Dirección de esta página: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/druginfo/natural/998.html

Magnesio

¿Qué es?

El magnesio es un mineral que se encuentra presente en grandes cantidades en el cuerpo. Los investigadores estiman que el cuerpo de una persona, en promedio, contiene alrededor de 25 gramos de magnesio, y alrededor de la mitad de ellos están en los huesos. El magnesio juega un papel importante en más de 300 reacciones químicas que mantienen el funcionamiento normal del cuerpo. La gente obtiene el magnesio de la dieta, pero a veces, si los niveles están muy bajos, se necesita tomar suplementos de magnesio. La ingesta de magnesio en la dieta puede ser baja, especialmente en las mujeres.

Una manera fácil de recordar cuales son los alimentos que son fuentes buenas de magnesio es relacionarlos con las fibras. Los alimentos que tienen un alto contenido de fibra tienen también un alto contenido de magnesio. Las fuentes alimenticias de magnesio incluyen las legumbres, los granos enteros, las verduras (especialmente el brócoli, el zapallo y las verduras de hojas verdes), las semillas y los frutos secos (especialmente las almendras). Otras fuentes incluyen los productos lácteos, las carnes, el chocolate y el café. El agua con un alto contenido mineral, el agua “dura”, es también una fuente de magnesio.

La gente toma magnesio para prevenir o para tratar la deficiencia de magnesio. En los Estados Unidos la deficiencia de magnesio es más o menos frecuente. Es especialmente común entre los Afroamericanos y la gente de edad.

El magnesio se usa como un laxante para el estreñimiento y para la preparación del intestino antes de un procedimiento quirúrgico o de diagnóstico. También se utiliza como un antiácido para la indigestión ácida.

Algunas personas usan el magnesio para las enfermedades del corazón y vasos sanguíneos que incluyen el dolor de pecho, los latidos irregulares del corazón, la presión arterial alta, los niveles altos del colesterol “malo” llamado lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL), los niveles bajos del colesterol “bueno” llamado lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL), una enfermedad de la válvula del corazón (prolapso de la válvula mitral) y ataque al corazón.

El magnesio también se usa para el tratamiento del trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), la ansiedad, el síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC), la enfermedad de Lyme, la fibromialgia, los calambres de las piernas durante el embarazo, la diabetes, los cálculos renales, los dolores de cabeza de migraña, la debilidad de los huesos (osteoporosis), el síndrome premenstrual (SPM), el mal de altura, la incontinencia urinaria, el síndrome de las piernas inquietas, el asma, la fiebre del heno, la esclerosis múltiple y para prevenir la pérdida de la audición.

Los atletas a veces utilizan el magnesio para aumentar la energía y la resistencia física.

Algunas personas aplican magnesio sobre la piel para el tratamiento de úlceras cutáneas infectadas, de furúnculos y de carbúnculos; y para acelerar la cicatrización de las heridas. El magnesio también se usa como una compresa fría en el tratamiento de una grave infección bacteriana de la piel provocada por el estreptococo (erisipelas) y como una compresa caliente para infecciones de la piel de origen profundo.

Algunas compañías que elaboran suplementos de magnesio/calcio en combinación promueven una proporción de 2:1 o 3:1 como la proporción ideal para la absorción de estos elementos. Sin embargo, no hay investigación confiable que apoye esta afirmación. Afirmaciones de que los productos de calcio provenientes del coral tienen combinaciones ideales de magnesio y calcio para curar una gran variedad de enfermedades y afecciones están siendo evaluadas cuidadosamente por la Administración de Drogas y Alimentos de Estados Unidos (FDA) y por la Comisión de Comercio Federal de los Estados Unidos.

¿Qué tan efectivo es?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación.

La clasificación de la eficacia para este producto es la siguiente:

Eficaz para...

