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Medical Subject Headings

Qualifiers by Allowable Category - 2005


This array contains 62 subject categories and the Qualifiersassigned to those categories. Each list includes the name of theMeSH subcategory or range of subcategories in which the majorityof terms are found that fit the description given, e.g., fluidsand secretions are most often found in category A12 and the setof Qualifiers shown fits reasonably with most terms there. Theselists are provided as general guidelines only. Each MeSHDescriptor has been assigned a set of allowable Qualifiers thatmakes sense for that Descriptor; when a named list contains aQualifier that does not fit well with the Descriptor, thatQualifier is rejected as an allowable qualifier. Conversely, whena useful Qualifier lies outside a particular named list assignedto a Descriptor, the list is amplified to make the Qualifieravailable.

In the lists below, those with a single letter (A LIST)indicate that, unless otherwise restricted, the listed Qualifiershave general application to the category as a whole. When aQualifier list applies either to a specific portion of asubcategory or extends across several different categories, amnemonic name is given to represent the included concepts insteadof a long string of tree numbers. Examples are CELLS LIST(covering a specific portion of A11) and ENDOGENOUS LIST(applying to several different D subcategories). It is emphasizedthat if a numbered list has application to a term in anothertree, the list will be assigned to that term regardless of thename or number of the tree. NULL LIST indicates for a given MeSHDescriptor that no Qualifiers have been made available to thatDescriptor.

A LIST - General Anatomy

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
BS /blood supply
CH /chem
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
GD /growth
IM /immunol
IN /inj
IR /innerv
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
PP /physiopathol
PS /parasitol
RA /radiogr
RE /rad eff
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
SU /surg
TR /transpl
UL /ultrastruct
US /ultrasonogr
VI /virol

A1 LIST - Body Regions

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
BS /blood supply
EM /embryol
GD /growth
IN /inj
IR /innerv
MI /microbiol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
PP /physiopathol
PS /parasitol
RA /radiogr
RE /rad eff
RI /radionuclide
SU /surg
US /ultrasonogr
VI /virol

A7 LIST - Cardiovascular System

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
CH /chem
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
GD /growth
IM /immunol
IN /inj
IR /innerv
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
PP /physiopathol
PS /parasitol
RA /radiogr
RE /rad eff
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
SU /surg
TR /transpl
UL /ultrastruct
US /ultrasonogr
VI /virol

A8 LIST - Nervous System

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
BS /blood supply
CH /chem
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
GD /growth
IM /immunol
IN /inj
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
PP /physiopathol
PS /parasitol
RA /radiogr
RE /rad eff
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
SU /surg
TR /transpl
UL /ultrastruct
US /ultrasonogr
VI /virol

CELLS LIST - (A11)

CH /chem
CL /class
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EN /enzymol
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
PS /parasitol
RA /radiogr
RE /rad eff
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
TR /transpl
UL /ultrastruct
US /ultrasonogr
VI /virol

SUBCELLULAR ELEMENTS LIST - (A11)

CH /chem
CL /class
DE /drug eff
EN /enzymol
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PA /pathol
PH /physiol
PS /parasitol
RA /radiogr
RE /rad eff
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
TR /transpl
UL /ultrastruct
US /ultrasonogr
VI /virol

A12 LIST - Fluids and Secretions

CH /chem
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EN /enzymol
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PH /physiol
PS /parasitol
RA /radiogr
RE /rad eff
RI /radionuclide
SE /secret
US /ultrasonogr
VI /virol

INVERTEBRATES (B1)

AH /anat
CH /chem
CL /class
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
GD /growth
GE /genet
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PH /physiol
PS /parasitol
PY /pathogen
RE /rad eff
UL /ultrastruct
VI /virol

MAMMALS LIST - (B2)

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
BL /blood
CF /csf
CL /class
EM /embryol
GD /growth
GE /genet
IM /immunol
IN /inj
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PH /physiol
PS /parasitol
PX /psychol
SU /surg
UR /urine
VI /virol

VERTEBRATES LIST (B2)

