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Introduction to Boolean Logic (continued)


  • Used to retrieve a set in which each citation contains all search terms.
salmonella AND hamburger

Example: salmonella AND hamburger

Note in the diagram to the right and in the sample search results below that the retrieval is only the overlap of the results for each term – those records in which both terms appear.

Search terms Results
salmonella 64810
hamburger 2494
salmonella AND hamburger 12
  • AND is the default operator used in PubMed. If you do not include Boolean operators in your search, PubMed will automatically use AND between terms.

Example: diabetes mellitus phototherapy

PubMed searches as: diabetes mellitus AND phototherapy

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