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National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR)

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Health Economics Information Resources: A Self-Study Course

Module 3: Identification and Retrieval of Published Health Economic Evaluation Studies

Review Questions for Module 3 Quiz

This page provides review questions that will help you prepare for the Module 3 Quiz that tests your knowledge of the content you have just been studying. A link to the interactive quiz is provided here and also at the end of the review.

Quiz 3 (Module 3)

The aim of economic evaluation is to ensure that the benefits from health care programs implemented are greater than the opportunity cost of such programs by addressing questions of ______ or _____. Select the correct answer from the list below.

A. Interpretive efficiency or Inclusive efficiency
B. Economic efficiency or Evaluative efficiency
C. Allocative efficiency or Technical efficiency
D. Informational efficiency or Requirements efficiency

Explanation

The aim of economic evaluation is to ensure that the benefits from health care programs implemented are greater than the opportunity cost of such programs by addressing questions of Allocative efficiency or Technical efficiency

Allocative efficiency assesses competing programs and judges the extent to which they meet objectives.

Technical efficiency assesses the best way of achieving a given objective.

Which of these statements about a FULL economic evaluation does not belong with the others?

A. FULL health economic evaluations are easily identified because they consider costs.
B. A FULL economic evaluation is the ONLY type of economic analysis that provides valid information on efficiency.
C. A FULL economic evaluation requires the identification, measurement and valuation of BOTH costs and consequences.
D. A FULL economic evaluation compares BOTH the costs and consequences (effectiveness; benefits) of TWO or more interventions.

Explanation

A FULL economic evaluation compares BOTH the costs AND consequences (effectiveness; benefits) of TWO or more interventions. A FULL economic evaluation requires the identification, measurement and valuation of BOTH costs and consequences. A FULL economic evaluation is the ONLY type of economic analysis that provides valid information on efficiency. Some studies consider costs but do not involve comparisons between interventions or do not relate costs to benefits; these are considered partial evaluation studies.

Partial evaluations do not provide information on efficiency. True | False

Explanation

It is important to remember is that PARTIAL EVALUATIONS DO NOT PROVIDE INFORMATION ON EFFICIENCY.

Generally speaking, there are five types of partial evaluation studies. These are: Cost comparison/cost analysis, Cost of illness study, Outcome description, Cost outcome description. Which one is missing from this list?

A. Costs and cost analysis
B. Outcome analysis
C. Environmental analysis
D. Outcome description

Explanation

Generally speaking, there are five types of partial evaluation studies. These are: Cost comparison/cost analysis, Cost outcome description, Cost description, Outcome description, and Cost of illness study.

Some economic studies which claim to be full economic evaluations may in fact only be partial evaluations. A study by Zarnke et al* found that, of a set of economic studies labeled as cost-benefit analyses: ___ % did not use defined CBA methodology and ___% were found to be only cost comparisons, i.e., partial evaluations.

A. 90% and 45%
B. 68% and 53%
C. 20% and 80%
D. 50% and 50%

Explanation

Some economic studies which claim to be full economic evaluations may in fact only be partial evaluations. A study by Zarnke et al* found that, of a set of economic studies labelled as cost-benefit analyses: 68% did not use defined CBA methodology and 53% were found to be only cost comparisons, i.e., partial evaluations.

No important consequences will occur as a result of mislabeling partial evaluations as full economic evaluations. True | False?

Explanation

This statement is false. Important consequences may occur as a result of mislabeling. Mislabeling of partial evaluations as full economic evaluations has the potential to misinform the health care decision-making process.

Important consequences may occur as a result of mislabeling. Mislabeling of partial evaluations as full economic evaluations can also result in the incorrect application of indexing terms to studies that are indexed for bibliographic databases - thus making it more challenging in identifying studies which are true economic evaluations.
True | False?

Explanation

The answer is true as stated.

The variability in the quality of published health economic evaluation studies is not well documented. True | False

Explanation

The variability in the quality of published health economic evaluation studies is well documented in Jefferson, et al 2002a and Jefferson, et al 2002b.

This variability in the quality of published health economic evaluation studies has _____ implications for the identification and subsequent utilization of information on _____ in the health care decision-making process.

A. insignificant | economics
B. significant | systematic reviews
C. no significant | retrieval
D. significant | efficiency

Explanation

This variability has significant implications for the identification and subsequent utilization of information on efficiency in the health care decision-making process.

What are some of the issues regarding the quality of health economic evaluation studies? We find three major deficiencies, poor methodological design, inadequate reporting and publication bias.

Poor methodological design includes such concerns as _______, failure to define clearly the economic evaluation method used, or use of an inappropriate method if the economic evaluation is to address the research question, and omission of sensitivity analysis to test robustness of modeling.

A. a lack of data
B. using metaanalysis inappropriately
C. poor quality data sources
D. using inappropriate statistical methods

Explanation

Poor methodological design includes such concerns as poor quality data sources, failure to define clearly the economic evaluation method used, or use of an inappropriate method if the economic evaluation is to address the research question, and omission of sensitivity analysis to test robustness of modeling.

Inadequate reporting is generally a lack of transparency regarding methodology and a lack of stringency of journal editorial policy with regard to economic submissions.

Publication bias results from bias in the effectiveness literature or from the motivation for conducting an economic evaluation.

Guidelines for conduct of an economic evaluation have been developed as a means of addressing the problem of quality variability in health economic evaluation studies. Guidelines may be categorized as those which address the conduct, reporting, or appraisal of economic evaluation studies. True | False?

Explanation

This statement is true; that is, guidelines have been developed as a means of addressing the problem of quality variability in health economic evaluation studies. Guidelines may be categorized as those which address the conduct, reporting, or appraisal of economic evaluation studies.

The editorial process employed by medical journals with regard to economic submissions of economic evaluations is usually more rigorous compared to that process employed for biomedical papers. True | False?

Explanation

The editorial process employed by medical journals with regard to economic submissions can be less rigorous compared to that process employed for biomedical papers.

There is evidence that economic evaluations published in general clinical journals and in journals that published more of these analyses are of higher quality. Neumann, et al, 2000.

The following are a partial list of keywords. Which terms are correct MeSH terms used in retrieving economic evaluation studies?

A. Cost-benefit analysis
B. A and C
C. Expansion costs
D. A and E
E. Costs and cost analysis

Explanation

A and E are correct. Cost-benefit analysis and Costs and cost analysis are both MeSH terms used in retrieving economic evaluation studies.

The MeSH term ‘cost-benefit analysis’ is used to index ALL types of economic evaluation studies, not just cost-benefit studies. True | False?

Explanation

This statement is true. The MeSH term ‘cost-benefit analysis’ is used to index ALL types economic evaluation studies, not just cost-benefit studies.

EMTREE does not provide an individual indexing term for each type of economic evaluation methodology. True | False?

Explanation

The answer to this question is true. There is a clear distinction within EMTREE between the different types of economic evaluation methodologies.

EMTREE provides an individual indexing term for each type of economic evaluation methodology. In addition, EMTREE provides an additional indexing term - ‘economic evaluation’ (explodes).

The terms ‘ cost control’ and ‘cost of illness’ appear as narrower terms under ‘economic evaluation’. This use of these two terms is not strictly correct as these are partial evaluation study types.


Ready to take the Quiz for module 3? When you successfully complete the quiz you can apply for the Certificate of Success for this module.


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