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Medical Subject Headings

Qualifiers by Allowable Category - 2014


This array contains 62 subject categories and the Qualifiers assigned to those categories. Each list includes the name of the MeSH subcategory or range of subcategories in which the majority of terms are found that fit the description given, e.g., fluids and secretions are most often found in category A12 and the set of Qualifiers shown fits reasonably with most terms there. These lists are provided as general guidelines only. Each MeSH Descriptor has been assigned a set of allowable Qualifiers that makes sense for that Descriptor; when a named list contains a Qualifier that does not fit well with the Descriptor, that Qualifier is rejected as an allowable qualifier. Conversely, when a useful Qualifier lies outside a particular named list assigned to a Descriptor, the list is amplified to make the Qualifier available.

In the lists below, those with a single letter (A LIST) indicate that, unless otherwise restricted, the listed Qualifiers have general application to the category as a whole. When a Qualifier list applies either to a specific portion of a subcategory or extends across several different categories, a mnemonic name is given to represent the included concepts instead of a long string of tree numbers. Examples are CELLS LIST (covering a specific portion of A11) and ENDOGENOUS LIST (applying to several different D subcategories). It is emphasized that if a numbered list has application to a term in another tree, the list will be assigned to that term regardless of the name or number of the tree. NULL LIST indicates for a given MeSH Descriptor that no Qualifiers have been made available to that Descriptor.

A LIST - General Anatomy

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
BS /blood supply
CH /chem
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
GD /growth
IM /immunol
IN /inj
IR /innerv
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
PP /physiopathol
RE /rad eff
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
SU /surg
TR /transpl
US /ultrasonogr
UL /ultrastruct
VI /virol

A1 LIST - Body Regions

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
BS /blood supply
EM /embryol
GD /growth
IN /inj
IR /innerv
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
PP /physiopathol
RE /rad eff
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
SU /surg
US /ultrasonogr
VI /virol

A7 LIST - Cardiovascular System

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
CH /chem
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
GD /growth
IM /immunol
IN /inj
IR /innerv
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
PP /physiopathol
RE /rad eff
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
SU /surg
TR /transpl
US /ultrasonogr
UL /ultrastruct
VI /virol

A8 LIST - Nervous System

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
BS /blood supply
CH /chem
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
GD /growth
IM /immunol
IN /inj
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
PP /physiopathol
RE /rad eff
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
SU /surg
TR /transpl
US /ultrasonogr
UL /ultrastruct
VI /virol

CELLS LIST - (A11)

CH /chem
CL /class
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EN /enzymol
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
TR /transpl
US /ultrasonogr
UL /ultrastruct
VI /virol

SUBCELLULAR ELEMENTS LIST - (A11)

CH /chem
CL /class
DE /drug eff
EN /enzymol
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
TR /transpl
US /ultrasonogr
UL /ultrastruct
VI /virol

A12 LIST - Fluids and Secretions

CH /chem
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EN /enzymol
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
US /ultrasonogr
VI /virol

B LIST - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota

CH /chem
CL /class
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EN /enzymol
GE /genet
GD /growth
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PY /pathogen
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff
UL /ultrastruct
VI /virol

INVERTEBRATES LIST - Invertebrates

AH /anat
CH /chem
CL /class
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
GE /genet
GD /growth
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PY /pathogen
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff
UL /ultrastruct
VI /virol

PLANTS LIST - Plants

AE /adv eff
AH /anat
CH /chem
CL /class
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
GE /genet
GD /growth
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PH /physiol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
TO /tox
UL /ultrastruct
VI /virol

MAMMALS LIST - (B2)

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
BL /blood
CL /class
CF /csf
EM /embryol
GE /genet
GD /growth
IM /immunol
IN /inj
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PH /physiol
PX /psychol
SU /surg
UR /urine
VI /virol

VERTEBRATES LIST - Vertebrates

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
BL /blood
CL /class
CF /csf
EM /embryol
GE /genet
GD /growth
IM /immunol
IN /inj
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PH /physiol
SU /surg
UR /urine
VI /virol

B4 LIST - Viruses

CH /chem
CL /class
DE /drug eff
EN /enzymol
GE /genet
GD /growth
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PY /pathogen
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff
UL /ultrastruct

C LIST - General Diseases

BL /blood
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CO /compl
CN /congen
CF /csf
DI /diag
DH /diet ther
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
EH /ethnol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PP /physiopathol
PC /prev
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
RH /rehabil
SU /surg
TH /ther
US /ultrasonogr
UR /urine
VE /vet
VI /virol

C1-C3 LIST - Infections

BL /blood
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CO /compl
CN /congen
CF /csf
DI /diag
DH /diet ther
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
EH /ethnol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PP /physiopathol
PC /prev
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
RH /rehabil
SU /surg
TH /ther
TM /transm
US /ultrasonogr
UR /urine
VE /vet
VI /virol

