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Fact Sheet
Errata, Retractions, Partial Retractions, Corrected and Republished Articles, Duplicate Publications, Comments (including Author Replies), Updates, Patient Summaries, and Republished (Reprinted) Articles Policy for MEDLINE®


The National Library of Medicine® (NLM) has a long-standing tradition of providing access to information in the biomedical literature through quality programs and services. One of the ways NLM assists users is to add subsequent notices of and/or linkages between citations for errata, retractions, partial retractions, corrected and republished articles, duplicate publications, comments (including author replies and expressions of concern), updated versions of articles, patient summaries and republished (reprinted) articles indexed and available in NLM’s online MEDLINE database. Users who search MEDLINE will be informed if they retrieve a citation for an article that has been corrected by an erratum notice, retracted or partially retracted, corrected and republished, been found to duplicate another article, generated a separately published commenting article, been updated by a subsequent article, if a summary for patients has been published, or has been republished (reprinted) in another journal.

Errata

Corrections or corrigenda for previously-published articles are all uniformly considered by NLM to be errata. NLM does not differentiate between errors that originate in the publication process and those that result from errors of scientific logic or methodology, because journal editors do not make this distinction consistently or clearly. Since 1987, when a journal has published a labeled, citable erratum to a previously-published article, NLM has amended its citation to the original article with a bibliographic reference to the erratum notice, in order to alert users and refer them to the source of the erratum information.

In PubMed®, the erratum information typically appears as a text phrase such as:

Erratum in: JAMA. 2004 Nov 24;292(20):2470.

The appearance of the erratum information varies with the display format (Summary, Abstract, etc.) with which a PubMed citation is viewed. In the MEDLINE format, the erratum information appears in the EIN (Erratum in) field.

Errata may be published to correct text or information that appears anywhere within an earlier published article. If the correction involves text or information that is part of the corresponding NLM citation, such as the author, title or abstract, then NLM will update its citation to the corrected form of the text or information, and will indicate in some manner that data within one of the citation fields has been corrected. When appropriate, NLM will retain the ability to retrieve the data via the previous, uncorrected form of the citation.

For example, if an author name has been corrected, NLM will retain the ability to search and retrieve the citation via the originally published, incorrect form of the author name, in addition to the ability to search and retrieve the citation via the corrected form of the author name. A notice about the correction in the citation will show both the incorrect spelling of the name and the corrected form.

If the errata occurred in a portion of the article that is not included in the NLM citation, such as the text, graphs, or tables, only a reference to the published erratum notice will be added to the MEDLINE citation.

A new citation is not generally created by NLM for a brief erratum notice, but a new citation may be created when the erratum notice is published as a substantive article or letter. Such a citation is indexed with the Publication Type PUBLISHED ERRATUM and is linked to the citation for the original article. The reference for the original article appears after the text "Erratum for:" in most PubMed displays, and in the EFR field in the MEDLINE display.

NLM will only acknowledge errata when they are published in citable form: the erratum notice must appear on a numbered page in a subsequent issue of the journal in which the article was originally published. Error notices that are inserted unbound into a journal issue or "tipped" will not be considered part of the permanent bibliographic record. For online journals or online-only content, the erratum notice must be readily discernable in the table of contents of a subsequent issue, and must be associated with identifiable pagination.

NLM does not make changes to citations in response to letters from authors or editors, unless such letters indicate that a substantive published erratum is in press, and galleys or proof sheets are provided that indicate the content and pagination of the forthcoming erratum notice.

Errata Examples:

Dosage correction:  The "Erratum in" statement clarifies the correction:

1. Dosage error in published abstract; MEDLINE/PubMed abstract corrected is the phrase used when there is a dosage error in a citation abstract.  Within the abstract, then there is a bracketed phrase that indicates where the correction is:  [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED]

Note that [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] appears in the seventh sentence of the abstract in the following example, immediately after each dosage that was corrected.

Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998 Nov;13(6):263-7.

Cardiac side-effects of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in middle-aged and elderly depressed patients.

Strik JJ, Honig A, Lousberg R, Cheriex EC, Van Praag HM.

Department of Psychiatry, Maastricht University Hospital, The Netherlands.