AB /abnorm
AH /anat
BL /blood
CF /csf
CL /class
EM /embryol
GD /growth
GE /genet
IM /immunol
IN /inj
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PH /physiol
PS /parasitol
SU /surg
UR /urine
VI /virol

B2, B3, B5, B7 LIST - Bacteria, Lower Plants, andArchaea

CH /chem
CL /class
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EN /enzymol
GD /growth
GE /genet
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PH /physiol
PY /pathogen
RE /rad eff
UL /ultrastruct
VI /virol

B4 LIST - Viruses

CH /chem
CL /class
DE /drug eff
EN /enzymol
GD /growth
GE /genet
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PH /physiol
PY /pathogen
RE /rad eff
UL /ultrastruct

B6 LIST - Plants

AE /adv eff
AH /anat
CH /chem
CL /class
CY /cytol
DE /drug eff
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
GD /growth
GE /genet
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
PH /physiol
PO /pois
PS /parasitol
RE /rad eff
TO /tox
UL /ultrastruct
VI /virol

C LIST - General Diseases

BL /blood
CF /csf
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CN /congen
CO /compl
DH /diet ther
DI /diag
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EH /ethnol
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PA /pathol
PC /prev
PP /physiopathol
PS /parasitol
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RH /rehabil
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
SU /surg
TH /ther
UR /urine
US /ultrasonogr
VE /vet
VI /virol

C1-C3 LIST - Infections

BL /blood
CF /csf
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CN /congen
CO /compl
DH /diet ther
DI /diag
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EH /ethnol
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PA /pathol
PC /prev
PP /physiopathol
PS /parasitol
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RH /rehabil
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
SU /surg
TH /ther
TM /transm
UR /urine
US /ultrasonogr
VE /vet
VI /virol

LEUKEMIA LIST - (C4)

BL /blood
CF /csf
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CN /congen
CO /compl
DH /diet ther
DI /diag
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EH /ethnol
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PA /pathol
PC /prev
PP /physiopathol
PS /parasitol
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RH /rehabil
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
SU /surg
TH /ther
UR /urine
US /ultrasonogr
VE /vet
VI /virol

NEOPLASMS LIST - (C4)

BL /blood
BS /blood supply
CF /csf
CH /chem
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CN /congen
CO /compl
DH /diet ther
DI /diag
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EH /ethnol
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PA /pathol
PC /prev
PP /physiopathol
PS /parasitol
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RH /rehabil
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
SC /second
SE /secret
SU /surg
TH /ther
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine
US /ultrasonogr
VE /vet
VI /virol

C16 LIST - Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities

BL /blood
CF /csf
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CO /compl
DH /diet ther
DI /diag
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EH /ethnol
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PA /pathol
PC /prev
PP /physiopathol
PS /parasitol
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RH /rehabil
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
SU /surg
TH /ther
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine
US /ultrasonogr
VE /vet
VI /virol

C22 LIST - Animal Diseases

BL /blood
CF /csf
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CN /congen
CO /compl
DH /diet ther
DI /diag
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EM /embryol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PA /pathol
PC /prev
PP /physiopathol
PS /parasitol
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RI /radionuclide
RT /radiother
SU /surg
TH /ther
TM /transm
UR /urine
US /ultrasonogr
VI /virol

D LIST - General Drugs and Chemicals

AA /analogs
AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AI /antag
AN /anal
BL /blood
CF /csf
CH /chem
CL /class
CS /chem syn
CT /contra
DU /diag use
EC /econ
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PK /pharmacokin
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
ST /stand
TO /tox
TU /ther use
UR /urine

ENDOGENOUS LIST - (D)

AA /analogs
AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AI /antag
AN /anal
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CF /csf
CH /chem
CL /class
CS /chem syn
CT /contra
DF /defic
DU /diag use
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PK /pharmacokin
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
SE /secret
ST /stand
TO /tox
TU /ther use
UR /urine

ELEMENTS LIST - (D1)