LEUKEMIA LIST - (C4)

BL /blood
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CO /compl
CN /congen
CF /csf
DI /diag
DH /diet ther
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
EH /ethnol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PP /physiopathol
PC /prev
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
RH /rehabil
SU /surg
TH /ther
US /ultrasonogr
UR /urine
VE /vet
VI /virol

NEOPLASMS LIST - (C4)

BL /blood
BS /blood supply
CH /chem
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CO /compl
CN /congen
CF /csf
DI /diag
DH /diet ther
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
EH /ethnol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PP /physiopathol
PC /prev
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
RH /rehabil
SC /second
SE /secret
SU /surg
TH /ther
US /ultrasonogr
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine
VE /vet
VI /virol

C16 LIST - Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities

BL /blood
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CO /compl
CF /csf
DI /diag
DH /diet ther
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
EH /ethnol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PP /physiopathol
PC /prev
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
RH /rehabil
SU /surg
TH /ther
US /ultrasonogr
UR /urine
VE /vet
VI /virol

C22 LIST - Animal Diseases

BL /blood
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CO /compl
CN /congen
CF /csf
DI /diag
DH /diet ther
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PP /physiopathol
PC /prev
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
SU /surg
TH /ther
TM /transm
US /ultrasonogr
UR /urine
VI /virol

D LIST - General Drugs and Chemicals

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AN /anal
AA /analogs
AI /antag
BL /blood
CH /chem
CS /chem syn
CL /class
CT /contra
CF /csf
DU /diag use
EC /econ
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PK /pharmacokin
PD /pharmacol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
ST /stand
SD /supply
TU /ther use
TO /tox
UR /urine

ENDOGENOUS LIST - (D)

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AN /anal
AA /analogs
AI /antag
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CH /chem
CS /chem syn
CL /class
CT /contra
CF /csf
DF /defic
DU /diag use
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PK /pharmacokin
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SE /secret
ST /stand
SD /supply
TU /ther use
TO /tox
UR /urine

ELEMENTS LIST - (D1)

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AN /anal
AI /antag
BL /blood
CH /chem
CL /class
CT /contra
CF /csf
DF /defic
DU /diag use
EC /econ
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PK /pharmacokin
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
ST /stand
SD /supply
TU /ther use
TO /tox
UR /urine

D1 LIST - Inorganic Chemicals

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AN /anal
AI /antag
BL /blood
CH /chem
CS /chem syn
CL /class
CT /contra
CF /csf
DU /diag use
EC /econ
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PK /pharmacokin
PD /pharmacol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
ST /stand
SD /supply
TU /ther use
TO /tox
UR /urine

ENZYMES LIST - (D8)

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AN /anal
AI /antag
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CH /chem
CS /chem syn
CL /class
CT /contra
CF /csf
DF /defic
DU /diag use
DE /drug eff
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PK /pharmacokin
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SE /secret
ST /stand
SD /supply
TU /ther use
TO /tox
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine

BLOOD PROTEINS LIST - (D12)

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AN /anal
AA /analogs
AI /antag
BI /biosyn
CH /chem
CS /chem syn
CL /class
CT /contra
CF /csf
DF /defic
DU /diag use
DE /drug eff
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PK /pharmacokin
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SE /secret
ST /stand
SD /supply
TU /ther use
TO /tox
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine

PEPTIDES LIST - (D12)

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AN /anal
AA /analogs
AI /antag
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CH /chem
CS /chem syn
CL /class
CT /contra
CF /csf
DF /defic
DU /diag use
DE /drug eff
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PK /pharmacokin
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SE /secret
ST /stand
SD /supply
TU /ther use
TO /tox
UR /urine

PROTEINS LIST - (D12)

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AN /anal
AI /antag
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CH /chem
CS /chem syn
CL /class
CT /contra
CF /csf
DF /defic
DU /diag use
DE /drug eff
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PK /pharmacokin
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SE /secret
ST /stand
SD /supply
TU /ther use
TO /tox
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine

RECEPTORS LIST - (D12)

AD /admin
AG /agon
AN /anal
AI /antag
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CH /chem
CL /class
DF /defic
DE /drug eff
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff
TU /ther use
UL /ultrastruct

D13.444 LIST - Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AN /anal
AA /analogs
AI /antag
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CH /chem
CS /chem syn
CL /class
CT /contra
CF /csf
DF /defic
DU /diag use
DE /drug eff
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PK /pharmacokin
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SE /secret
ST /stand
SD /supply
TU /ther use
TO /tox
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine

D20.85 LIST - Antibiotics

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AN /anal
AA /analogs
AI /antag
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CH /chem
CS /chem syn
CL /class
CT /contra
CF /csf
DU /diag use
EC /econ
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PK /pharmacokin
PD /pharmacol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
ST /stand
SD /supply
TU /ther use
TO /tox
UR /urine

ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY LIST - (D24)

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AN /anal
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CH /chem
CL /class
CT /contra
CF /csf
DU /diag use
DE /drug eff
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
TU /ther use
TO /tox
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine

D25-26 LIST - Miscellaneous Dental Agents and Materials

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AN /anal
CH /chem
CS /chem syn
CL /class
CT /contra
DU /diag use
EC /econ
HI /hist
IP /isol
ME /metab
PK /pharmacokin
PD /pharmacol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
ST /stand
SD /supply
TU /ther use
TO /tox

E LIST - General Techniques

AE /adv eff
CL /class
CT /contra
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
MT /methods
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PX /psychol
ST /stand
SN /statist
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet

LABORATORY LIST - (E, H)

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
MT /methods
ST /stand
SN /statist
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet

OGRAPHIES LIST - (E1)

AE /adv eff
CL /class
CT /contra
DE /drug eff
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
MT /methods
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PX /psychol
RE /rad eff
ST /stand
SN /statist
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet

E4 LIST - Surgical Procedures, Operative

AE /adv eff
CL /class
CT /contra
EC /econ
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
LJ /legis
MT /methods
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PX /psychol
RH /rehabil
ST /stand
SN /statist
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet

E6 LIST - Dentistry

AE /adv eff
CL /class
CT /contra
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
MA /man
MT /methods
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PX /psychol
ST /stand
SN /statist
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet

E7 LIST - Equipment and Supplies

AE /adv eff
CL /class
CT /contra
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
ST /stand
SN /statist
SD /supply
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet
VI /virol

F1-F2 LIST - Behavior and Cognition

CL /class
DE /drug eff
ES /ethics
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff

F3 LIST - Mental Disorders

BL /blood
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CO /compl
CF /csf
DI /diag
DH /diet ther
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
EH /ethnol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PS /parasitol
PA /pathol
PP /physiopathol
PC /prev
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
RH /rehabil
SU /surg
TH /ther
US /ultrasonogr
UR /urine
VI /virol

F4 LIST - Behavioral Disciplines and Activities

CL /class
EC /econ
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
OG /organ
ST /stand
SN /statist
TD /trends

G LIST - General Physiology

DE /drug eff
ES /ethics
GE /genet
IM /immunol
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff

SPECIALTIES LIST - (G1-2)

CL /class
EC /econ
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
OG /organ
ST /stand
SN /statist
TD /trends

G3 LIST - Environment and Public Health

AE /adv eff
AN /anal
CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
MT /methods
PC /prev
ST /stand
SN /statist

PREGNANCY LIST - (G8)

BL /blood
CF /csf
DE /drug eff
ES /ethics
EH /ethnol
GE /genet
IM /immunol
ME /metab
PH /physiol
PX /psychol
RE /rad eff
UR /urine

G12 LIST - Chemical and Pharmacologic Phenomena

EH /ethnol
GE /genet
IM /immunol
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff

CHEMISTRY LIST - (H)

DE /drug eff
RE /rad eff

PHYSICS LIST - (H)

AE /adv eff
CL /class
DU /diag use
HI /hist
TU /ther use

I LIST - Social Sciences and Politics

CL /class
EC /econ
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
OG /organ
ST /stand
SN /statist
SD /supply
TD /trends
UT /util

SOCIAL PROBLEMS LIST -

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
EH /ethnol
HI /hist
LJ /legis
PC /prev
PX /psychol
SN /statist
TD /trends

I2 LIST - Education

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
OG /organ
ST /stand
SN /statist
TD /trends

I3 LIST - Human Activities

CL /class
EC /econ
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IN /inj
LJ /legis
PX /psychol
ST /stand
SN /statist
TD /trends

SUBSTANCES LIST - (J)

AE /adv eff
AN /anal
CL /class
EC /econ
HI /hist
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
ST /stand
SN /statist
SD /supply
TO /tox
UT /util
VI /virol

K LIST - Humanities

CL /class
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
PX /psychol
SN /statist
TD /trends

J LIST - Technology and Food and Beverages

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
ST /stand
SN /statist

LIBRARY LIST - (L)

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
LJ /legis
MA /man
OG /organ
ST /stand
SN /statist
SD /supply
TD /trends
UT /util

L LIST - Information Science

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
ST /stand
SN /statist
SD /supply
TD /trends
UT /util

M LIST - Persons

CL /class
ED /educ
HI /hist
LJ /legis
PX /psychol
SN /statist

N1 LIST - Population Characteristics

CL /class
HI /hist
SN /statist

N2 LIST - Health Care Facilities, Manpower, and Services

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
OG /organ
ST /stand
SN /statist
SD /supply
TD /trends
UT /util

HEALTH CARE LIST - (N3-5)

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
OG /organ
ST /stand
SN /statist
TD /trends
UT /util

Z LIST - Geographic Locations

EP /epidemiol
EH /ethnol