekom, C. M., Okken-Beukens, M., Schaafsma, A., Muskiet, F. A., and Okken, A. Development of low-birthweight infants at 19 months of age correlates with early intake and status of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1999;61:235-241. View abstract.
  1040. Niyongabo, A., Youyou, A., Leger, C. L., Descomps, B., Ammouche, A., and Bellal, M. Effects of dietary crude palm oil, fish oil and their association on cholesterol and lipoprotein constants in rats which could be beneficial in humans. Int J Vitam.Nutr Res 1999;69:330-336. View abstract.
  1041. Gee, J. M., Watson, M., Matthew, J. A., Rhodes, M., Speakman, C. J., Stebbings, W. S., and Johnson, I. T. Consumption of fish oil leads to prompt incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid into colonic mucosa of patients prior to surgery for colorectal cancer, but has no detectable effect on epithelial cytokinetics. J Nutr 1999;129:1862-1865. View abstract.
  1042. Foulon, T., Richard, M. J., Payen, N., Bourrain, J. L., Beani, J. C., Laporte, F., and Hadjian, A. Effects of fish oil fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in healthy subjects. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1999;59:239-248. View abstract.
  1043. Bougle, D., Denise, P., Vimard, F., Nouvelot, A., Penneillo, M. J., and Guillois, B. Early neurological and neuropsychological development of the preterm infant and polyunsaturated fatty acids supply. Clin.Neurophysiol. 1999;110:1363-1370. View abstract.
  1044. de Deckere, E. A. Possible beneficial effect of fish and fish n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast and colorectal cancer. Eur.J Cancer Prev. 1999;8:213-221. View abstract.
  1045. Stiefel, P., Ruiz-Gutierrez, V., Gajon, E., Acosta, D., Garcia-Donas, M. A., Madrazo, J., Villar, J., and Carneado, J. Sodium transport kinetics, cell membrane lipid composition, neural conduction and metabolic control in type 1 diabetic patients. Changes after a low-dose n-3 fatty acid dietary intervention. Ann Nutr Metab 1999;43:113-120. View abstract.
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  1047. Nakamura, N., Hamazaki, T., Ohta, M., Okuda, K., Urakaze, M., Sawazaki, S., Yamazaki, K., Satoh, A., Temaru, R., Ishikura, Y., Takata, M., Kishida, M., and Kobayashi, M. Joint effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and eicosapentaenoic acids on serum lipid profile and plasma fatty acid concentrations in patients with hyperlipidemia. Int J Clin Lab Res 1999;29:22-25. View abstract.
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  1049. Johansen, O., Brekke, M., Seljeflot, I., Abdelnoor, M., and Arnesen, H. N-3 fatty acids do not prevent restenosis after coronary angioplasty: results from the CART study. Coronary Angioplasty Restenosis Trial. J Am.Coll.Cardiol. 1999;33:1619-1626. View abstract.
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  1051. Seljeflot, I., Johansen, O., Arnesen, H., Eggesbo, J. B., Westvik, A. B., and Kierulf, P. Procoagulant activity and cytokine expression in whole blood cultures from patients with atherosclerosis supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Thromb.Haemost. 1999;81:566-570. View abstract.
  1052. Grundt, H., Nilsen, D. W., Hetland, O., Mansoor, M. A., Aarsland, T., and Woie, L. Atherothrombogenic risk modulation by n-3 fatty acids was not associated with changes in homocysteine in subjects with combined hyperlipidaemia. Thromb.Haemost. 1999;81:561-565. View abstract.
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  1057. Gogos, C. A., Ginopoulos, P., Salsa, B., Apostolidou, E., Zoumbos, N. C., and Kalfarentzos, F. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids plus vitamin E restore immunodeficiency and prolong survival for severely ill patients with generalized malignancy: a randomized control trial. Cancer 1-15-1998;82:395-402. View abstract.
  1058. Seppi, K., Weintraub, D., Coelho, M., Perez-Lloret, S., Fox, S. H., Katzenschlager, R., Hametner, E. M., Poewe, W., Rascol, O., Goetz, C. G., and Sampaio, C. The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: Treatments for the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2011;26 Suppl 3:S42-S80. View abstract.
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  1063. Sarris, J., Kean, J., Schweitzer, I., and Lake, J. Complementary medicines (herbal and nutritional products) in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review of the evidence. Complement Ther Med 2011;19:216-227. View abstract.