Erratum in:
Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1999 Mar;14(2):138. Dosage error in published abstract; MEDLINE/PubMed abstract corrected.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the 'new' drugs of first choice for the treatment of depression in the older patient. Systematic studies on the effects of SSRIs on cardiac function are scarce, despite the high prevalence of cardiac disorders in the older depressed patient. This is a study which systematically assessed cardiac function by echocardiography in middle-aged and elderly depressed patients treated with SSRI. In a double-blind randomized trial, 20 patients were assigned to receive fluvoxamine 100 mg/day [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] or fluoxetine 20 mg/day [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] for 6 weeks. Cardiac function was assessed by left ventricle ejection fraction, aortic flow integral and early or passive/late or active mitral inflow, and electrocardiography. Neither SSRI significantly affected cardiac function. Compared with patients without a history of myocardial infarction and/or hypertension, patients with such a history showed a significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction. Despite our small study sample, these data indicate that both fluoxetine and fluvoxamine do not affect cardiac function adversely.

PMID: 9861576 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

2. Dosage error in article text is the phrase used when the dosage error is in the full text portion of the article.

Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009 Aug 1;66(15):1343-52.

Intravenous therapy for hypertensive emergencies, part 1.

Rhoney D, Peacock WF.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. drhoney@wayne.edu

Erratum in:
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009 Oct 1;66(19):1687. Dosage error in article text.

PURPOSE: Intravenous antihypertensive agents for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies are reviewed.

SUMMARY: An estimated 500,000 people in the United States experience a hypertensive crisis annually. Hypertensive emergency is associated with significant morbidity in the form of end-organ damage. Rapid controlled reduction of blood pressure (BP) may be necessary to prevent or minimize end-organ damage. I.V. antihypertensive agents available for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies are, in general, characterized by a short onset and offset of action and predictable responses during dosage adjustments to reach BP goals, without excessive adjustment or extreme fluctuations in BP. Nicardipine, nitroprusside, fenoldopam, nitroglycerin, enalaprilat, hydralazine, labetalol, esmolol, and phentolamine are i.v. antihypertensive agents recommended for use in hypertensive emergency by the seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Since the publication of these recommendations, another i.v. antihypertensive agent, clevidipine, became commercially available. The selection of a specific agent should be based on the agent's pharmacology and patient-specific factors, such as comorbidity and the presence of end-organ damage.

CONCLUSION: The rapid recognition and initiation of therapy are key to minimizing end-organ damage in patients with hypertensive emergency. Tailoring drug selection according to individual patient characteristics can optimize the management and potential outcomes of patients with hypertensive emergency.

PMID: 19635770 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Author name correction:

Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2000 Dec;26(6):567-71.

A new exon 9 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutation (G6PD "Rehovot") in a Jewish Ethiopian family with variable phenotypes.

Iancovici-Kidon M, Sthoeger D, Abrahamov A, Wolach B, Beutler E, Gelbart T, Barak Y.

Department of Pediatrics, Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Erratum in:
Blood Cells Mol Dis 2001 Jan-Feb;27(1):351. Volach B [corrected to Wolach B].

Hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (HNSHA) is a rare manifestation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene mutations, caused mainly by mutations located in exon 10 of the G6PD gene and less commonly by mutations in other parts of the gene. A new, exon 9, single-base mutation representing a T --> C transition at cDNA nucleotide 964 was found in three brothers and their carrier mother of Jewish Ethiopian descent. Biochemical characterization of the resultant protein was not performed. Though clinical manifestations included HNSHA in all cases, the severity of hemolysis and the transfusion requirement differed markedly. Severe congenital neutropenia (Kostmann's syndrome)--a disorder never reported before in conjunction with G6PD deficiency--was observed in one case. Levels of white blood cell G6PD activity of the three patients were 0-5% of normal controls. Neutrophil oxidative and bactericidal activities were inherently impaired in the patient with Kostmann's syndrome, but were well preserved in his two siblings. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

PMID: 11112389 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

An indexed published erratum (note also the next example, the corresponding corrected citation):

Am J Med Genet. 2000 Aug 14;93(4):342.

The devil of the one letter code and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: corrigendum.

Steinmann B, Giunta C.

Erratum for:
Am J Med Genet. 2000 Jan 3;90(1):72-9.

PMID: 10946364 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The corresponding corrected citation:

Am J Med Genet. 2000 Jan 3;90(1):72-9.

Compound heterozygosity for a disease-causing G1489E [correction of G1489D] and disease-modifying G530S substitution in COL5A1 of a patient with the classical type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: an explanation of intrafamilial variability?

Giunta C, Steinmann B.

Division of Metabolic and Molecular Diseases, Zürich University Children's Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland.

Erratum in:
Am J Med Genet. 2000 Aug 14;93(4):342.