  • Constipación. La magnesio actúa como laxante para tratar la constipación y preparar los intestinos para procedimientos médicos.
  • Dispepsia: (acidez o “estómago agrio”). La ingesta de magnesio como antiácido reduce los síntomas de acidez. Varios compuestos de magnesio pueden usarse, pero el hidróxido de magnesio parece sr el que funciona más rápidamente.
  • Carencia de magnesio. La ingesta de magnesio ayuda a tratar y prevenir la carencia de magnesio. La carencia de magnesio usualmente ocurre cuando las personas presentan problemas hepáticos, insuficiencia cardiaca, vómitos o diarrea, disfunción renal y otras afecciones.
  • Hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo (preeclampsia y eclampsia). La administración de magnesio por vía intravenosa (VI) o como inyección es considerada un opción de tratamiento para reducir la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo (preeclampsia) y para tratar la eclampsia, que incluye el desarrollo de las convulsiones. La investigación sugiere que la administración de magnesio reduce el riesgo de convulsiones.

Probablemente eficaz para...

  • Latidos cardiacos irregulares [taquicardia ventricular en entorchado]). La administración de magnesio por via intravenosa (VI) ayuda a tratar ciertos tipos de latidos cardiacos irregulares llamados torsades de pointes (taquicardia ventricular en entorchado).

Posiblemente eficaz para...

  • Latidos cardiacos irregulares (arritmias). La administración de magnesio por via intravenosa (VI) parece ayudar a tratar ciertos tipos de latidos cardiacos irregulares llamados arritmias.
  • Asma. La ingesta de magnesio por vía intravenosa (VI) parece ayudar a tratar los ataques de asma repentinos. Sin embargo, podría ser más beneficioso en niños que en adultos. La ingesta de magnesio no parece mejorar los ataques en personas que sufren de ataques de asma desde tiempo prolongado.
  • Dolor causado por daño nervioso asociado con cáncer. La administración de magnesio por via intravenosa (VI) parece aliviar durante varias horas el dolor causado por daño nervioso por cáncer.
  • Parálisis cerebral. La mejor evidencia hasta la fecha sugiere que la administración de magnesio a mujeres embarazadas antes de un nacimiento prematuro temprano puede reducir el riesgo de parálisis cerebral en los bebés.
  • Síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC). La administración de magnesio como inyección parece mejorar los síntomas de fatiga. No obstante, existe cierta contradicción sobre la evidencia de estos beneficios.
  • Enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC, COPD). La administración de magnesio como inyección parece ayudar a tratar los síntomas repentinos del EPOC.
  • Cefalea en brotes. La administración de magnesio por vía intravenosa (VI) parece aliviar las cefaleas en brotes.
  • Dolor de pecho (angina) por arteriopatía. La ingesta de magnesio parece reducir los ataques de dolor de pecho en personas con arteriopatía.
  • Diabetes. La ingesta de una dieta con magnesio está vinculada a una disminución del riesgo de desarrollar diabetes en adultos y niños con sobrepeso. Son contradictorios los resultados de la investigación sobre los efectos del magnesio en personas con diabetes.
  • Fibromialgia. La ingesta de magnesio con ácido metílico (tabletas de Super Malic) parece reducir el dolor relacionado con fibromialgia.