  1064. Morris, C. R. and Agin, M. C. Syndrome of allergy, apraxia, and malabsorption: characterization of a neurodevelopmental phenotype that responds to omega 3 and vitamin E supplementation. Altern.Ther Health Med. 2009;15:34-43. View abstract.
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  1077. Vidgren, H. M., Agren, J. J., Schwab, U., Rissanen, T., Hanninen, O., and Uusitupa, M. I. Incorporation of n-3 fatty acids into plasma lipid fractions, and erythrocyte membranes and platelets during dietary supplementation with fish, fish oil, and docosahexaenoic acid-rich oil among healthy young men. Lipids 1997;32:697-705. View abstract.
  1078. Quinn, J. F., Raman, R., Thomas, R. G., Yurko-Mauro, K., Nelson, E. B., Van, Dyck C., Galvin, J. E., Emond, J., Jack, C. R., Jr., Weiner, M., Shinto, L., and Aisen, P. S. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial. JAMA 11-3-2010;304:1903-1911. View abstract.
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  1082. Musa-Veloso, K., Binns, M. A., Kocenas, A. C., Poon, T., Elliot, J. A., Rice, H., Oppedal-Olsen, H., Lloyd, H., and Lemke, S. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid dose-dependently reduce fasting serum triglycerides. Nutr Rev 2010;68:155-167. View abstract.
  1083. McNamara, R. K., Able, J., Jandacek, R., Rider, T., Tso, P., Eliassen, J. C., Alfieri, D., Weber, W., Jarvis, K., DelBello, M. P., Strakowski, S. M., and Adler, C. M. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation increases prefrontal cortex activation during sustained attention in healthy boys: a placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1060-1067. View abstract.
  1084. Smithers, L. G., Collins, C. T., Simmonds, L. A., Gibson, R. A., McPhee, A., and Makrides, M. Feeding preterm infants milk with a higher dose of docosahexaenoic acid than that used in current practice does not influence language or behavior in early childhood: a follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:628-634. View abstract.
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  1086. Harnack, K., Andersen, G., and Somoza, V. Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2009;6:8. View abstract.
  1087. Koletzko, B., Beblo, S., Demmelmair, H., and Hanebutt, F. L. Omega-3 LC-PUFA supply and neurological outcomes in children with phenylketonuria (PKU). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2009;48 Suppl 1:S2-S7. View abstract.
  1088. Makrides, M., Gibson, R. A., McPhee, A. J., Collins, C. T., Davis, P. G., Doyle, L. W., Simmer, K., Colditz, P. B., Morris, S., Smithers, L. G., Willson, K., and Ryan, P. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants fed high-dose docosahexaenoic acid: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1-14-2009;301:175-182. View abstract.
  1089. Agostoni, C., Zuccotti, G. V., Radaelli, G., Besana, R., Podesta, A., Sterpa, A., Rottoli, A., Riva, E., and Giovannini, M. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and time at achievement of gross motor milestones in healthy infants: a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:64-70. View abstract.
  1090. Mickleborough, T. D., Tecklenburg, S. L., Montgomery, G. S., and Lindley, M. R. Eicosapentaenoic acid is more effective than docosahexaenoic acid in inhibiting proinflammatory mediator production and transcription from LPS-induced human asthmatic alveolar macrophage cells. Clin Nutr 2009;28:71-77. View abstract.
  1091. Egert, S., Fobker, M., Andersen, G., Somoza, V., Erbersdobler, H. F., and Wahrburg, U. Effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid on parameters of glucose metabolism in healthy volunteers. Ann Nutr Metab 2008;53(3-4):182-187. View abstract.
  1092. Doornbos, B., van Goor, S. A., Dijck-Brouwer, D. A., Schaafsma, A., Korf, J., and Muskiet, F. A. Supplementation of a low dose of DHA or DHA+AA does not prevent peripartum depressive symptoms in a small population based sample. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol Psychiatry 2-1-2009;33:49-52. View abstract.
  1093. Smithers, L. G., Gibson, R. A., McPhee, A., and Makrides, M. Higher dose of docosahexaenoic acid in the neonatal period improves visual acuity of preterm infants: results of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:1049-1056. View abstract.
  1094. Mebarek, S., Ermak, N., Benzaria, A., Vicca, S., Dubois, M., Nemoz, G., Laville, M., Lacour, B., Vericel, E., Lagarde, M., and Prigent, A. F. Effects of increasing docosahexaenoic acid intake in human healthy volunteers on lymphocyte activation and monocyte apoptosis. Br J Nutr 2009;101:852-858. View abstract.