The classical type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperelasticity, tissue fragility, and joint hypermobility. We investigated the molecular defect of EDS in a three-generation family. Cultured dermal fibroblasts from the propositus and his daughter produced abnormal alpha1(V) and alpha2(V) collagen molecules. Mutation analysis by means of RNase cleavage and direct sequencing of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction products showed in both the presence of a heterozygous G1489E [correction] mutation in the COL5A1 gene, which represents the first report of a glycine substitution in the main triple-helical region of alpha1(V) collagen. In the propositus, his unaffected daughter, and mother we identified a further newly recognized G530S substitution in the NH2-terminal domain, which did not cosegregate with the EDS phenotype and was found in only one of 51 unrelated control individuals. Because the NH2-terminal domain plays a crucial role in modulating fibril formation, the G530S substitution may alter the structure and function of this region and consequently the formation of collagen fibrils. Indeed, indirect evidence supports our hypothesis: (1) the EDS phenotype in the compound heterozygous propositus is more severe than that of his affected daughter with the G1489E [correction] mutation only; (2) his unaffected daughter and mother with the G530S substitution present with thin skin and delayed wound healing; (3) as does the only control individual with the same substitution. Thus, in the compound heterozygous propositus the EDS phenotype is caused by the G1489E [correction] mutation and possibly aggravated by the G530S substitution, which may explain intrafamilial variability.

PMID: 10602121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Retractions

Articles may be retracted or withdrawn by their authors, academic or institutional sponsor, editor or publisher, because of pervasive error or unsubstantiated or irreproducible data. For example, an article’s conclusions may have been based upon faulty logic or computation, its data may have been obtained by accident from a contaminated cell line or through poor instrumentation, or it may have been derived from falsified or fabricated data. NLM does not differentiate between articles that are retracted because of honest error and those that are retracted because of scientific misconduct or plagiarism. If the notification in the journal is labeled as a retraction or withdrawal, NLM will index it as a retraction.

Is it NLM’s policy that a retraction will be indexed as a retraction only if it clearly states that the article in question is being retracted or withdrawn in whole or in part (for partial retractions, see below), and is signed by an author of the retracted paper or author’s legal counsel; by the head of the department, dean, or director of the laboratory where the paper was produced; or by the journal editor. In addition, the retraction must be labeled and published in citable form; that is, the retraction must appear on a numbered page in an issue of the journal that published the retracted article.

NLM does not remove the citation for a retracted article, but updates the citation to indicate it has been retracted, and links the original citation to the citation for the published retraction notice. In PubMed, the retraction information appears as a text phrase such as:

Retraction in: Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 1;39(1):152.

The appearance of the retraction information varies with the display format (Summary, Abstract, etc.) with which a PubMed citation is viewed. In the MEDLINE format, the retraction information appears in the RIN (Retraction in) field. The MEDLINE citation for a retracted article (or an article that has been retracted in part) is assigned the additional Publication Type of Retracted Publication [PT].

NLM makes a reciprocal link between the retraction statement and the retracted article. The citation for the published retraction statement is indexed as Retraction of Publication [PT]. The citation information for the retracted articles appears in most PubMed displays. In the MEDLINE display, the citation information for the retracted article appears in the ROF (Retraction of) field.

Retraction Example:

Retraction:

Pediatrics. 2007 Sep;120(3):698.

P less than .05: what does it really mean?

Kain ZN, MacLaren J.

Retraction of:
Kain ZN, MacLaren J. Pediatrics. 2007 Mar;119(3):608-10.

PMID: 17766554 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Retracted article:

Pediatrics. 2007 Mar;119(3):608-10.

P less than .05: what does it really mean?

Kain ZN, MacLaren J.

Center for the Advancement of Perioperative Health and Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar St, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. zeev.kain@yale.edu

Retraction in:
Kain ZN, MacLaren J. Pediatrics. 2007 Sep;120(3):698.

PMID: 17332213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Partial Retractions

Sometimes only a single graph or table or statement is retracted for an article.  Or authors may realize that they have drawn the wrong conclusions from their research, and wish to subsequently retract those conclusions, even though all of the scientific data reported in an article is sound and valid.

Such partial retractions are explicitly identified in MEDLINE with the explicit information "Partial retraction of:" and "Partial retraction in:".   The Publication Types of Retraction of Publication [PT] and Retracted Publication [PT] are applied to the retraction notice and the citation for the partially retracted article, because the definition of these Publication Types as always been "in whole or in part".