  • Pérdida de la audición. La ingesta de magnesio parece prevenir la pérdida de audición en personas expuesta a ruido fuerte. Además, la ingesta de magnesio parece mejorar la pérdida de audición en personas con pérdida de audición no relacionada con ruido fuerte.
  • Colesterol alto. La ingesta de cloruro de magnesio y óxido de magnesio parece disminuir levemente los niveles de colesterol de lipoproteína de baja densidad (LDL o colesterol “malo”) y los niveles totales de colesterol, y aumentar levemente aumentar los niveles de colesterol de lipoproteína de alta densidad (LAD o "colesterol bueno”) y los niveles totales de colesterol en personas con niveles altos de colesterol.
  • Síndrome metabólico (mayor riesgo de sufrir diabetes y cardiopatia). Las personas con bajos niveles de magnesio son 6-7 veces más propensos a desarrollar síndrome metabólico que aquellas con niveles normales de magnesio. El alto consumo de magnesio y suplementos en la dieta está vinculado a un menor riesgo de desarrollar síndrome metabólico en mujeres sanas y adultos jóvenes sanos.
  • Cefaleas por migraña. La ingesta de altas dosis de magnesio parece reducir la frecuencia y la intensidad de las cefaleas por migraña en algunos estudios. No obstante, otra investigación sugiere que no tiene ningún efecto. Podría ser que solo las personas con bajos niveles de magnesio responden al tratamiento.
  • Enfermedades de las válvulas cardiacas (prolapso de válvula mitral). La ingesta de magnesio parece reducir los síntomas de prolapso de válvula mitral en personas con bajos niveles de magnesio en la sangre.
  • Debilidad ósea (osteoporosis). La ingesta de magnesio parece prevenir la pérdida ósea en mujeres mayores con osteoporosis. Además, la ingesta de estrógeno junto con magnesio más calcio y un suplemento multivitamínico parece aumentar más el fortalecimiento óseo en mujeres mayores que la ingesta de estrógeno de manera aislada.
  • Dolor después de histerectomía. La administración de magnesio por via intravenosa (VI) parece ayudar a reducir el dolor después de un procedimiento quirúrgico para extirpar el útero llamado histerectomía. Existe cierta evidencia de que un alto consumo de una dosis de magnesio de tres gramos seguido de otros 500 mg por hora puede reducir la molestia. Sin embargo, las bajas dosis no parecen ser efectivas y podrían, de hecho, intensificar el dolor.
  • Dolor posquirúrgico. Cuando se lo administra con anestesia o se suministra en personas después de una cirugía, el magnesio parece prolongar el lapso de tiempo en que tarda en aparecer el dolor después de la cirugía.
  • El síndrome premenstrual (SPM). La ingesta de magnesio parece aliviar los síntomas de SPM incluyendo los cambios de humor y la hinchazón. La ingesta de magnesio también parece prevenir las migrañas premenstruales.
  • Accidente cerebrovascular. Un mayor consumo de magnesio en la dieta poria disminuir el riesgo de sufrir accidente cerebrovascular. No existen pruebas que acrediten que la ingesta de suplementos de magnesio presentan el mismo efecto.
  • Dolor de pecho por espasmos en los vasos sanguíneos (angina vasoespástica). La ingesta de magnesio por vía intravenosa (VI) parece prevenir los espasmos en los vasos sanguíneos en personas con dolor de pecho causado por espasmos en la arteria que lleva sangre al corazón.

