Skip Navigation Bar

National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR)

spacer
spacer
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
blue arrow
spacer
blue arrow facing left Previous   Next blue arrow

Introduction to Health Services Research : A Self-Study Course

Module 5: Quality Filtering and Evidence-Based Medicine and Health (page 14 of 15)
Introduction | Sampling | Assignment | Assessment | Analysis | Interpretation | Extrapolation

Enrichment Section

Links to content that may be of interest to current and future librarians who partner with health services researchers on research projects.

Assignment

Random Selection & Assignment. William M.K. Trochim. October 20, 2006. [Online] Site URL: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/random.php.
Based on the print version of the Research Methods Knowledge Base. Use the search engine to locate additional pages on assignment.

Assessment

Measurement Error. William M.K. Trochim. October 20, 2006. [Online] Site URL: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/measerr.php.
Describes systematic error, random error and describes how to reduce measurement error. Based on the print version of the Research Methods Knowledge Base.

Analysis

Analysis. William M.K. Trochim. October 20, 2006. [Online] Site URL: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/analysis.php.
Based on the print version of the Research Methods Knowledge Base.

Critiquing Research and Research Articles

Many guidelines are available through a search of your favorite search engine. For example: Google search on critiquing research. Google search on critiquing research articles.

Directories

Research Methods Resources on the WWW, by Mary Sue Stephenson. August 17, 2006. [Internet Archive] Site URL: http://web.archive.org/web/20120604193737/http://www.slais.ubc.ca/resources/research_methods/index.htm.
List of links to sites with various topics including research methods, survey research, sampling, questionnaires, research ethics, measurement, validity and reliability as well as online books.

Evidence-based Medicine

Duke University. Evidence-Based Medicine Tutorial. 2007. [Internet Archive] Site URL:
http://web.archive.org/web/20111012153555/http://www.mclibrary.duke.edu/subject/ebm/
Covers seven topics: Evidence-Based Medicine, Building Questions, Searching Literature, Appraising Evidence, EBM at Duke, and Internet Resources.

Duke University and University of North Carolina. Introduction to Evidence-Based Medicine. 4th Edition, 2004. [Online] Site URL:
http://www.hsl.unc.edu/services/tutorials/EBM/
EBM is covered in four sections: What is EBM? Clinical Question. Literature Search. Evaluating Evidence. It also contains a test your knowledge section and references and a glossary.

EBM Librarian Wiki. n.d. [Online] Site URL:
https://sites.google.com/site/ebmlibrarian//
The purpose of this wiki is to develop a community of librarians who are involved in teaching and supporting the practice of evidence based medicine (ebm) or evidence based practice (ebp). This site offers a place to: share teaching materials and class handouts; discuss issues and ask for advice from colleagues; and share useful information on teaching ebm.

Guide to Research Methods - The Evidence Pyramid. n.d. [Internet Archive] Site URL:
http://web.archive.org/web/20070613131741/http://servers.medlib.hscbklyn.edu/ebm/2100.htm.
Displays the different types of material indexed in MEDLINE in a pyramid with the less clinically relevant content at the base of the pyramid and the most clinically relevant at the apex.

Kaczorowski M, Kaczorowski J. Ice cream evoked headaches (ICE-H) study: randomised trial of accelerated versus cautious ice cream eating regimen. BMJ 2002;325:1445-1446 (21 December). http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7378/1445?eaf.
A tongue-in-cheek examination of a trial to test "the effect of two ice cream eating regimens on the incidence of ice cream induced headaches in a prospective randomised manner. The study was carried out during the winter to test whether this phenomenon was restricted to hot weather only." The authors report that "The main weaknesses of our study were lack of blinding and the use of self reporting to ascertain the main outcome measure." The online comments are worth reading for their "suggestions" for improving the quality and methodology of this study.

Evidence-based Public Health

Evidence-based Public Health. Public Health Partners, 2005. [Online] Site URL: http://phpartners.org/tutorial/04-ebph/index.html.
Excellent introduction from the Public Health Partners Web site on Evidence-based Public Health (EBPH). The comparison of EBPH and EBM (Evidence-based Medicine) is quite useful.

Extrapolation

Two Research Fallacies. William M.K. Trochim. October 20, 2006. [Online] Site URL: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/fallacy.php.
Based on the print version of the Research Methods Knowledge Base.

Conclusion Validity. William M.K. Trochim. October 20, 2006. [Online] Site URL: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/concval.php.
Based on the print version of the Research Methods Knowledge Base.

Threats to Conclusion Validity. William M.K. Trochim. October 20, 2006. [Online] Site URL: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/concthre.php.
Lists the various threats to conclusion validity. Based on the print version of the Research Methods Knowledge Base.