To be eligible for partial retraction, the retraction notice must be labeled "Retraction in Part" or "Partial Retraction" or with a similar label, or the text of the retraction notice must explicitly state that a single statement or specific text, or single or multiple (but not all) table(s) or graph(s) or figure(s) or specific data is being retracted.  By contrast, a full retraction of an entire article explicitly states that the article itself is being retracted.  It must be abundantly clear and unambiguous that only a portion of the article is being retracted, or the policies for full retraction of the article will be followed.

In the MEDLINE display in PubMed, the partial retraction information appears in the PRIN (Partial retraction in) field and PROF (Partial retraction of) field.

Partial Retraction Example:

Partial retraction:

Science. 2007 Aug 10;317(5839):748.

Retraction of an interpretation.

Baldini JU, McDermott F, Fairchild IJ.

Partial retraction of:
Baldini JU, McDermott F, Fairchild IJ. Science. 2002 Jun 21;296(5576):2203-6.

PMID: 17690274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Partially retracted article:

Science. 2002 Jun 21;296(5576):2203-6.

Structure of the 8200-year cold event revealed by a speleothem trace element record.

Baldini JU, McDermott F, Fairchild IJ.

Department of Geology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. james.baldini@ucd.ie

Partial retraction in:
Baldini JU, McDermott F, Fairchild IJ. Science. 2007 Aug 10;317(5839):748.

PMID: 12077412 [PubMed]

Corrected and Republished Articles

Occasionally, a journal may correct or amplify a previously-published article by republishing the article in its entirety, often to rectify an editorial or printing error in the original article. NLM creates a new citation for the republished article and indexes it with the additional Publication Type of Corrected and Republished Article [PT]. Text information appears in the PubMed citations for the original and republished articles (see examples below), and a link is created between them. In the MEDLINE display in PubMed, the correction information appears in the CRI (Corrected and republished in) field and CRF (Corrected and republished from) field.

Corrected and Republished Example:

Corrected and republished article:

J Comp Neurol. 2000 Nov 6;427(1):461-80.

Formation of cadherin-expressing brain nuclei in diencephalic alar plate divisions.

Yoon MS, Puelles L, Redies C.

Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Germany

Corrected and republished from:
J Comp Neurol. 2000 Jun 12;421(4):461-80.

PMID: 11183875 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication Types:
Corrected and Republished Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Original article:

J Comp Neurol. 2000 Jun 12;421(4):461-80.

Formation of cadherin-expressing brain nuclei in diencephalic alar plate divisions.

Yoon MS, Puelles L, Redies C.

Institute of Anatomy, University Hospital Essen, Germany.

Corrected and republished in:
J Comp Neurol. 2000 Nov 6;427(1):461-80.

PMID: 10842209 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Duplicate Publication

NLM identifies an article that substantially duplicates another article without acknowledgement by assigning both articles the Publication Type of Duplicate Publication [PT]. Such articles have one or more authors in common and a substantial amount of duplicated text. Duplication may occur inadvertently through multiple submission of a manuscript to different journals. When duplication is acknowledged and intentional, to achieve wider dissemination of an article such as a policy statement, the Duplicate Publication [PT] is not assigned.

The Publication Type of Duplicate Publication [PT] may be added to a citation with or without a formal notification from authors or journal editors. In the indexing process, indexers sometimes recognize duplicates or very similar publications. If inspection of the potentially duplicative articles indicates a substantial amount of overlap, the Publication Type will be added. However, NLM does not routinely examine articles for originality.

A notice of duplicate publication is sometimes published within a journal when an occurrence of duplicate publication is discovered. Such notices are cited in MEDLINE and indexed with the MeSH subject heading Duplicate Publication as Topic [MH], and comment linkages are created to each of the citations for the duplicate articles.

Example of Duplicate Publication:

First citation:

Cesk Slov Oftalmol. 1999 Nov;55(6):372-6.

[Use of citation indexes and impact factors]
[Article in Czech]

Pitterová K. Knihovna AV CR, Praha.

PMID: 10677906 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication Types:
Duplicate Publication
English Abstract

Second citation:

Cesk Patol. 1999 Oct;35(4):144-6.

[Use of science citation indexes and impact factors]
[Article in Czech]

Pitterová K. Knihovna AV CR, Praha.