Posiblemente ineficaz para...

  • Ataque cardíaco. En general, la administración de magnesio por via intravenosa (VI) o la ingesta de magnesio no parece reducir el riesgo general de muerte después de un ataque cardiaco.
  • Rendimiento atlético. La ingesta de magnesio no parece aumentar la energía o la resistencia durante la actividad física.
  • Calambres musculares. La ingesta de suplementos de magnesio no parece disminuir la frecuencia o la intensidad de los calambres musculares.
  • Nacimientos sin vida. La ingesta de suplementos de magnesio durante el embarazo no parece disminuir el riesgo de los nacimientos sin vida.
  • Tétano. La ingesta de magnesio parece reducir el riesgo de muerte en personas con tétano en comparación con el tratamiento estándar. Sin embargo, la ingesta de magnesio podría reducir el tiempo de permanencia en el hospital las, aunque los resultados son contradictorios.
  • Lesión cerebral traumática. La ingesta de magnesio no parece mejorar el daño cerebral o reducir el riesgo de muerte en personas con lesión cerebral traumática.

Insuficiente evidencia para hacer una determinación para...

  • Astinencia de alcohol. La ingesta de magnesio parece mejorar la calidad del sueño en personas alcohólicas con abstinencia. Sin embargo, la inyección de magnesio no parece reducir los síntomas de la abstinencia de alcohol.
  • Mal de las alturas. La ingesta de magnesio antes de escalar una montaña y seguir la ingesta hasta el descenso no parece prevenir el mal de las alturas.
  • Intoxicación con fosfato de aluminio. Cierta investigación sugiere que la ingesta de magnesio reduce el riesgo de muerte en personas con intoxicación con fosfato de aluminio. Otra investigación sugiere que el magnesio no posee este efecto.
  • Ansiedad. La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de magnesio, espino blanco y amapola de California (Sympathyl, no disponible en EE. UU.) podría ayudar a tratar los trastornos de ansiedad de leves a moderados.
  • Trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH). Los niños con TDAH parecen tener niveles más bajos de magnesio. Investigaciones preliminares sugieren que el magnesio podría ayudar a tratar a los niños con TDAH que tienen niveles bajos de magnesio.
  • Trastorno bipolar. La investigación preliminar sugiere que la ingesta de cierto producto con magnesio (Magnesiocard) podría tener efectos similares al del litio en personas con trastorno bipolar.
  • Hipertensión arterial. Cierta evidencia sugiere que el tomar magnesio reduce levemente la presión arterial diastólica (el número más bajo en la lectura de la presión arterial) en personas con hipertensión arterial de leve a moderada. El magnesio podría no disminuir la presión arterial sistólica (el número más alto en la lectura de la presión arterial).
  • Cálculos renales. La ingesta de magnesio podría prevenir la recurrencia de cálculos renales, aunque otro medicamento como clortalidona (Hygroton) podría ser más efectivo.
  • Manía. La investigación sugiere que la ingesta de magnesio más el medicamento verapamilo reduce los síntomas maníacos más que la ingesta de verapamilo de manera aislada. Otra investigación preliminar sugiere que la administración de magnesio por vía intravenosa (IV) reduce la dosis de otro medicamento necesario para manejar los síntomas de la manía grave.
  • Esclerosis múltiple (EM). El magnesio podría reducir la rigidez muscular en personas con EM.
  • Calambres en las piernas relacionados con el embarazo. Han sido inconsistentes los resultados de la investigación sobre el uso de magnesio para tratar los calambres de las piernas causados por el embarazo. Ciertos estudios muestran que el magnesio podría disminuir la frecuencia de los calambres en las piernas durante el embarazo. Sin embargo, otro estudio muestra que no ofrece ningún beneficio.
  • Parto prematuro. La ingesta de magnesio por vía intravenosa (VI) parece prevenir las contracciones en caso de parto prematuro. Cierta investigación sugiere que el magnesio es más efectivo para retrasar el parto unas 48 horas en comparación con ciertos medicamentos convencionales. Sin embargo, no todos los especialistas cree en este beneficio y cierta investigación sugiere que no es más efectivo que los medicamentos convencionales.
  • Síndrome de la pierna inquieta. La ingesta de magnesio podría disminuir la cantidad de movimientos y disminuir la cantidad de horas de sueño en pacientes con síndrome de la pierna inquieta. No obstante, sigue siendo incierta la función del magnesio para tratar el síndrome de la pierna inquieta. Ciertas personas con esta condición tiene altos niveles de magnesio en la sangre, mientras que otras tiene niveles bajos.
  • Sangre en el cerebro (hemorragia subaracnoidea). Es contradictoria la evidencia sobre la efectividad del magnesio para tratar la sangre en el cerebro. Cierta investigación sugiere que la administración de magnesio por vía intravenosa (VI) reduce el riesgo de muerte en personas en estado vegetativo. Sin embargo, otra investigación no sostiene estos hallazgos.
  • Muerte súbita cardíaca. Cierta investigación preliminar sugiere que los niveles altos de magnesio están vinculados con una menor probabilidad de sufrir de muerte súbita cardiaca. Sin embargo, se desconoce si la ingesta de un suplemento de magnesio reduce el riego de muerte súbita cardiaca. La administración de magnesio por vía intravenosa no parece presentar ningún beneficio.
  • Fiebre del heno.
  • Enfermedad de Lyme.
  • Otras afecciones.
Se necesita más evidencia para aprobar el magnesio para estos usos.

¿Cómo funciona?

El magnesio es requerido para el buen crecimiento y mantenimiento de los huesos. El magnesio también es requerido para el buen funcionamiento de los nervios, los músculos y muchas otras partes del cuerpo. En el estómago, el magnesio ayuda a neutralizar el ácido estomacal y ayuda a la evacuación de las heces a través del intestino.

¿Hay preocupación por la seguridad de su uso?

El magnesio es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO para la mayoría de las personas cuando se toma por vía oral de manera apropiada o cuando el producto inyectable, de venta bajo receta médica, se usa en forma correcta. En algunas personas, el magnesio podría producir molestias estomacales, nausea, vómitos, diarrea y otros efectos secundarios.

Las dosis de menos de 350 mg por día son seguras para la mayoría de los adultos. Cuando se toma en grandes cantidades, el magnesio POSIBLEMENTE NO ES SEGURO. Dosis altas podrían producir una acumulación de magnesio en el cuerpo, produciendo serios efectos secundarios incluyendo un latido irregular del corazón, una baja presión arterial, confusión, respiración lenta, coma y muerte.

