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Indexing with MeSH Vocabulary

NLM indexers examine articles and assign the most specific MeSH heading(s) that appropriately describes the concept(s) discussed.

  • The indexer will assign as many MeSH headings as appropriate to cover the topics of the article (generally 5 to 15).
  • When there is no specific heading for a concept, the indexer will use the closest, general heading available.

Indexers can also assign Subheadings to further describe a particular aspect of a MeSH concept.

  • Examples of Subheadings are: diagnosis, surgery, metabolism, pathology.

In addition to assigning MeSH terms that describe the topic of the article, the indexer provides terms that reflect:

  • characteristics of the group being studied (e.g., the age group, human or other animal, male or female)
  • the material represented (Publication Types) e.g., Clinical Trial, Editorial, Review

The MeSH terms that reflect the major points of the article are marked with an asterisk (*).


Article Title:
Hormone therapy in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women: examining the evidence on cardiovascular disease risks.

Women may live for 30 years or longer after menopause with cardiovascular disease as their highest mortality risk. Menopause may correspond to health alterations for women, yet the use of estrogen during and after this transition has been controversial for the past four decades. The evidence from recent scientific studies does not support the use of hormone therapy for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease, which has resulted in its removal from national guideline recommendations. However, because of concerns related to specific aspects of the research, there are gaps in the evidence. Studies are under way to evaluate alternate methods for hormone delivery, low-dose hormone therapy, and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) in reducing cardiovascular risks in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Implications for clinical nursing practice include education as well as assessment and counseling related to individual risk factors.

Publication Types:

  • Review
MeSH Terms:
  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced*
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy/adverse effects*
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Perimenopause*
  • Postmenopause*
  • Risk Factors
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Last Reviewed: May 13, 2019