PMID: 10677915 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication Types:
Duplicate Publication
English Abstract

Comments

Comments are substantive articles, letters or editorials that challenge, refute, support, or expand upon another published item. Among the types of articles that will be considered comments are: invited comments on another article, letters to the editor that were inspired by a previous article, articles that provide additional information to previous articles, and announcements or notices that report questionable science or investigations of scientific misconduct (sometimes published as "Expressions of concern"). A mere mention of one or more articles in the text or references does not constitute a comment. The commenting article must have been written primarily for the purpose of making a comment—that is, of drawing the reader’s attention to the referent article. A commenting citation is indexed with the Publication Type of Comment [PT]. Beginning in 1989, NLM has created bibliographic linkages in MEDLINE between commenting articles and the articles to which they refer.

Specific text in the PubMed citations for a comment and corresponding article indicates their relation (see examples below). In the MEDLINE display in PubMed, this information appears in the CIN (Comment in) field and CON (Comment on) field.

In general, the majority of comment linkages are for substantive comments published within the same journal title. Linkages are also made for comments to articles previously published in different journals when they consist of a substantive summary and analytical evaluation, especially in relation to evidence based medicine. Some journals are largely devoted to this type of comment, such as Evidence-Based Nursing and Evidence-Based Mental Health.

Comment Examples:

Comment on another article:

Am J Cardiol. 2000 Oct 15;86(8):896.

Factor VIIa as a predictor of cardiac events following myocardial infarction in women.

Peverill RE.

Comment on:
Am J Cardiol. 2000 Jun 15;85(12):1401-8.


PMID: 15603054 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication Types:
Comment
Letter

Original article with comment link:

Am J Cardiol. 2000 Jun 15;85(12):1401-8.

Gender-related differences in thrombogenic factors predicting recurrent cardiac events in patients after acute myocardial infarction. The THROMBO Investigators.

Kalaria VG, Zareba W, Moss AJ, Pancio G, Marder VJ, Morrissey JH, Weiss HJ, Sparks CE, Greenberg H, Dwyer E, Goldstein R, Watelet LF.

Cardiology Unit, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Comment in:
Am J Cardiol. 2000 Oct 15;86(8):896.

PMID: 10856383 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Author Responses to Comments

Frequently, a published letter that NLM considers a comment will be immediately followed by a response written by the author(s) of the original article. NLM creates separate citations for such published author responses and links them to the commenting letter as well as the original article. If the reply has a non-distinctive title such as “Reply” or “Author Reply,” the title is amended to include the PMID of the commenting letter in the format “Author Reply: To PMID 12345678.” Note that for journals with a publication date of 2012 or earlier, author replies were not cited separately but had their pagination included in the pagination of the commenting letter.

Expression of Concern

An expression of concern about the integrity of a published article is an alternative to a retraction. It is typically written by an editor using that phrase in the item title. NLM considers an expression of concern to be a comment. PubMed users can use these quoted searches to find citations that may be such expressions: "expression of concern" OR "expressions of concern"

Expression of Concern Example:

Expression of Concern:

Science. 2011 Jul 1;333(6038):35.

Editorial expression of concern.

Alberts B.

Comment on
Science. 2009 Oct 23;326(5952):585-9.

PMID: 21719658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Original article with comment links:

Science. 2009 Oct 23;326(5952):585-9. Epub 2009 Oct 8.

Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

Lombardi VC, Ruscetti FW, Das Gupta J, Pfost MA, Hagen KS, Peterson DL, Ruscetti SK, Bagni RK, Petrow-Sadowski C, Gold B, Dean M, Silverman RH, Mikovits JA.

Whittemore Peterson Institute, Reno, NV 89557, USA.

Partial retraction in
Silverman RH, Das Gupta J, Lombardi VC, Ruscetti FW, Pfost MA, Hagen KS, Peterson DL, Ruscetti SK, Bagni RK, Petrow-Sadowski C, Gold B, Dean M, Mikovits JA. Science. 2011 Oct 14;334(6053):176.

Comment in
Science. 2009 Oct 23;326(5952):530-1.
Science. 2010 May 14;328(5980):825; author reply 825.
Science. 2011 Jul 1;333(6038):35.
Science. 2010 May 14;328(5980):825; author reply 825.
Science. 2010 May 14;328(5980):825; author reply 825.

PMID: 19815723 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Updated Articles

Articles that update previous articles are linked and indicated with the text "Update of" and "Update in" (see examples below). The article must explicitly state that it is an updated version of a specific previously published article or must appear in a journal that routinely publishes such updates as its primary content. NLM began to distinguish the updates with articles published in 2001 forward. In the MEDLINE display in PubMed, the information appears in the UOF (Update of) field or UIN (Update in) field.