  1095. Arterburn, L. M., Oken, H. A., Bailey, Hall E., Hamersley, J., Kuratko, C. N., and Hoffman, J. P. Algal-oil capsules and cooked salmon: nutritionally equivalent sources of docosahexaenoic acid. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108:1204-1209. View abstract.
  1096. Vedin, I., Cederholm, T., Freund, Levi Y., Basun, H., Garlind, A., Faxen, Irving G., Jonhagen, M. E., Vessby, B., Wahlund, L. O., and Palmblad, J. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation on cytokine release from blood mononuclear leukocytes: the OmegAD study. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:1616-1622. View abstract.
  1097. Mischoulon, D., Best-Popescu, C., Laposata, M., Merens, W., Murakami, J. L., Wu, S. L., Papakostas, G. I., Dording, C. M., Sonawalla, S. B., Nierenberg, A. A., Alpert, J. E., and Fava, M. A double-blind dose-finding pilot study of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for major depressive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18:639-645. View abstract.
  1098. Johnson, E. J., Chung, H. Y., Caldarella, S. M., and Snodderly, D. M. The influence of supplemental lutein and docosahexaenoic acid on serum, lipoproteins, and macular pigmentation. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:1521-1529. View abstract.
  1099. Bergmann, R. L., Haschke-Becher, E., Klassen-Wigger, P., Bergmann, K. E., Richter, R., Dudenhausen, J. W., Grathwohl, D., and Haschke, F. Supplementation with 200 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid from mid-pregnancy through lactation improves the docosahexaenoic acid status of mothers with a habitually low fish intake and of their infants. Ann Nutr Metab 2008;52:157-166. View abstract.
  1100. Tassoni, D., Kaur, G., Weisinger, R. S., and Sinclair, A. J. The role of eicosanoids in the brain. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2008;17 Suppl 1:220-228. View abstract.
  1101. Colter, A. L., Cutler, C., and Meckling, K. A. Fatty acid status and behavioural symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents: a case-control study. Nutr J 2008;7:8. View abstract.
  1102. Rees, A. M., Austin, M. P., and Parker, G. B. Omega-3 fatty acids as a treatment for perinatal depression: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2008;42:199-205. View abstract.
  1103. Ryan, A. S. and Nelson, E. B. Assessing the effect of docosahexaenoic acid on cognitive functions in healthy, preschool children: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2008;47:355-362. View abstract.
  1104. Milte, C. M., Coates, A. M., Buckley, J. D., Hill, A. M., and Howe, P. R. Dose-dependent effects of docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil on erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid and blood lipid levels. Br J Nutr 2008;99:1083-1088. View abstract.
  1105. Rogers, P. J., Appleton, K. M., Kessler, D., Peters, T. J., Gunnell, D., Hayward, R. C., Heatherley, S. V., Christian, L. M., McNaughton, S. A., and Ness, A. R. No effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (EPA and DHA) supplementation on depressed mood and cognitive function: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2008;99:421-431. View abstract.
  1106. Kelley, D. S., Siegel, D., Vemuri, M., and Mackey, B. E. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves fasting and postprandial lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:324-333. View abstract.
  1107. Grenyer, B. F., Crowe, T., Meyer, B., Owen, A. J., Grigonis-Deane, E. M., Caputi, P., and Howe, P. R. Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol Psychiatry 10-1-2007;31:1393-1396. View abstract.
  1108. Judge, M. P., Harel, O., and Lammi-Keefe, C. J. Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid-containing functional food during pregnancy: benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not on recognition memory tasks at age 9 mo. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:1572-1577. View abstract.
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  1110. Meyer, B. J., Hammervold, T., Rustan, A. C., and Howe, P. R. Dose-dependent effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on blood lipids in statin-treated hyperlipidaemic subjects. Lipids 2007;42:109-115. View abstract.
  1111. Theobald, H. E., Goodall, A. H., Sattar, N., Talbot, D. C., Chowienczyk, P. J., and Sanders, T. A. Low-dose docosahexaenoic acid lowers diastolic blood pressure in middle-aged men and women. J Nutr 2007;137:973-978. View abstract.
  1112. Marangell, L. B., Suppes, T., Ketter, T. A., Dennehy, E. B., Zboyan, H., Kertz, B., Nierenberg, A., Calabrese, J., Wisniewski, S. R., and Sachs, G. Omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: clinical and research considerations. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2006;75(4-5):315-321. View abstract.
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Documento revisado - 02/14/2015