Advertencias y precauciones especiales:

Embarazo y lactancia: El magnesio es PROBABLEMENTE SEGURO para las mujeres embarazadas y que están amamantando cuando se toma por vía oral en las dosis recomendadas. Estas cantidades dependen de la edad de la mujer. Consulte con su proveedor de atención médica para averiguar cuál es la cantidad adecuada para usted.

Trastornos hemorrágicos: El magnesio parece disminuir la coagulación sanguínea. En teoría, la ingesta de magnesio podría mejorar el riesgo de sufrir hemorragia o hematomas en personas con trastornos hemorrágicos.

Bloqueo cardiaco: No se deben dar dosis altas de magnesio (típicamente por inyección a la vena) a las personas con bloqueo cardiaco.

Problemas renales, tales como insuficiencia renal: Si los riñones no funcionan hay problemas para eliminar el magnesio del cuerpo. El tomar magnesio en exceso puede producir una acumulación de magnesio que puede llevar a niveles que pueden ser peligrosos. No tome magnesio si tiene problemas renales.

¿Existen interacciones con medicamentos?

Moderadas
Tenga cuidado con esta combinación
Antibióticos (Antibióticos aminoglucósidos)
Algunos antibióticos pueden afectar a los músculos. Estos antibióticos se llaman aminoglucósidos. El magnesio también puede afectar a los músculos. El tomar estos antibióticos y una inyección de magnesio podría producir problemas.

Algunos antibióticos aminoglucósidos incluyen amikacina (Amikin), gentamicina (Garamycin), kanamycina (Kantrex), estreptomicina, tobramicina (Nebcin) y otros.
Antibióticos (Antibióticos de quinolona)
El magnesio podría disminuir la cantidad de antibiótico que el cuerpo absorbe. El tomar magnesio junto con algunos antibióticos podría disminuir la eficacia de algunos antibióticos. Para evitar esta interacción, tome los antibióticos por lo menos 2 horas antes o 4 a 6 horas después de tomar los suplementos de magnesio.

Algunos de estos antibióticos que pueden interactuar con el magnesio incluyen ciprofloxacina (Cipro), enoxacina (Penetrex), norfloxacina (Chibroxin, Noroxin), sparfloxacina (Zagam), trovafloxacina (Trovan) y grepafloxacina (Raxar).
Antibióticos (Antibióticos de tetraciclina)
En el estómago el magnesio se puede unir a algunos antibióticos llamados tetraciclinas. Esto disminuye la cantidad de tetraciclinas que pueden ser absorbidas. El tomar magnesio junto con tetraciclinas podría disminuir la eficacia de las tetraciclinas. Para evitar esta interacción, tome las tetraciclinas por lo menos 2 horas antes o 4 a 6 horas después de tomar los suplementos de magnesio.

Algunas tetraciclinas incluyen a demeclociclina (Declomycin), minociclina (Minocin) y tetraciclina (Achromycin, y otras).
Bifosfonatos
El magnesio puede disminuir la cantidad de bifosfonato que el cuerpo absorbe. El tomar magnesio junto con bifosfonatos puede disminuir la eficacia de los bifosfonatos. Para evitar esta interacción, tome el bifosfonato por lo menos 2 horas antes del magnesio o más tarde en el día.

Algunos de los bifosfonatos incluyen alendronato (Fosamax), etidronato (Didronel), risedronato (Actonel), tiludronato (Skelid) y otros.
Digoxina (Lanoxin)
Digoxina (Lanoxin) ayuda a que el corazón lata más fuertemente El magnesio podría disminuir la cantidad de digoxina (Lanoxin) que el cuerpo absorbe. Al disminuir la cantidad de digoxina (Lanoxin) que el cuerpo absorbe, el magnesio podría disminuir los efectos de la digoxina (Lanoxin).
Medicamentos para la diabetes (Sulfonilureas)
Ciertas sales de magnesio podría aumentar la cantidad de sulfonilurea que el cuerpo absorbe. Al aumentar la cantidad de sulfonilurea que el cuerpo absorbe, el magnesio podría aumentar el riesgo de una disminución de los niveles de azúcar en la sangre en ciertos pacientes.