Update Examples:

Update:

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD005283.

Biocompatible hemodialysis membranes for acute renal failure.

Alonso A, Lau J, Jaber BL.

Update of:
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD005283.

PMID: 18254074 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Original article:

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD005283.

Biocompatible hemodialysis membranes for acute renal failure.

Alonso A, Lau J, Jaber BL.

Update in:
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD005283.

PMID: 15846749 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Patient Summaries

A few journals indexed for MEDLINE routinely publish "patient" summaries of full articles that appear in the same journal issue. The summaries are intended for patients or the lay public to explain in non-technical terms the scientific or medical findings reported in the full article.

Separate citations are created in MEDLINE for these "patient" summaries, and the citations are indexed with the Publication Type of Patient Education Handout [PT]. The citations are also linked to the corresponding citation for the full, scientific article, and appear with the text "Summary for patients in" and "Original report in" (see examples below). In the MEDLINE display in PubMed, the information appears in the SPIN (Summary for patients in) field or ORI (Original report in) field.

Example of Patient Summary Links:

Patient summary:

Ann Intern Med. 2003 Mar 18;138(6):I40.

Summaries for patients. Who benefits from implantable heart defibrillators?

[No authors listed]

Original report in:
Ann Intern Med. 2003 Mar 18;138(6):445-52.

PMID: 12639107 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication Types:
Patient Education Handout

Original article:

Ann Intern Med. 2003 Mar 18;138(6):445-52.

Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in primary and secondary prevention: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials.

Ezekowitz JA, Armstrong PW, McAlister FA.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H7, Canada.

Comment in:
ACP J Club. 2003 Sep-Oct;139(2):31.
Ann Intern Med. 2003 Dec 16;139(12):W84; author reply W85.
Ann Intern Med. 2003 Mar 18;138(6):512-4.

Summary for patients in:
Ann Intern Med. 2003 Mar 18;138(6):I40.

PMID: 12639076 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication Types:
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Republished (Reprinted) Articles

Journals occasionally republish (i.e., reprint) a significant article that was recently published in another journal.  Such republished or reprinted articles are cited in MEDLINE, and a "Republished from:" and "Republished in:" link is created between the citations for the original and republished citation.  The republished citation is not indexed with MeSH headings.

This policy applies if there is an explicit indication that the article is being republished or reprinted, even if it is being republished in an abridged or different version than the original.  (However, there is a distinction from corrected and republished articles, for which a different policy and pair of citation links is used—see above.) This policy also differs from the citation of an historically significant article in MEDLINE as a Classical Article [Publication Type]. Classical articles are published for historic reasons, and usually were originally published decades ago; republished articles contain contemporary information worthy of wide dissemination.

This policy does not apply to content that is routinely published in each issue of a journal, such as items from MMWR that are published in each weekly issue of JAMA, or to "Cochrane Pages" in each issue of some journals that routinely publish summaries from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, or similar material. Such routinely reprinted matter is not cited in MEDLINE for a second time.

This policy for republished articles began with journal issues published in 2006. In the MEDLINE display in PubMed, the information appears in the RPF (Republished from:) field or RPI (Republished in:) field.

Republished (Reprinted) Example:

Republication:

Evid Based Nurs. 2008 Apr;11(2):39-40.

When should we start oral intake in children with severe acute pancreatitis?

Carreazo NY, Ugarte K, Bada C.

Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Perú. Servicio de Pediatría - Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas, Lima, Perú.

Republished from:
Evid Based Med. 2008 Feb;13(1):4-5.

PMID: 18364410 [PubMed]

Original article:

Evid Based Med. 2008 Feb;13(1):4-5.

When should we start oral intake in children with severe acute pancreatitis?

Carreazo NY, Ugarte K, Bada C.

Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Perú. Servicio de Pediatría - Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas, Lima, Peru.

Republished in:
Evid Based Nurs. 2008 Apr;11(2):39-40.

PMID: 18234913 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

For further information about Errata, Retractions, Partial Retractions, Corrected and Republished Articles, Duplicate Publications, Comments, Updates, Patient Summaries and Republished (Reprinted) Articles in MEDLINE, please contact NLM Customer Service at custserv@nlm.nih.gov, Attention: Head, Quality Assurance Unit, Index Section.

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National Library of Medicine
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email: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/contacts/contact.html
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Phone: (301) 496-6308
Fax: (301) 496-4450
email: publicinfo@nlm.nih.gov