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AI /antag
AN /anal
BL /blood
CF /csf
CH /chem
CL /class
CT /contra
DF /defic
DU /diag use
EC /econ
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PK /pharmacokin
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
ST /stand
TO /tox
TU /ther use
UR /urine

D1 LIST - Inorganic Chemicals

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AI /antag
AN /anal
BL /blood
CF /csf
CH /chem
CL /class
CS /chem syn
CT /contra
DU /diag use
EC /econ
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PK /pharmacokin
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
ST /stand
TO /tox
TU /ther use
UR /urine

ENZYMES LIST - (D8)

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AI /antag
AN /anal
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CF /csf
CH /chem
CL /class
CS /chem syn
CT /contra
DE /drug eff
DF /defic
DU /diag use
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PK /pharmacokin
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
SE /secret
ST /stand
TO /tox
TU /ther use
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine

BLOOD PROTEINS LIST - (D12)

AA /analogs
AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AI /antag
AN /anal
BI /biosyn
CF /csf
CH /chem
CL /class
CS /chem syn
CT /contra
DE /drug eff
DF /defic
DU /diag use
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PK /pharmacokin
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
SE /secret
ST /stand
TO /tox
TU /ther use
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine

PEPTIDES LIST - (D12)

AA /analogs
AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AI /antag
AN /anal
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CF /csf
CH /chem
CL /class
CS /chem syn
CT /contra
DE /drug eff
DF /defic
DU /diag use
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PK /pharmacokin
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
SE /secret
ST /stand
TO /tox
TU /ther use
UR /urine

PROTEINS LIST - (D12)

AA /analogs
AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AI /antag
AN /anal
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CF /csf
CH /chem
CL /class
CS /chem syn
CT /contra
DE /drug eff
DF /defic
DU /diag use
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PK /pharmacokin
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
SE /secret
ST /stand
TO /tox
TU /ther use
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine

RECEPTORS LIST - (D12)

AD /admin
AG /agon
AI /antag
AN /anal
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CH /chem
CL /class
DE /drug eff
DF /defic
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff
TU /ther use
UL /ultrastruct

D13.444 LIST - Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, andNucleosides

AA /analogs
AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AI /antag
AN /anal
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CF /csf
CH /chem
CL /class
CS /chem syn
CT /contra
DE /drug eff
DF /defic
DU /diag use
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PK /pharmacokin
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
SE /secret
ST /stand
TO /tox
TU /ther use
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine

D20.85 LIST - Antibiotics

AA /analogs
AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AG /agon
AI /antag
AN /anal
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CF /csf
CH /chem
CL /class
CS /chem syn
CT /contra
DU /diag use
EC /econ
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PK /pharmacokin
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
ST /stand
TO /tox
TU /ther use
UR /urine

ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY LIST - (D24)

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AN /anal
BI /biosyn
BL /blood
CF /csf
CH /chem
CL /class
CT /contra
DE /drug eff
DU /diag use
EC /econ
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PH /physiol
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
TO /tox
TU /ther use
UL /ultrastruct
UR /urine

D25-26 LIST - Miscellaneous Dental Agents andMaterials

AD /admin
AE /adv eff
AN /anal
CH /chem
CL /class
CS /chem syn
CT /contra
DU /diag use
EC /econ
HI /hist
IP /isol
ME /metab
PD /pharmacol
PK /pharmacokin
PO /pois
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
ST /stand
TO /tox
TU /ther use

E LIST - General Techniques

AE /adv eff
CL /class
CT /contra
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
MO /mortal
MT /methods
NU /nurs
PX /psychol
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet

LABORATORY LIST - (E, H)

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
MT /methods
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet

OGRAPHIES LIST - (E1)

AE /adv eff
CL /class
CT /contra
DE /drug eff
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
MO /mortal
MT /methods
NU /nurs
PX /psychol
RE /rad eff
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet

E4 LIST - Surgical Procedures, Operative

AE /adv eff
CL /class
CT /contra
EC /econ
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
LJ /legis
MO /mortal
MT /methods
NU /nurs
PX /psychol
RH /rehabil
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet

E6 LIST - Dentistry

AE /adv eff
CL /class
CT /contra
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
MA /man
MO /mortal
MT /methods
NU /nurs
PX /psychol
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet

E7 LIST - Equipment and Supplies

AE /adv eff
CL /class
CT /contra
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
MI /microbiol
PS /parasitol
SD /supply
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends
UT /util
VE /vet
VI /virol

F1-F2 LIST - Behavior and Cognition

CL /class
DE /drug eff
ES /ethics
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff

F3 LIST - Mental Disorders

BL /blood
CF /csf
CI /chem ind
CL /class
CO /compl
DH /diet ther
DI /diag
DT /drug ther
EC /econ
EH /ethnol
EN /enzymol
EP /epidemiol
ET /etiol
GE /genet
HI /hist
IM /immunol
ME /metab
MI /microbiol
MO /mortal
NU /nurs
PA /pathol
PC /prev
PP /physiopathol
PS /parasitol
PX /psychol
RA /radiogr
RH /rehabil
RI /radionuclide
SU /surg
TH /ther
UR /urine
US /ultrasonogr

F4 LIST - Behavioral Disciplines and Activities

CL /class
EC /econ
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
OG /organ
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends

G LIST - General Physiology

DE /drug eff
ES /ethics
GE /genet
IM /immunol
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff

SPECIALTIES LIST - (G1-2)

CL /class
EC /econ
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
OG /organ
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends

G3 LIST - Environment and Public Health

AE /adv eff
AN /anal
CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
MT /methods
PC /prev
SN /statist
ST /stand

PREGNANCY LIST - (G8)

BL /blood
CF /csf
DE /drug eff
EH /ethnol
ES /ethics
GE /genet
IM /immunol
ME /metab
PH /physiol
PX /psychol
RE /rad eff
UR /urine

G12 LIST - Chemical and Pharmacologic Phenomena

EH /ethnol
GE /genet
IM /immunol
PH /physiol
RE /rad eff

CHEMISTRY LIST - (H)

DE /drug eff
RE /rad eff

PHYSICS LIST - (H)

AE /adv eff
CL /class
DU /diag use
HI /hist
TU /ther use

I LIST - Social Sciences and Politics

CL /class
EC /econ
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
OG /organ
SD /supply
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends
UT /util

SOCIAL PROBLEMS LIST -

CL /class
EC /econ
EH /ethnol
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
PC /prev
PX /psychol
SN /statist
TD /trends

I2 LIST - Education

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
OG /organ
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends

I3 LIST - Human Activities

CL /class
EC /econ
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IN /inj
LJ /legis
PX /psychol
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends

SUBSTANCES LIST - (J)

AE /adv eff
AN /anal
CL /class
EC /econ
HI /hist
MI /microbiol
PO /pois
PS /parasitol
RE /rad eff
SD /supply
SN /statist
ST /stand
TO /tox
UT /util
VI /virol

K LIST - Humanities

CL /class
ED /educ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
PX /psychol
SN /statist
TD /trends

J LIST - Technology and Food and Beverages

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
SN /statist
ST /stand

LIBRARY LIST - (L)

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
IS /instrum
LJ /legis
MA /man
OG /organ
SD /supply
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends
UT /util

L LIST - Information Science

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
SD /supply
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends
UT /util

M LIST - Persons

CL /class
ED /educ
HI /hist
LJ /legis
PX /psychol
SN /statist

N1 LIST - Population Characteristics

CL /class
HI /hist
SN /statist

N2 LIST - Health Care Facilities, Manpower, andServices

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
MA /man
MT /methods
OG /organ
SD /supply
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends
UT /util

HEALTH CARE LIST - (N3-5)

CL /class
EC /econ
ES /ethics
HI /hist
LJ /legis
OG /organ
SN /statist
ST /stand
TD /trends
UT /util

Z LIST - Geographic Locations

EH /ethnol
EP /epidemiol