Ciertos agentes de sulfonilurea incluidos carbutamida, acetohexamida, clorpropamida, tolbutamida, gliclazida, glibornurida, gliclopiramida y glimepirida.
Medicamentos para la presión arterial alta (Bloqueadores de los canales de calcio)
Ciertos medicamentos para la hipertensión arterial funcionan impidiendo la entrada del calcio a las células. Estos medicamentos se denominan bloqueadores del canal de calcio. El magnesio también podría impedir la entrada de calcio a las células. La ingesta de magnesio junto con estos medicamentos podría causar una marcada disminución de la presión arterial.

Algunos de estos medicamentos para la presión arterial alta incluyen nifedipina (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipina (DynaCirc), felodipina (Plendil), amlodipina (Norvasc) y otros.
Medicamentos que disminuyen la coagulación de la sangre (Anticoagulantes / Antiplaquetarios)
El magnesio podría disminuir la coagulación de la sangre. La ingesta de magnesio junto con otros medicamentos que también disminuyen la coagulación podría reducir las posibilidades de sufrir hematomas y hemorragia.

Algunos medicamentos que disminuyen la coagulación de la sangre incluyen aspirina, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparina (Fragmin), enoxaparina (Lovenox), heparina, indometacina (Indocin), ticlopidina (Ticlid), warfarina (Coumadin) entre otros.
Píldoras de agua (Diuréticos ahorradores de potasio)
Algunas de las "píldoras de agua" pueden aumentar los niveles de magnesio en el cuerpo. El tomar algunas "píldoras de agua" junto con magnesio podría aumentar demasiado la cantidad de magnesio en el cuerpo.

Algunas "píldoras de agua" que aumentan el magnesio en el cuerpo incluyen amilorida (Midamor), espironolactona (Aldactone) y triamtereno (Dyrenium).
Relajadores Musculares
El magnesio parece ayudar a relajar los músculos. El tomar magnesio junto con relajadores musculares puede aumentar el riesgo de los efectos secundarios de los relajadores musculares.

Algunos relajadores musculares incluyen carisoprodol (Soma), pipecuronium (Arduan), orfenadrina (Banflex, Disipal), ciclobenzaprina, gallamina (Flaxedil), atracurium (Tracrium), pancuronium (Pavulon), succinilcolina (Anectine) y otros.

¿Existen interacciones con hierbas y suplementos?

Boro
El magnesio en la sangre es procesado por los riñones y excretado en la orina. Así es eliminado del cuerpo. En las mujeres, los suplementos de boro pueden retardar este proceso y aumentar los niveles de magnesio en la sangre. En las mujeres jóvenes, de 18 a 25 años, el efecto parece ser mayor en las mujeres que son menos activas que en las mujeres que son más atléticas. En las mujeres que han pasado la menopausia, el efecto es más marcado en las mujeres con baja ingesta de magnesio en la dieta. No se sabe cuan importante son estos efectos o si también ocurren en los hombres.
Calcio
Los suplementos de calcio podrían disminuir la absorción del magnesio en la dieta, pero solo en dosis muy altas (2600 mg al día). Sin embargo, en las personas con una adecuada cantidad de magnesio almacenada, el calcio no tiene ningún efecto significativo en el equilibrio del magnesio a largo plazo. Las personas con alto riesgo de deficiencia de magnesio deben tomar el calcio al acostarse, en vez de con las comidas, para evitar interferir con la absorción del magnesio de la dieta. El magnesio no parece afectar la absorción de calcio.
Hierbas y suplementos que podrían disminuir la coagulación de la sangre
La ingesta de magnesio junto con hierbas que pueden disminuir la coagulación de la sangre aumenta el riesgo de sufrir hemorragia en algunas personas. Estas hierbas incluyen angélica, clavo de olor, danshen, ajo, jengibre, glucosamina, Panax ginseng entre otros.
Vitamina D
Diversos tipos de vitamina D aumentan la absorción del magnesio, especialmente cuando se toman en grandes dosis. Este efecto ha sido usado en el tratamiento del bajo nivel de magnesio en las personas que tienen enfermedades que hacen que sea difícil absorber el magnesio.
Zinc
En los hombres adultos sanos, altas dosis de zinc (142 mg/día) parecen disminuir la absorción de magnesio y el equilibrio de los niveles de magnesio. Además, la ingesta moderada de zinc en la dieta (53 mg por día) parece aumentar la pérdida de magnesio en las mujeres posmenopáusicas. Esto podría perjudicar la salud de los huesos. Se necesita hacer más investigación para determinar la importancia de esta interacción.