Glossaries

(see also Glossaries for this course)

Glossary. Six Phases of the Research Process, by Marion Joppe. n.d. [Online] Site URL: http://www.htm.uoguelph.ca/MJResearch/ResearchProcess/.
Useful for terms such as Bell curve, quota sampling, range and other useful terms that appear in the social sciences end of health services research.

Glossary. Statistics: Power from Data! Statistics Canada. September 6, 2006. [Online] Site URL: http://web.archive.org/web/20081021083328/http://www.statcan.ca/english/edu/power/glossary/gloss.htm.
Useful source of terms and definitions related to statistics. The entire book is available for download as individual chapters.

Research Methods Glossary. Project GOLD, University of Bath, May 2, 2000. [Online] Site URL: http://www.bath.ac.uk/e-learning/gold/glossary.html.
Numerous research terms defined for online students.

Guides to Research

Research Methods Knowledge Base. William M.K. Trochim. October 20, 2006. [Online] Site URL: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/.
Useful book giving information on sampling, measurement, design, analysis, writeup and several appendices. Search engine available to look up concepts.

Making sense of medical research. Health Information - Health Journey, Vol 3, September 1, 2002. [Online] Site URL: http://web.archive.org/web/20080719122557/http://www.womhealth.org.au/healthjourney/medicalresearch.htm.
Well written and understandable article on deciphering the terminology and results of medical research.

Six Phases of the Research Process, by Marion Joppe. n.d. [Online] Site URL: http://www.htm.uoguelph.ca/MJResearch/ResearchProcess/.
Goes through problem definition, literature review, selection of research design, subjects and data collection techniques, data gathering, data processing and analysis and lastly, implications, conclusions and recommendations. A glossary of terms completes this online book.

Interpretation

Interpreting Results. Six Phases of the Research Process, by Marion Joppe. n.d. [Online] Site URL: http://www.htm.uoguelph.ca/MJResearch/ResearchProcess/.
Chapter 6 from the Six Phases of the Research Process book. It covers interpreting results, summarizing conclusions and making recommendations. Be sure to click on links within the text for additional information on the topic.

Literature Reviews

Tools for Preparing Literature Reviews. George Washington University, June 29, 2000, [Online] Site URL: http://www.gwu.edu/~litrev/a01.html.
Eight brief lessons cover topics important for assessing the research literature such as assessing the interventions, assessing the methodology, assessing the results, assessing the conclusion.

Meta-analysis

Meta-analysis Research Methodology, by James Neill. May 10, 2006. [Online] Site URL: http://www.wilderdom.com/research/meta-analysis.html.
Get an introduction to meta-analysis, find a set of links on how to conduct a meta-analysis and a further section on calculating effect sizes and confidence intervals. The content is provided in bulleted format.

Ankem K. Approaches to meta-analysis: A guide for LIS researchers. Library & Information Science Research, Volume 27, Issue 2 , Spring 2005, Pages 164-176.
Using a relevant health example the author takes readers through the meta-analysis process. It "explains the literature search, criteria for inclusion of studies, data gathering, and statistics related to effect sizes in meta-analysis. Three popular approaches to meta-analysis, the details of the approach used by the author, and the interpretation of results in terms of mean effect sizes that represent strength of the observed effect of variables are also explained." (Abstract)

Research Design

Types of Designs. William M.K. Trochim. October 10, 2006. [Online] Site URL: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/destypes.php.
Describes the different major types of research designs. Based on the print version of the Research Methods Knowledge Base.

Sampling

Designing and Conducting Health Systems Research Projects. Module 11: Sampling. 2005. [Online] Site URL: http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-56617-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html.
Part of a larger book on designing and conducting research projects in health systems. The entire book is available for download.

Sampling. William M.K. Trochim. 2006. [Online] Site URL: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/sampling.php.
Describes the process of "selecting units (e.g., people, organizations) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population from which they were chosen." Based on the print version of the Research Methods Knowledge Base.

Sampling Methods. Statistics: Power from Data! Statistics Canada. August 11, 2006. [Internet Archive] Site URL: http://wayback.archive.org/web/20080608233612/http://www.statcan.ca/english/edu/power/ch13/first13.htm.

Session Guide. Sampling to Study Drug Use. n.d. [Online] Site URL: http://web.archive.org/web/20100414073845/http://dcc2.bumc.bu.edu/prdu/Session_Guides/sampling_to_study_drug_use.htm.
Sampling methods, underlying principles and sampling exercises. Part of a larger course in promoting rational drug use.

blue arrow facing left Previous   Next blue arrow
spacer
spacer