¿Existen interacciones con alimentos?

No se conoce ninguna interacción con alimentos.

¿Qué dosis se utiliza?

La siguiente dosis se ha estudiado en investigaciones científicas:

POR VÍA ORAL:
  • Para reducir la frecuencia y severidad de los dolores de cabeza de migraña:
    • Se dan 1830 mg de citrato de magnesio en tres dosis divididas por hasta 3 meses.
    • Se dan 600 mg (24 mmol) de dicitrato de trimagnesio diarios por hasta 3 meses.
  • Para reducir la frecuencia y severidad de los dolores de cabeza de migraña en los niños: Se dan 9 mg por kg de óxido de magnesio en 3 dosis divididas por hasta 16 semanas.
  • Para el tratamiento de los niveles bajos de magnesio en los pacientes con diabetes de tipo 2: Se dan 50 ml diarios de una solución de cloruro de magnesio (que contiene 50 gramos de cloruro de magnesio por 1000 ml de solución) por hasta 16 semanas.
  • Para la debilidad de los huesos (osteoporosis): Se ha usado 150-750 mg/día de magnesio ya sea solo o en combinación con calcio y otros suplementos.
  • Para el síndrome premenstrual (SPM): Se usa 200-360 mg/día.
La Ingesta Diaria Recomendada (RDA) para el magnesio elemental es la siguiente: De 1-3 años: 80 mg; de 4-8 años: 130 mg; de 9-13 años: 240 mg; de 14-18 años: 410 mg (niños) y 360 mg (niñas); de 19-30 años: 400 mg (hombres) y 310 mg (mujeres); para mayores de 31 años: 420 mg (hombres) y 320 mg (mujeres). Para las mujeres embarazadas de 14-18 años: la RDA es 400 mg; de 19-30 años: 350 mg; de 31-50 años: 360 mg. Para las mujeres amamantando de 14-18 años, la RDA es de 360 mg; de 19-30 años: 310 mg; de 31-50 años: 320 mg. Para los infantes menores de un año de edad, el nivel de consumo adecuado (AI) es de 30 mg desde el nacimiento hasta los 6 meses y de 75 mg de los 7 hasta los 12 meses. El nivel máximo de ingesta tolerable (UL) para el magnesio es de 65 mg en los niños de 1-3 años, 110 mg en los niños de 4-8 años y 350 mg para cualquier persona mayor de 8 años, incluyendo a las mujeres embarazadas y amamantando.

Otros nombres

Aspartate de Magnésium, Atomic Number 12, Carbonate de Magnésium, Chelated Magnesium, Chlorure de Magnésium, Citrate de Magnésium, Dimagnesium Malate, Epsom Salts, Gluconate de Magnésium, Glycérophosphate de Magnésium, Glycinate de Magnésium, Hydroxyde de Magnésium, Lactate de Magnésium, Lait de Magnésium, Magnesia, Magnesia Carbonica, Magnesia Muriatica, Magnesia Phosphorica, Magnesia Sulfate, Magnesia Sulfurica, Magnésium, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Aspartate, Magnesium Carbonate, Magnésium Chelaté, Magnesium Chloride, Magnesium Citrate, Magnesium Disuccinate Hydrate, Magnesium Gluconate, Magnesium Glycerophosphate, Magnesium Glycinate, Magnesium Hydroxide, Magnesium Lactate, Magnesium Malate, Magnesium Murakab, Magnesium Orotate, Magnesium Oxide, Magnesium Phosphate, Magnesium Phosphoricum, Magnesium Sulfate, Magnesium Taurate, Magnesium Taurinate, Magnesium Trisilicate, Malate de Magnésium, Milk of Magnesia, Mg, Numéro Atomique 12, Orotate de Magnésium, Oxyde de Magnésium, Phosphate de Magnésium, Sels d’Epsom, Sulfate de Magnésium, Trisilicate de Magnésium.

Metodología

Para saber más sobre cómo este artículo fue escrito, refiérase a la metodología de la Base exhaustiva de datos de medicamentos naturales.

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Documento revisado - 02/15/2015